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ASGROUP 2021 Page 1
A SMALL GIANT GROUP
ASGROUP
COLLAGES AND UNIVERSITIES YOUTH SELF EMPLOYED ALLIANCE
AFTER COVID - 19
PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPALS CAN ONLY HELP TO RESOLVE YOUTH
UNEMPLOYMENT AND UNDEREMPLOYMENT CHALLENGIES IN
TANZANIA
BY:
ADRIANUS A. MUGANGA
SUPERVISED BY: Prof. Kallunde P. Sibunga
JUNE, 2020
Adrianus Muganga 2021 2
1.0 Introduction.
AFTER COVID – 19
Covid – 19 is a Corona Virus, a pandemic disease. On other side of view it’s termed as a
“A THIRD WORLD WAR”. It is there to change the world, to change people living style,
to balance the world population in terms of Age group (productive and to non –
productive population) that means that people of age between 60 – 90 will be very few
worldwide. In terms of Economy is going to bring “A SECOND WORLD ECONOMIC
COLLAPSE”. This is addressed to those in business world that only the strong will
survival and the weak one will perish completely. Most entrepreneurs that will exist to
this change are those PRACTICAL DREAMERS who are able to manipulate in any way
to suit the current vibrations of the global frequencies of change by thinking a new
way of doing things. In terms of employment most of Organizations, companies, and
other more that carries a large number of employment, some are going to frees out
and some are going to reduce their demands and some will be providing jobs under
unsatisfactory pay to the employees. So, from that situation majority will lose their
jobs and remain jobless, and those students how are graduating from the Collage and
University will have no we go and finally the problem of YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT
and UNDEREMPLOYMENT is going to take over in a different picture as it was before
Covid – 19.
OPPORTUNIES ASSOCIATED TO COVID – 19
Covid – 19 is regarded as “A GAME CHANGER”, is here to the world, to give the
chances to those who whereof no chance before. To offer a new leadership, a new
businesses and a new way of doing things. It is here to change the way we believed in
things to new way of believing MENTALLY PROGRAMING.
For those who had passion and strong in the business faculty but failed do to
presence of competition, so now it’s a chance to take charge because now “ONLY THE
STRONGEST WILL SURVIVAL”. For small business have a chance to grow and large
companies of weak leadership to collapse and vise versa. Covid – 19 is associated with
multiple to offer but is for only PRACTICAL DREAMERS to seize and go over them.
Adrianus Muganga 2021 3
02. WHAT SHOULD BE DONE.
A POSITIVE THINKING TOWARD THE SITUATION
Based on previously researches it seemed that this existing problem of
UNEMPLOYMENT, UNDEREMPLOYMENY TO YOUTH, POVERY and EXTREMLY
POVERTY is basically connected to the human psychology or human mind (MENTAL
PROGRAMING). HUMAN MIND, scientifically, philosophically and psychologically
revealed that everyone is genius, but the issue is how to determine and realize the type
of genius you are, majority fail to realize their natural capabilities (potentials) and how
to use them, this is due to the way how we was MENTALY PROGRAMED from the day
we was born to maturity. This makes people into groups based on how they see the
SITUATION and JUDGE OVER SITUATION. What makes us different on judging is the
way we THINK. Psychologists say ―Thinking is difficult, that is way people JUDGE‖.
People Judge the way they think and the way they believe so no one can do beyond his
believe and level of thinking.
When a certain situation happen, some think and judge over it POSTIVELY and
others NEGATIVELY based on the way they see over it here is where the word
OPPORTUNITY and CREATIVITY come from. The question is why other people have
negative vision and others of Positive vision over Situation?
Psychology reveals that human ability (mental programing) is affected gradually
from the day she was born to maturity. What affect human ability and believe are; the
environment we are born, the parents that involve on raising the child, A school system
that train the child from when she was young to maturity, a structure of belief bodies
that involve to raise the child that can either be for religious or cultural believes and
family general situation. So, a life background of a man is only that define a HUMAN
VISION, the way she was mentally programed from day one, a day she was born.
So, if a man is raised in negative environment with full of NEGATIVE
THOUGHTS psychologically she will argue and deny over everything, she will JUDGE
NEGATIVELY to every situation because is a way she was mentally programed to see
over things. A man raised in positive environments of positive thoughts is of vice versa
to the negative person.
Questions to brainstorm
i. What is your thinking over COVID – 19? Positively or Negatively?
ii. Do you see any opportunities associated to the Situation? Yes or No?
iii. How do you leaders to your area see and take control over the situation? And how
the society judge over them? And you?
iv. Do you think the problem of Unemployment, Underemployment, Poverty and
Extreme poverty to the society is because of the government to have poor policy?
Why?
Adrianus Muganga 2021 4
SEE WHAT THE SOCIETY DO NOT KNOW ABOUT HOW OUR MIND WORK
Source: GeniuseU.
The human mind has two levels( mental faculties); THE CONSCIOUS or rational level
and THE SUBCONSCIOUS or irrational level. Human think with his conscious mind,
and whatever he habitually think sinks down into his subconscious mind, which creates
according to the nature of his thoughts. The subconscious mind is the seat of human
emotions and is the creative mind. If the human think good, good will follow, if he think
evil, evil will follow and this is how human mind works (Joseph, 1963).CONSCIOUS
MIND is limited by the perception and experience, it works on a garbage in, garbage
out principle, it is only as it’s input, to maximize the conscious mind it needs something
else, it needs the help of subconscious mind, so using only the conscious mind means
living in a psychic prison, when human focus only on using his reason and emotion
rooted in his conscious mind, he his limited by space, time and circumstances. A man
that focusing only on use of his conscious mind and without involve his subconscious
mind in any way he completely blind to it because he focused only on what can see,
touch, taste, hear and smell, he his bound the limitation of his senses (Kenny, 2020).
We are thinking consciously and rationally based on the world that we saw and
interacted with during our historical period, so both our environment, our past and our
cultural beliefs affects our natural being, were are limited people because we are product
of our specific circumstances, the truth is given all these limitations, instead of taking
our minds to the next levels and expand it, these limitations shrink our minds, it restrict
our sense of possibility. We are limited by our trainings, the way our parents and our
school systems programming us during our childhood (people who raised us), the
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conscious mind is bound by habit as naturally to stick with what we know and become
confortable with our programing and stick with it, we know we are capable of so much
more, but because of the sheer force of habit, we stay on the course; we remain stuck.
Different people have different minds, and they have different lives. All these stands that
they have different minds that means human life is a product of his Mindsets, the way
he look, the way he talks, how he hang out with, his values, what he strives for and
everything, that is how crucial mindset is.
QUESTION: DOES HUMAN MIND REPROGRAMED?
The answer over the question is YES. It is “A CHOICE”.
If human man Mind can be PROGRAMED, also can be REPROGAMED as well.
Human mind it is like A COMPUTER. That is too bad because if you take ownership of
your mindset, you would quickly realize that you chose your mindset. It’s a choice. It’s
like choosing between the Apple operating system and the Window operating system.
We all pretty much have the same type of hardware, we have two eyes, one nose, one
head, two arms, and you name it. However, the big difference between people is the
mental software they choose to install, that is your mindset and it is chosen because
ultimately is nothing is an accident, it all beings with the mind you chose, when you
chose a certain mindsets you start viewing reality a different way, it may start out as
small different but it can read to a completely different place. You make totally different
decisions; you feel different emotions about different things. Too many people fail to
realize this, their mindsets often works against them instead of working for them,
instead of taking their lives to the next level and allowing them to live out of their lives
according to their fullest potential, they live small, defeated and powerless lives. The
worse part of this they chose that existence. Your conscious mind is very powerful
machine, but it depend the mindset you install on that machine, so now think for
computer, you can have the most powerful computer on the planets at your disposal,
and program it to only video games. Wouldn’t that be a waste? People do it all the time.
You have an awesome biological computing machines called YOUR MIND, and you, fill
it with junk, your mindsets chooses only to look at the negative, the limited, and the
depressing, pathetic and your reality is the outcome.
NOW ask yourself, When was the last time you thought about your life, and came
up with deep insights that changed the way you look at certain things that happened in
your past, or things that you normally worry about regarding the future? Those
activities are part of your conscious mind. Your conscious mind would love to do those,
because those can help to change your life. You can achieve tremendous breakthroughs.
By reading novels, books, watching inspiration and motivation stories, attending
seminars and shows, reading biographies of most famous people, and more likes to
AWAKEN YOUR SLEPT MIND. Also you can step into other people’s lives. And by
doing so, makes sense of your own life, because we’re not all that different. A lot of the
deep personal, philosophical, psychological, and spiritual issues discussed in the great
literature of history resonate to your life, if you only choose to see it.
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NOW THINK FOR OPPORTUNITIES THAT YOUNG MEN DO NOT SEE
TO THIS NEW WORLD OF TECHNOLOGY
An opportunity over Connections!
Do you think it makes difficult to you to reach the right people you may deserve to
support your initiatives? Hope nowadays no. The connection is there, but most people
don’t want to do that. They’d rather fill their minds with junk; I’m talking about Twitter,
Facebook timeline, Facebook and Instagram, we can have a lot of vital information
there, but the problem is the way we use it. It’s like we are filling our minds with
intellectual and mental chewing gum. It’s garbage in, garbage out. So you have this
powerful machine called your conscious mind, and it’s stuck in neutral. The more it
processes, the more it overheats, and the more stuck you feel, you feel overwhelmed, you
feel burned out.
HOW TO REPROGAM OURSELF TO ATTRACT OPPORTUNIEAS TO
OURSIDES
Now look over your subconscious mind!
SUBCONSCIOUS MIND, if you want to achieve a breakthrough, you have to
rediscover your subconscious mind, everybody has a subconscious mind. It is one of the
things that unite all humanity. The problem is most of us are unaware of it, and those
who are aware of it, often go out of the way to deny it. They’re scared of it. They don’t
want to take responsibility over it, and they struggle. What is the subconscious mind? It
is very simple to understand the conscious mind, because we are aware of its operations.
When we make judgment calls, when we make decisions, when we think about
somebody, or we’re thinking about what to say while we are dealing with other people,
―our subconscious mind is at work”. By the same toke, when we are reading something
and we try to analyze what we just read, we can see our conscious mind at work. But the
subconscious mind is harder to pin down. Here are some of its qualities; your
subconscious mind involves your collective non-conscious memory to every single
second, the outside world is bombarding you with thousands of stimuli that you choose
to perceive only a tiny fraction of that, and of that fraction you choose to remember only
a smaller fraction. That means that a subconscious mind is a WILLFUL
REMEMBRANCE, or a WILLFUL MEMORY. But there is a flip side to this; your
subconscious is also picking up stuff, and it’s not bound by your conscious mind. It’s not
bound by its biases, rules, or habits. It’s more random. It’s like a screenshot. There may
be fuzzy details, but it’s still a screenshot. This can come in handy. It is no surprise that
some people, when they find themselves in a certain situation, they remember certain
details of what happened in the past, and this can lead them to a decision that is
different from what they would’ve normally arrived at if they were to have relied only on
their conscious mind. Your subconscious mind overrides your emotions; can enable you
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to override your emotions, because it understands where your emotions are coming
from. It revels in irrationality because it is above and beyond your conscious mind’s
attempt at rationality. Your subconscious mind is the source of your intuition. Even if
you haven't been somewhere before, or you haven't been exposed to a situation before,
has it ever happened to you that you know what to do at the right time, with the right
people, to produce the right outcome? This is not just a simple case of being lucky, but a
lot of the times, that's intuition, and guess where that comes from? That’s your
subconscious mind. It's able to connect the dots at the right time to produce a result.
The truth is the complete opposite. Have you ever noticed that certain people seem to be
at the right place at the right time doing the right things? It's as if it happens again to
them. It turns out that there's a lot more planning and design going on than we cared to
realize.
Being at the right place at the right time doing the right things with the right people
takes a lot more purpose and premeditation than you think. When you learn to tap your
subconscious mind to serve your conscious mind, serendipity happens more often. How
come? You’re simply prepared for it (Kenny, 2020). The ancient proverb says, ―The
doctor dresses the wound and God heals it.‖ A personal healing will ever be the most
convincing evidence of our subconscious powers.
YOUR SUBCONSCIOUS MIND IS YOUR BOOK OF LIFE, What is impressed
in the subconscious is expressed. The subconscious heals a malignancy of the skin, How
the subconscious controls all functions of the body, How to get the subconscious to work
for you, Healing principle of the subconscious restores atrophied optic nerves.
Successful Scientists, entrepreneurs, musician, writers and many others use their
Subconscious Mind, How a distinguished scientist brought forth his inventions? How a
famous naturalist solved his problem? An out-standing, physician solved the problem of
diabetes? It as been said as there is a gold mine within you from which you can extract
everything you need to live life gloriously, joyously, and abundantly, you can bring into
your life more power, more wealth, more health, more happiness, and more joy by
learning to contact and release the hidden power of your subconscious mind (Joseph,
1963).
THE SUBCONSCIOUS MIND consists of a field of consciousness, in which every
impulse of thought that reaches the objective mind through any of the five senses, is
classified and recorded, and from which thoughts may be recalled or withdrawn as
letters may be taken from a filing cabinet.
It receives, and files, sense impressions or thoughts, regardless of their nature. You may
VOLUNTARILY plant in your subconscious mind any plan, thought, or purpose which
you desire to translate into its physical or monetary equivalent. The subconscious acts
first on the dominating desires which have been mixed with emotional feeling, such as
faith (Napoleon,2016).
Within your subconscious depths lie infinite wisdom, infinite power, and infinite
supply of all that is necessary, which is waiting for development and expression. It is
better now to recognize these potentialities of your deeper mind, and they will take form
in the world without. The infinite intelligence within your subconscious mind can reveal
to you everything you need to know at every moment of time and point of space
provided you are open-minded and receptive. You can receive new thoughts and ideas
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enabling you to bring forth new inventions, make new discoveries, or write books, plays
and everything.
Moreover, the infinite intelligence in your subconscious can impart to you wonderful
kinds of knowledge of an original nature. It can reveal to you and open the way for
perfect expression and true place in your life.
POVERTY
Ask yourself on the following Questions!
What is poverty?
i. How the societies look over poverty?
ii. How the governments fight to poverty over its followers?
iii. Do you think being to poverty scale is by voluntary or involuntary?
iv. Do you think either poverty is linked to human mind in any way?
v. Have asked yourself why poor keep poor and rich keep richer?
vi. Why poor families keep difficult to break the chain or have a breakthrough the
life style?
HOW PSYCHOLOGY DEFINES POVERTY!
Poverty is a mental disease, How to use the power of your Subconscious for
Wealth? Wealth is of the mind, your invisible means of support, and the ideal method
for building a wealth consciousness, a common stumbling block to wealth, rubbing out a
great mental block to wealth, sleeps and grows rich; Serve yourself with the powers of
your mind. Money is a symbol; you must never criticize money, getting the right
attitude toward money, to attract the money you need and to attract the job you need.
Through the wisdom of your subconscious mind you can attract the ideal companion, as
well as the right business associate or partner. It can find the right buyer for your home,
and provide you with all the money you need, and the financial freedom to be, to do, and
to go, as your heart desires. Though invisible, its forces are mighty. Within your
subconscious mind you will find the solution for every problem, and the cause for every
effect. Because you can draw out the hidden powers, you come into actual possession of
the power and wisdom necessary to move forward in abundance, security, joy, and
dominion. Your subconscious mind is principle and works according to the LAW OF
BELIEF (Joseph, 1963).
Continue to plant these wonderful seeds (thoughts) in the garden of your mind, and you
will reap a glorious harvest. Your subconscious mind may be likened to the soil, which
will grow all kinds of seeds, good or bad
It receive commands (thoughts) like computer, and process them to produce results(
emotions) that control our daily lives, so if you feed your mind with negative thoughts in
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a repetitive( affirmation) ways, your Subconscious mind that works like a Computer
Processing Unit(CPU),it will combine all of them with no bias, and process them
together and produce more than one results of similar thoughts(Feelings) and make you
to believe on them and live on them as well, for your entire life (Napoleon, 2016). For
example the child that is emerging from poor family, see how their parents criticize
about money, keeps saying for those who are rich as are evil, money is evil. These are
negative (toxic) thoughts to a child, so even when he grow up these negative feelings up
on money in a repetitive manner always will talk as having more money is a bad thing
and this is vice versa to child of another side.
WHAT MAKES THE RICH RICHER AND THE POOR MORE POOR!
From all stories mention above, most scholars commented that successful people have a
well programed and successful mind. Although success does not grantee a personal
background, a level of education a person have, the age of person or the past life of a
man while it is about a development of a particular man’s mind and enough. That is
why some are poor while are surrounded with multiple opportunities but are they
genially blind they need to be awakened to enable them see. Successful people in any
field they have spiritually awakened mind, their THIRD EYE (mind eye) are highly
awakened that enable them to synchronize with the universe that enable them to see the
world clearly and able to seize any opportunities in their fields of work even scarce
resources that others never see by their normal eyes such like; entrepreneurs, inventors,
doctors, musicians, footballers, physicians, scientists, writers and other famous and
successful people around the world (Susannah, 2015).
Figure 3.An individual of highly spiritual awakened (opened the third eye).
Source: Youtube
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Does this challenge of Unemployment and Underemployment to youth a
psychological problem?
Why does this problem do not have an exact solution over many years till now while are
under many global efforts? Why majority of young men in the country who are daily or
every year graduating from different collages, and Universities of different careers and
knowledge keeps in streets with nothing even to try?. Why does majority do not believes
as other employments rather than those offered by government as a real employment?
Why does poor person criticize those successful and their money? Why poor keeps poor
and successful keeps successful? Why people of power keeps more powerful and others
not? Being with knowledge does it mean you have power? Recently from the study above
we have mention already as is noticed that human mind can be programmed through
either Training, environment and personal daily habits. The knowledge we
acquire during our school life at any level of education can help nothing if can not put
into action, because it was programed to help us to see the world and how it operate.
The knowledge we receive from school that school teachers taught us in class feeds and
train our conscious mind that is why if not put into action for some period you forget
everything and remain with small stuffs. But for those from Vocational training centers
or Informal local practical trainee that involving both physically and mentally into their
studies as using subconscious mind (a willful remembering memory and a
creative mind) to do their things and are the best than ever. For those graduates who
are emerging from Vocational Training Centers like VETA, are physically and
emotionally trained to depend on themselves than those from other Education systems
and if they do they do better. The recent and current education system keeps mentally
training employees (salary defendants or job defendants) no matter how talented or
good they are, based on their acquired knowledge but can not even try to do things out
of being employed. They even not believing in themselves, it is because the system keeps
them blind with nothing to do. And here, their knowledge looks nothing at all. Skill is
something now. So, from this study we recommend Vocational Training Centers that
are after skills. The parents who are raising up their children in the streets and training
them with negative thoughts since they are still young, especially for those who are
emerging from poor families from this study. Most of psychologist says that ―the way
you think you are” “you are” , The law of auto-suggestion, through which
any person may rise to altitudes of achievement which stagger the
imagination, is well described in the following verse:
"If you think you are beaten, you are, If you think you dare not, you don't,
If you like to win, but you think you can't, It is almost certain you won't.
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"If you think you'll lose, you're lost For out of the world we find, Success
begins with a fellow's will-- It's all in the state of mind.
"If you think you are outclassed, you are, You've got to think high to rise,
You've got to be sure of yourself before You can ever win a prize.
"Life's battles don't always go To the stronger or faster man, But soon or
late the man who wins Is the man WHO THINKS HE CAN!"
Observe the words which have been emphasized, and you will catch the
deep meaning which the poet had in mind (Napoleon, 2016).
Figure 4.Identify as how human mind works here below:
Source: Facebook
Somewhere in your make-up (perhaps in the cells of your brain) there lies
sleeping, the seed of achievement which, if aroused and put into action,
would carry you to heights, such as you may never have hoped to attain.
Just as a master (Napoleon, 2016).So, if this problem is a psychological
problem, thus can be solved too through psychological principals
(Reprograming).
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Figure 10.Youth Unemployment Trend in Africa (Trading Economics, 2019)
Source: Trading Economics
N.B:
THINK DIFFERENT!
As one among of the collage and
University graduates. Below you
have given a screenshot about your
country Tanzania. Then think for
current situation of COVID – 19 the
World is and then predict to next 2
years later. So, as a fully and
knowledge personnel what are you
going to do for yourself, your
society, your country and for the
world? THINK BIG!
Adrianus Muganga 2021 13
TANZANIA
Geography:
Geographical Location, Boundaries and Area.
Figure 12.Tanzania is located in Eastern Africa between longitudes 290 and 410 East
and latitudes 10 and 120 South:
Most northerly
point
Mutukula 10 01'S and 310 25' E,
Most southerly
point
Mtalika 110 32'S and 370 05' E,
Most westerly
point
Kigoma 40 52'S and 290 38' E, and
Most easterly
point
Msimbati 100 21'S and 400 26' E.
Source: National Bureau of Statistics
Tanzania Mainland has frontiers with the following countries/ocean:
North: Kenya and Uganda;
West: Rwanda, Burundi and Democratic Republic of Congo;
South West: Zambia and Malawi;
South: Mozambique; and
East: Indian Ocean.
Figure 13.Africa
Source: Google
Adrianus Muganga 2021 14
Figure 14.Area of the United Republic of Tanzania by Region, 2018(National
Bureau of Statistics, 2019).
Place (―000‖ sq. km.)
Tanzania (total area) 947.3
Inland Water 61.5
Land Area 885.8
Tanzania Mainland 883.3
Tanzania Zanzibar 2.5
Source: National Bureau of Statistics
Population:
The population of Tanzania has increased more than four times from 12.3 million in
1967 to 54.2 million in 2018 and around 60 million in 2020. The average annual
intercostal growth rate according to the 2012 Population and Housing Census is 2.7
percent.
Figure 15.Estimated total employment Tanzania Population Trend in
Millions, 1967 - 2018 from 2014 to 2018.
Projected
figures
based on 2012 Population and Housing Census
Source: National Bureau of Statistics; Population and Housing Censuses of 1967, 1978, 1988,
2002 and 2012.
Source: National Bureau of Statistics
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Figure 16.Percentage Distribution of the 2018 Projected Population by Age
Group and Sex, Tanzania.
Source: National Bureau of Statistics, 2019. Tanzania in figures
2018.
Education:
Figure 17.
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Figure 18.Total Enrolment (number) by Level and Ownership, Tanzania
Mainland, 2012 – 2018.
Source: Ministry of Education, Science, Technology and Vocational Training
Figure 19.Number of Students Enrolled in Universities and Colleges: by
Type of Institutions Tanzania, 2018 – 2019.
Employment:
The projected statistics shows an increase of labor force of 2.0 million people over
the past five years; i.e. from 2014 to 2018. The national labor force has grown from 22.3
million people in 2014 to 24.3 million people in 2018. In addition, the number of
people with employment has increased from 20.0 million in 2014 to 22.0 million in
2018. In addition, there has been a decline in the rate of unemployment in the country
from 10.3 percent in 2014 to 9.7 percent in 2018(National Bureau of Statistics,
2019).
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Figure 20.Estimated total employment from 2014 to 2018(National Bureau of
Statistics, 2019).
Source: National Bureau of Statistics; 2014 Integrated Labor Force Survey (ILFS)
Figure 21.Formal Employment Created (number) by Sector, in Tanzania
Mainland, 2013/14 - 2017/18 (National Bureau of Statistics, 2019).
Sector/Project 2013/14 2014/15 2015/16 2016/17 2017/18
Government 49,615 44,797 71,496 82,302 18,000
Government
Development
Projects
172,245 271,920 124,178 132,147 397,009
Private Sector 408,756 257,323 195,002 239,017 137,054
Total 630,616 574,040 390,676 453,466 552,063
Source: PMO-Labor, Youth, Employment and Disability
Youth Unemployment problem:
The Current Analytical Situation of Youth Unemployment problem in
Tanzania (Seleman, 2019).
As we have seen already the current Population in Tanzania is around 60 Million people
by now in 2020, where such population keeps increasing at the rate of 3.11 per cent
every year (World Meter 2019). The increase in youth population has opportunities as
well as challenges. One of the challenges is youth unemployment (Agwanda & Aman,
2014). Youth unemployment in Tanzania has been a long-time problem (Haji 2015,
DTCIDC, 2016, Kiaga 2016). The larger problem of chronic underemployment can be
traced back since independence 1961. The current youth unemployment rate is 11.5
percent.
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Figure 22.Forecast Unemployment rate from 2014 to 2018(National Bureau of
Statistics, 2019).
Source: National Bureau of Statistics; 2014 Integrated Labour Force Survey (ILFS)
Gender gap:
Gender gap as challenges on employment in Tanzania:
Young female gender in the rural are mostly affected (Ministry of labour,
employment and youth, 2007)
According to the National/Expanded definition, 13.36% of all youth aged 15-24 years are
Unemployed (11.84% of males and 14.82% of females in this age group). In the 10-17
Years age group, 11.2% of those in rural areas (28.4% of males and 30.9% of females)
and 29.7% in all urban areas (10.6% of males and 11.9% of females) were unemployed.
Figure 23.Youth population in employment, unemployment and NNET in
Tanzania mainland, % and gender gap 2014(LO/FTF Council, 2018)
Men Women Gender Gap,
percentage
point(p.p)
Employment
participation rate* 78% 76% -2p.p
Youth unemployment*
7.0% 12% +5p.p
Not in
employment(NEET)** 12% 21% +9p.p
Age group:15 – 24.** Not in employment or in Education and training(NEET).
Source: Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics, Integrated Labour Force Survey from 2014.
Adrianus Muganga 2021 19
Poverty:
Tanzania Mainland Poverty General Overview (Nadia et al, 2018).
Over the past decade Tanzania recorded remarkable economic growth and a persistent
decline in poverty. The country’s strategic location, its rich and diverse resources, its
sociopolitical stability, and its economic reforms over the past four decades contributed
to its economic success and serve as a foundation for further building up the economy.
Continued government efforts to improve living conditions have resulted in a sustained
increase in access to basic services and improvement in human capital outcomes
(though from a low base), which helped to reduce poverty. After plateauing between
2001 and 2007, in 2018 the poverty rate fell from 34.4 to 26.4 percent. However,
Tanzania’s success is not unmitigated. Poverty was not reduced as much as the
population grew, resulting in an increase in the absolute number of poor people. In
2018, about 14 million people lived below the national poverty line of TZS 49,320 per
adult equivalent per month and about 26 million (about 49 percent of the population)
lived below the $1.90 per person per day international poverty line. Vulnerability is also
still high: for every four Tanzanians who moved out of poverty, three fell into it. A large
number of non poor people living just above the poverty line are at risk of slipping below
it. Beyond the persistent gaps between urban and rural areas, there are large disparities
in the distribution of poverty across geographic regions. Poverty is highly concentrated
in the western and lake zones, and lowest in the eastern zones. The reduction in poverty
was also low in relation to Tanzania’s remarkable economic growth. The growth
elasticity of poverty in 2019 was indicated that a 10 percent increase in Gross Domestic
Product (GDP) growth per capita in Tanzania can be expected to reduce the proportion
of the poor by about 4.5 percent—low compared to estimates for other developing
countries.. This is due to both the concentration of employment in slow-growing sectors
and the dilatory transformation of the economy. The depth and severity of poverty also
eased. For 2007–18, the depth of poverty, which measures how far on average poor
households are from the poverty line, decreased from 10 to 6 percent—in other words, a
poor household in rural areas, the amount needed there is TZS 3,650, far more than the
TZS 1,726 per adult equivalent per month for poor households in urban areas. The low
poverty severity index which was more than halved, from 4.5 in 2007 to 2.1 in 2018,
suggests that inequality between poor households is fairly low. Would on average need
TZS 3,058 per adult equivalent per month to escape poverty. Since poverty is deeper.
But due to the circumstances of COVID – 19 in 2020 the GDP will go down than the
normal the fact that will lead the problem to raise again.
Figure 24.Poverty Trends, National Poverty Line in Tanzania, 2007–18,
Percent (Nadia et al, 2018)
Year 2007
34.4%
Year 2012
28.2%
Year 2018
26.4%
Urban 20% 15.4% 15.8%
Rural 39.1% 33.4% 31.3%
Source: HBS 2007, 2011/12, and 2017/18
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Figure 25.Poverty Incidence by Region, 2018, Percent (Nadia et al, 2018).
Source: HBS 2017/18 and auxiliary variables
Figure 26.Poverty Incidence by District, 2018, Percent (Nadia et al, 2018)
Source: HBS 2017/18 and auxiliary variables
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Figure 27.Poverty Status by Area, Tanzania Mainland, 2007 and 2011/12
(National Bureau of Statistics, 2019).
Year
Area % of
Population
below Food
Poverty Line
% of
Population
below Basic
Needs Poverty
Line
% of Female
Headed
Households
2007 Dar es Salaam 3.2 14.1 24.4
Other Urban 8.9 22.7 30.1
Rural 13.5 39.4 23
Total 11.8 34.4 24.5
2011/12 Dar es Salaam 1 4.1 22.5
Other Urban 8.7 21.7 27.6
Rural 11.3 33.3 24.3
Total 9.7 28.2 24.7
Source: National Bureau of Statistics; Household Budget Surveys, 2007 and 2011/12
Figure 28.Percentage Distribution of Poverty by Number of Employees,
Tanzania Mainland, 2007 and 2011/12 (National Bureau of Statistics, 2019).
Number of Employees in a
Household
2007 2011/12
Headcount Ratio % of
the Poor
Headcount Ratio % of the
Poor
None 41.0 75.1 30.5 78.0
1 20.9 14.2 19.8 14.0
2 21.9 6.9 24.5 2.5
3 19.7 1.8 23.9 1.9
4 or More 31.3 2.0 18.5 3.6
Total 33.6 100.0 28.4 100.0
Source: National Bureau of Statistics; Household Budget Surveys 2007 and 2011/12
Crime Statistics in Tanzania:
Figure 29.Number of Offences against Person, Tanzania, 2013 – 2018
(National Bureau of Statistics, 2019).
Offence
2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Murder 3,929 3,775 3,560 3,318 3,026 2,655
Rape 6,105 6,028 5,802 7,645 8,039 7,617
Un-natural
Offence
820 944 928 1,202 1,184 1,201
Child Stealing 192 146 146 170 129 113
Child
Desertion
243 237 205 159 142 112
Defilement 10 15 12 18 26 34
Human
Trafficking
36 21 45 55 32 27
Total 11,335 11,166 10,698 12,567 12,578 11,759
Source: Tanzania Police Force
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Figure 30.Number of Offences Related to Property, Tanzania, 2013 – 2018
Offence 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Theft of Arms 76 59 53 33 28 35
Robbery in Highway 3 0 3 29 55 1
Armed Robbery 1,266 1,127 913 726 574 438
Robbery with Violence 5,710 5,294 4,507 3,945 2,796 2,117
Breaking 23,017 21,479 20,337 19,803 16,883 14,741
Theft 0 0 179 193 148 157
Theft of Motorcycle 4,695 5,232 5,317 5,633 5,077 5,236
Theft of motor vehicles 464 427 488 452 267 228
Livestock theft 5,307 5,119 4,879 5,106 4,908 4,203
House burning/arson 2,402 2,293 2,031 1,962 1,439 1,137
Fire accidents 369 740 577 828 0 0
Financial Crime 1,276 995 1,146 1,990 1,640 1,303
Total 44,585 42,765 40,430 40,700 33,815 1,303
Source: Tanzania Police Force
Figure 31.Main Criminal Offences Reported by Region, Tanzania, 2018
Source: Tanzania Police Force
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Figure 32.Main Criminal Offences Reported by Region,Tanzania,
2018……….
Source: Tanzania Police Force
Mortality Rates:
Figure 33.Trend in Mortality Rates, Tanzania.
Survey Year Infant Mortality
(per 1,000 live
births)
Under-Five
Mortality(per
1,000 live births)
Maternal Deaths
(per 00,000 live
births)
2004/05 TDHS 68 112 578
2010 TDHS 51 81 454
2012 PHC 46.2 66.5 432
2015/16 TDHS 43 67 556
Source: National Bureau of Statistics; 2004/05, 2010, 2012 PHC and 2015/16 TDHS
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Economic Indicators:
Figure 34.GDP Growth Rate at 2015 Prices, Tanzania Mainland, 2013-2018
The annual GDP in Tanzania Mainland has been growing at an average rate of 6.7 percent
from 2013 to 2018.
Figure 35.Percentage Share of GDP at Current Prices by Activities,
Tanzania Mainland, 2018
Note: Primary activity comprises agriculture and mining.
Secondary activity comprises manufacturing, electricity, gas, water and construction
Tertiary activity comprises wholesale trade, retail trade, information, transport,
communication and others.
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Figure 36.Consumption Expenditure and Balance of Trade:
Figure 37.Government Minimum Wage (Thousand TZS), Tanzania
Mainland, 2009/10-2016/17
Source: President’s Office Public Service Management
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Figure 38.Non-Government Minimum Wage by Sector, Tanzania Mainland,
2016.
Source: President’s Office Public Service Management
Figure 39.Ctd: Non-Government Minimum Wage by Sector, Tanzania
Mainland, 2016
Source: President’s Office Public Service Management
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Figure 40.The predominance of self-employment and young firms
Figure 41.Cross-country comparison of earnings per worker 2012
( Mahjabeen, 2015).
Note: in GDP per person employed 2012- constant 1990 $PPP. (PPP = purchasing power
parity)
Source: WDI Indicators
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TANZANIA DEVELOPMENT PLAN, VISION AND INVESTMENT
PRIORITIES TO ACHIEVE MIDDLE INCOME STATUS BY 2025.
Figure 42.Tanzania Development Plan, Vision and Investment Priorities
Source: Tanzania Investment Centre.
Tanzania’s development aspirations are outlined in the Tanzania Development Vision 2025
TDV 2025) which was developed in the late 1990s to guide economic and social development
efforts up to the year 2025
Targets.
1. Transforming Tanzania into a middle-income country, imbued with five main
national attributes:
a) High quality livelihood;
b) Peace, stability and unity;
c) Good governance;
d) A well educated and learning society; and
e) A competitive economy capable of producing sustainable growth and shared benefits.
2. Transforming the economy from a predominantly agricultural one to a diversified and
semi-industrialized economy with a substantial industrial sector comparable to typical
middle-income countries.
The original plan to implement Vision 2025 through five year development plans
(FYDPs) was sidelined by heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) process. Qualifying
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for debt relief under HIPC required the preparation of poverty reduction strategy papers
(PRSPs), which focused on delivery of social sectors
Subsequent acceptance of the importance of ―growth‖ as a basis for stimulating the
capacity to finance social services and reducing aid dependence led to the emergence, in
2005, of the National Strategy for Growth and Poverty Reduction commonly known as
MKUKUTA I, followed by MKUKUTA II in 2010.
Priority Areas and Objectives.
To mobilize and organize the national resources strategically in order to:
1. Nurture an industrial economy in a bid to transform
Tanzania into a semi-industrialized nation by 2025;
2. Accelerate economic growth while making sure that the quality of that growth will
benefit the majority of the people in terms of significant poverty reduction and job
creation especially for the youth and women; and
3. Foster and strengthen implementation effectiveness.
Figure 43.Nurturing an Industrial Economy.
Source: Tanzania Investment Centre
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Source: Tanzania Investment Centre
Figure 44.To mobilize and organize the national resources strategically in
order to Nurture an industrial economy in Tanzania.
Source: Tanzania Investment Centre
Priority interventions.
Source: Tanzania Investment Centre
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The Effects of Youth Unemployment Challenges and COVID – 19 in relation
to Tanzania Development Visions (TDV 2025) based on the all above
mentioned National Analytical Statistics.
The country has a challenge of investing more money to young men by paying of their
school bills to be knowledgeable but finally left non productive at all (knowledge without
put into action is equal to nothing ), they are so many in the streets, keeps wasting their
time on social media with no important to benefit their country. Every year hundred
thousands of experts are graduating and others enrolled to the school system, but finally
left of nothing to do, it is a wastage of resources in other way, low level of economic
growth and abduct poverty are linked to unemployment due to the function of lack of
Employability (E1), Employment Creation (E2), Entrepreneurship (E3) and Equal
Opportunity (E4) by Ministry of Labour, Employment and Youth Development
(MLEYD, 2007). If this challenge of Unemployment keeps growing, majority become
psychologically addicted that bring them into difficulties to see opportunities that is
emerging in the country (slow perception). The slogan of ―HAPA KAZI TU” in a real
sense it carries the vision of the country to next 10 – 20 years but youth( a group with
great potential ) are still not physically and emotionally active to seize it. In general this
group its very important to be activated to seize the government vision (TDV 2025).
The effects and potentials of COVID – 19” to Youth unemployment
challenges and TDV 2025.
COVID – 19, is a global crisis that we are expecting that the global economy will fall
apart in a great way; every country will probably suffer a lot to financial crisis, as in
terms of economy most of entrepreneurs who were strong enough in the field of
business will exist, and for those who were recently weak will perish indeed. Right now
the global and National goals ( visions) are now affected to this serious pandemic
disease, no one right now is producing, processing, distributing and no one is earning
anything (all people are in lock down worldwide). By considering the aggressiveness of
the disease and its effects will cause, we expect the challenge of Unemployment over the
world to go up than the normal to the next years, because majorities will loss their jobs
due to the fact that some companies where they worked before will reduce the number
of its employees and employ few based on their capabilities and others will perish totally
due to the fact of failure to pay back their debt(bank loans), and others relative to these,
which is very similar to their public sectors (government employment rate will go down
than the normal as well). However, this is a global challenge, but this crisis is going to
bring some chances (opportunity) to those who were weak economically while are
physically and emotionally strong (Practical dreamers) to emerge and grow up.
Tanzania as one among of Developing Countries can use another side of this crisis to
solve its challenge of Youth Unemployment problem in the country by preparing them
psychologically and letting them solve this problem by themselves with little effort from
the government. The government can win the game by creating the stressful
environment (harnessing environment) that will ignite the mind of the majority of
young men in the country and force them to heal by themselves and automatically get
into action unknowingly with no force, ―a powerful psychological message” should be
created and announced openly to all young men in the country to put them aware that
(the government will not offer any kind of employment for over three
Adrianus Muganga 2021 32
years concegatively based on the great effects caused by COVID – 19 in the
country, but only can provide conducive environment to new emerging
Entrepreneurs). This massage can work at highly efficiency if some of the social
Media such like WhatsApp, Instagram, and Facebook can be banned in the country if
possible, because here it is where majority of young men their mind slept, they wasting
their time with no even to think to try things, and even to those who at work already do
their works below their efficiency (this can be help as in 2015 / 2016 where all TV and
Radio Stations in the country was forced to stop providing the Parliament work during
the day to enable people who were wasting time to adopt the slogan of JPM of HAPA
KAZI TU, by then that was a very tough situation but helped majority in street to get
into works). If the government can be able to manage those two; a psychological
message and banning those media (a new stressful and harnessing environment will
be created among youth and automatically their mind will be ignited and
unknowingly will get into action by themselves with no force).The books called Think
and Grow Rich written by Napoleon Hill, Think Big written by Ben Carson, and
Gifted Hands written by Ben Carson as well as a reference , both tells that if the
human mind is harnessed into harsh environment, the mind automatically use its six
sense to find the new way of survive or to solve the existing problem( the human slept
genius become awakened and see the new way to solve the current existing problem in
anyway, and through using the creative imagination to solve upon the problem the
more his creativity expands and the more start to see more opportunities around him)
(Napoleon, 2016 and Ben, 2005). The country can use this opportunity to make more
youth even those with their parents at home get into action by establishing their own
jobs and drive their own living. If this can be successfully in the country, the country will
be successful as well as it will take short time to recover from the globe financial crisis
and fit the country visions in advance than that was before. When the opportunity came,
it appear in different form, and from a different direction than that had been expected,
that is one of the tricks of opportunity, it has a sly habit of slipping in by the back door,
and often it comes disguised in the form of misfortune, or temporary defeat(Napoleon,
2016).
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5.0 Recommendations from this study:
 Government:
Recently many researchers had been focusing on this problem of Youth Unemployment
and Underemployment in Tanzania over how to solve it, with multiple insights and
approaches over it with no exact solution, many recommendations have made with no
even efforts and others had fortunately put into action but the problem keeps on. So,
from this study based on the seriousness of the problem and the overhead vision of the
country to next 10 – 20 years later of reaching a stage of industrization and having
middle economy in relation to the Global approaches on 17UN proposed Sustainable
Development Goals and its adoption in the country, we recommended some insights
that the government, youth in themselves, Parents, and Educational Institution should
focus on to solve that complicated problem in relation toward winning the proposed
country and Global visions:
Ministry.
 Based on the seriousness of the problem and the importance of the affected group
for the country and global vision 2020/2030, the government should have to
establish the Ministry body that will seriously focus and investing on that issue
by building new polices to youth efforts in the country like other affairs as they
does; to support them, to motivate them, to inspire them, empower their efforts
and build the web that can connect and bring both employed and non - employed
youth in the country to one Unit and work together as a team( team work).
 This problem based on the given previous and currently statistical data as are
given from this study, the government has no need to keeps hiding it open, The
Ministry should have a task of being integrity and accountability to tell the youth
over the country over this challenge to find the new way of self – employment
lather than depending mostly on government, and tell them that if the
government will have a demand of new employees to his public sectors will offer
those chances like other private sectors are doing from now onwards based on the
big of the problem in the country and over the world right now. That will be a
psychological principle that will trigger the subconscious mind of most youth in
the country to awaken their slept genius and find the new way of life rather than
keeping believing that is only governments that offer jobs, and this will be
adopted very easy because they know, they see and most have been already
experienced over 5 – 7 years at their home jobless waiting for government, But by
doing this all jobless youth will go out to find new ways and try to anything for to
enable earning their life and from there they will able to see the world and
identify most hidden opportunities in the Universe. This will be accompanied to
new policies that bring better working and conducive environments to ―new
small start – ups Entrepreneurs” to enable them establish their own job.
We normally knew that the government do the best to put better environment to
giant businesses in the country and forget for Small Start – ups, but the time is
now to look on this second side of business because we know our country have
full of opportunities to young men but the issues still the policies that keep them
Adrianus Muganga 2021 34
down over the time. Also for those who at Universities and other Middle Collages
whose their study funded by government will even start budgeting their money
acquired from Loan Board and start establishing themselves and do anything to
ensure their future life after school than like as they live dormant now with
money of and using them with no even budgeting and of no plan. The ministry
body will link directly to the Youth Forum to enable them participate on
discussions to their favorable policies and their needs to a particular time
(MLEYD, 2007). For the things to go better we recommend that whole bodies, the
Ministry and the youth forum should be lead by Young men of strong will, by
doing this will reduce inconveniences and politics to the management, because
they know better their needs, by letting them involve directly in themselves upon
solving their own problem, will develop strong trust among them with little or no
questions to their government.
Policy.
The government must have to establish new policies that can enable new emerging
entrepreneurs (start ups) to establish themselves and grow with little obstacles in
term of irregular taxes and others relative stuffs that may hinder their efforts, to
bring them the room of conducive environment to emerge by themselves rather than
killing them. The government should treat them differently to other like those who
are already grown up by considering their capacities to giant entrepreneurs, we
believe as these new emerging entrepreneurs will latter grow up and contribute to
the nation GDP like those giant companies( Jack Ma, 2018).The new policies that
can help them to reach the money and the jobs.
Education.
The government should have to put more effort to Vocational / Technical training
schools to ensure that they can produce good and better practical graduates
because the World right now needs Practical people with ability to do things rather
than focusing on Certificate. VETA and SIDO can be more important now. For the
graduates who preferring to be employed will decide to continue with further studies
by themselves based on their own visions and for those who need to employ
themselves will go directly to work based on their passions. We know the
government spent more money on Education, it is better because it reduce illiteracy
rate in the country. But if those who graduates from those schools with good
certificates after using the country resources while have no ability or have nothing to
do by themselves, and complain of no job, so how can we term them as have
educated?. Being jobless for so long it lead to something called CAREER
DEPRESSION. That according to the Oxford program, Career depression generally
goes through three stages: Career Dissatisfaction, Career Demotivation and
Career Paralysis. So, we need to change our Current education system (the way
we program our trainee) by now, because we are in the 21st Millennium, the new
world or the changed world that needs new training and new ways of doing things to
Adrianus Muganga 2021 35
match the current universal frequencies, we need our people to vibrate at high level
in proportional to the current global frequencies. We need practical people now
(Yolanda, 2002).
Financial and Material supports.
Currently, we are the world of technology, and the government has possibilities of
money, the government can put seriously on the issue of government financial loan
to support small start – ups entrepreneurs, as well as the government can provide
government machine loan to support young men who are in groups and wishing for
machines like; Tractors, water pumping machines and others those SIDO’s small
industries can produce in our country. This to government can be possible although
it is more expensive but within five to ten years of investment to young men in
production under good business environments the outcome can be of right big with
no complain about no job, many small and giant companies can emerge in the
country and many employment can emerge, those practical young’s can compete,
inspire and support each other and also other newly emerging one will follow the
flow. The government will gain back in more return, and the National GDP in five
years of investment can be stable than ever for the next years.
Information Basic Unit.
Information is the heart of the matter; it can unlock the door to the vault called
success (Herb, 1982). The government should establish a Single Information Unit /
Center as most researches as been advising to do in Tanzania where all information
concerning employment from public and private sectors will be announced as a
single source, information about NGOs that funding projects in the country,
information about Government Financial Funding Support and Motivation, where
all information will be put together to enable easier access in time with no bias.
Because most research have revealed that Most Youth in Tanzania they lack
Information on important opportunities that emerge in the country that can help
them put their knowledge acquired from school into practical, and because some a
given of bias to benefit uninterested group, fore instance President loan ( ―Mabilion
ya JK‖), The most researches revealing that those money released by the Former
President Dr. Jakaya M. Kikwete during his time couldn’t benefiting the targeted
group as was intended(Simon,2013) . The same time now the current President Dr.
John P. Magufuri had put on effort to provide sum amount of money to every
District and Municipals to support youth of new emerging Entrepreneurs as a
President loan of zero Interest that are intending to push them up from where they
are, but few knew this and majority are not aware at all. So here you can see as the
government as a good effort but the issue is the information to reach the targeted
group. There is a need of new system of information right now to help young’s
because Information is very now to this fast changing World, so for those who are
more interested to employment will get news about it from every in time and very
easily, and for those who are more interested in building projects / businesses and
employ in themselves of little starting funds will get news of where to access
supports including sponsors / Funders very easily and in time as well. This is 98%
possible if can be put into action and we assure that majority of young men can have
Adrianus Muganga 2021 36
information in time over the country because Tanzania has an opportunity as got
step in Information and Communication Technology than other countries in Africa
and we assure majority of young men have a smart phone that can access and do
anything he/ she want over the world very easily and in time, this is an opportunity
and very advantageous to this matter get done as intended at high efficiency as usual.
Below are statistical data that show the real picture of where we are in Information
and Communication Technology status in Tanzania from year 2013 / 2018:
Information and Communication Technology Status in Tanzania.
Telecom Services.
Figure 45.Subscriptions and Teledensity, 2013 – 2018.
Year 2013 2014 2015 2016 2015 2018
Fixed 164,999 142,950 142,819 129,597 127,094 124,238
Mobile 27,442,823 34,108,851 39,665,600 40,044,186 39,953,860 43,497,261
Total 27,607,822 34,251,801 39,808,419 40,173,783 40,080,954 43,621,499
Penetration 61% 71% 79% 80% 78% 81%
Source: Tanzania Communication Regulatory Authority
Internet Services.
Figure 46.Estimated number of users by technology type, 2013 – 2018
Type of
Service
2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Fixed
Wireless
1,056,940 1,913,082 662,882 1,218,693 3,468,188 697,216
Mobile
Wireles
7,493,823 11,320,031 16,280,943 18,014,358 19,006,223 22,281,727
Fixed
Wired
761,508 984,198 319,698 629,474 520,698 164,017
Total 9,312,272 14,217,311 17,263,523 19,862,525 22,995,109 23,142,960
Penetration 21% 29% 29% 34% 40% 43%
Source: Tanzania Communication Regulatory Authority
Broadcasting Services.
Figure 47.Number of TV Stations, 2013 – 2018
Type 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Free to Air 23 25 25 25 27 30
Satellite TV 3 3 3 3 3 3
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Pay DTT 3 3 3 3 3 3
Cable TV 15 15 15 15 15 15
Total 44 46 46 46 48 51
Source: Tanzania Communication Regulatory Authority
Figure 48.Number of Radio Stations, 2012 – 2018
Source: Tanzania Communication Regulatory Authority
E – Commerce and logistics systems.
A logistic system (LS) is a network of organizations, people, activities,
information, and resources involved in the physical flow of products from supplier to
consumer (Shokoofeh, 2011).
Figure 49.Logistic system and its application.
Source: Google
The Order Management System (OMS), is a first point of logistics system contact
with customers by managing order receiving and placement, and are closely related
to WMS for checking products availability, from this system the customer ordered
items may be available from inventories or may be seen in the production schedules.
This system provides information about the location of the product in the supply
network, quantity available and possibly the estimated time for delivery.E –
Commerce (electronic commerce) business system, is the buying and selling of
goods and services, or the transmitting of funds or data, over an electronic network,
Adrianus Muganga 2021 38
primarily the internet. These business transactions occur either as business – to –
business(B2B), business – to – consumer(B2C),consumer – to – consumer or
consumer – to – business.
Figure 50.E–commerce Business Model.
Source: Google
In Tanzania and Africa in general we still have a great challenge of not connected to
global market, what we produce fail to access the real market globally due to lack of
proper business system in our country. If the government can manage to put better
business systems such as e – commerce and logistics systems in collaboration with other
giant business system in developed countries we can able to reach the global market and
enable our young men to do business abroad(importation delivery). Here we
recommend partnership. We are currently in a changed world, so we need new systems
of businesses (jack, 2017). Generally Africa’s recent economic growth rates and rising
youth population have meant more and more entrepreneurs are looking there for
potential business opportunities and the typical strategies is to introduce new
companies by recreating foreign business model on the continent, while for e –
commerce for start – ups, it’s not that easy because for current existing systems are
Adrianus Muganga 2021 39
associated with number of challenges like Distrust, Cost of broadband, Africa open
market, Fragmented markets and literacy rates(Ndubuisi,2015). Leaders in the country
in the country and over the continent must understand that besides launching websites,
there are many elements entrepreneurs need to be profitably and successful. These
includes more integration of the disparate nation economies; investing in
infrastructures like postal system, setting up a pan – national system to prosecute fraud
and improve business trust in the country internet and most importantly, improving
literacy rates. To make the web work for business, the country leaders need to focus on
how to improve the number of total domains registered and instead fix the physical
business ecosystem which they continue to neglect in order to unleash the wealth –
creating power of the web in the country. This system can help likewise to Integrated
Logistic System (ILS), ILSGateway is a logistic system established in Tanzania by
USAID/ DERIVER PROJECT in collaboration with Tanzania Ministry of Health and
Social Welfare (MOHSW) to save the medical delivery in the country, where this new
system saved 94% of effectiveness. The government is now on foot to register all houses
over the country, this is an opportunity for home delivery business if the business
environment is conducive. It is better now for the government to show them the easiest
way to reach the money for the seek of their life and the government in general.
 Youth:
Youth by themselves should focus on the following way to remade this great challenge
that hindering their life.
Solution upon the problem.
Unemployment challenges to youth in the country can’t be solved by the government
either by now and then as most research revealing over the world do to the big of the
problem that increase with increasing rate worldwide, but its about 90% sure that this
challenge can be solved by the youth in themselves only if the government policies are
conducive. If the government can collaborate with private sectors and other NGOs that
supporting new ideas this problem can be solved in advance. For youth now to solve this
problem is simple but what is needed here to change their recent believes to match the
current world so they need to be spiritually awakened (to use their six senses) to solve
their own existing problem lather than looking and complaining to government to
everything. Below is the a picture of pupils of Standard V at Mushabago primary
school called Octavian Theodory.
Figure 51.Octavian Theodory: A class V student at Mushabago primary school in
Muleba District.
Adrianus Muganga 2021 40
Source: A photo taken from Omukinyinya village on Saturday, 11th April, 2020
Octavian Theodory, this young child that is just solving their family challenges by
making mats and sell them to market where he get money to pay their family bills , so if
this small kid can manage to do as his doing now, thus, how about a well trained experts’
holding Certificates, Diploma level, Bachelors and master level graduates?. By now it is
better to see where the world is, where the world is currently going and what the current
world need to do (creativity).
Education.
The current world prefers creative and practical people indeed. So it is better now to
have study based on the Passion and talents of an individual. So if we can educate
and develop our own inner naturality and specialize on what we love most in relation
to our natural talents we can develop our creativity more and more and do better in a
field of work, lather than having school to get certificate to be employed even to career
that is not natural theirs ( by doing so we can also have good and better employees).
Educational Institutions focus on two things; Knowledge and Skills to a graduate and
forget about passion and talent of an individual as is most important as well, but this
can a part of parents and there children. Having Knowledge alone will not attract money
and anything or to solve poverty problem or youth unemployment challenge in the
country, unless it is organized and intelligently directed, through practical plan to a
definite end of accumulation of wealth, this is due to the lack of understanding of this
fact has been the source of confusion to millions of people who falsely believe that
―Knowledge is power‖.it is nothing of the sort! Knowledge is only potential power. It
become power only when, and if, it is organized into definite plan of action, and directed
to a definite end (Napoleon, 2016).
Youth Forum.
University Student Leaders from different Universities in the country that still leading a
large communities of targeted group and that still have a power should establish ―Youth
Adrianus Muganga 2021 41
Forum ―and select strong leaders among them that they believe as they can to lead the
forum and link it with graduates and then to the government body (here they can
discuss their challenges and how to remade them in collaboration with government and
private sectors and come up with solution). Youth forum will develop the web that will
includes most youth in the country and ensure that every one is connected and can
access and get information in time and very easily, this can reduce bias in most areas
including gender gaps.
Team Work.
Napoleon Hill, on his book called “Think and Grow rich “on (page 90), he said that,
No individual has sufficient experience, education, native ability, and knowledge to
ensure the accumulation of a great fortune, without the cooperation of the other people (
he was emphasizing to something called MASTER MIND GROUP). Master mind group
to any activities is a key of success of any business or company and not otherwise. In
page 74 on the same book he mentioned that, business associations are vital factors in
both failure and success. Working in a team is a key factor to adopt now lathers than
working individually if you need to be successful (Napoleon, 2016). Also it very simple
to support a team than an individual especially for government and other supports
NGOs.
Home Study.
Most of youth in developing country do not have the costumes of learning and studying
books as for motivation and inspiration so as to awaken their slept genius (creativity).
Ben Carson on his book of Think Big on page 19 he said, “Reading is the way out of
ignorance, and the road to achievement, also on page 57 he kept saying that “The mind
is not a vessel to be filled but a fire to be ignited”(Ben,2005). It is about having both
General and specialized knowledge. While specialization is everything, Napoleon hill on
his book of Think and grow rich on page 64 – 67, he said that; A successful men, in all
callings, never stop acquiring specialized knowledge related to their major purpose,
business, or professions. Those who are not successful usually make the mistake of
believing that the knowledge acquired period ends when one finishes schools. The truth
is that schooling does but little more than to put one in the way of learning how to
acquire practical knowledge. Also, he said why school teachers have no money while
have full of knowledge? It is because they specialize on teaching rather than on
organizing their knowledge into action plan, this is because knowledge by itself is
nothing until put into action plan. So, with this Changed World which began at the end
of the economic collapse, came also astounding changes in educational requirement.
The order of the day is SPECIALIZATION! (Napoleon, 2016). Most scholars as mention
that, the miracle reveal or show up to an individual’s genius especially when have a
desire to ―know more” and “act” on his area of specialization, this has been revealed
on the Biography’s of most famous people and world Inventors over the world like
Nikola Tesla, Thomas Edison, Ben Carson, Albert Einstein, Stave Jobs, Henry Ford and
Adrianus Muganga 2021 42
other many successful people worldwide of different careers. This is another gap we
have in Africa. Education is now free, everything is available now, and every knowledge
is available free online (internet), a single book that cost about TSZ 50,000, can be
downloaded online from either PDFDrive.com or other sources for a cost of only 1 Gb or
650 – 800Kb. It cost nothing. In You Tube, there is every kind you may need to know
at zero cost. We have other important online applications we have never have, such are
LinkedIn and GeniusU, those two contain professional people from over the world,
provides connections and multiple wonderful free online training( of zero cost).
 Parents.
Parents that possessing youth at their home, its better to be aware on the following to
help their emerging children to grow positively.
Education.
Most parents who takes care to their children still confusing the meaning of the word
―EDUCATION‖ and keep pushing their children to the poor system of employment as
salary dependent although even when other children to show their own vision to their
parents out of school, and do not know why most successful people are less educated
and others not even at all. To purchase knowledge is expensive indeed, so it will be
helpful if your children can determine which knowledge she need, because purchasing
knowledge without organizing and put it into action is useless. WHY LESS and NON
SCHOOLING PEOPLE become more successful as well and sometimes even more
educated one?. Napoleon Hill on his book of Think and Grow rich on page 65, had
shown the real meaning of education after his research of 25 years by looking and
interviewing thousands of most successful giant entrepreneurs over the world and found
that most were less educated including Mr. Ford the founder of V8, how has still with
many companies over the world till now including the 16 President of America
ABLAHIM LINKOLIN whose till now believed to be the 1st best president of America.
After his research he realized the meaning of the word ―educate‖ as that word is
delivered from the Latin word ―educo,‖ meaning to educe, to draw from within, to
DEVELOP FROM WITHIN. And finally he said;
An educated man is not, necessarily, one who has an abundance of general and
specialized knowledge. So, “An educated man is one who has so developed
faculties of his Mind that they may acquire anything he wants, or its
equivalents, without violating the rights of others” (and Mr. Henry Ford
comes well within the meaning of this definition)( Napoleon,2016).
Financial support.
For those family that have ability financially, if possible it is better to support their
children to put their knowledge acquired from school and collage into action.
 Educational Institutions:
Adrianus Muganga 2021 43
It is advised that for all educational institutions and collages, including Universities over
the country, on their curriculum of the final semesters of the all graduates, based on
their selected subjects or modules should include the subjects that teaching them the
way, HOW TO ORGANIZE AND USE KNOWLEDGE AFTER ACQUIRE IT (Napoleon,
2016).
6.0 Anticipants of this study:
 At Youth level.
After all youth have been spiritually awakened no one will keep wasting his time on the
street or even on social media as they do now, everyone will try to do anything that can
help his survival. If the systems and policies are conducive in the country we believe
everyone who will try and committed in himself to do anything will grow and become
successful, and those who will work as team if are committed in themselves with good
management will accumulate more fortune and become giant. Through this new system
the problem of gender gap will solved in great way (here both men and women have the
same chance of success, it is a matter of effort). Also through this system the bias or
classes between youth based on their family capacities will solved, here will work
together and depend on each other. In general both youth in the country will be active
no matter what everyone is doing and how much everyone is earning but what is
important is to do something. Napoleon Hill on his book of Think and Grow rich on
page 73, he said that; a person who are at the bottom never manage to lift their heads
high enough to be seen by the OPPORTUNITY, so they remain at the bottom, this mean
that the more you do the more you see more opportunities(Napoleon, 2016).
 At Household Level.
At the level of household, poverty will be reduced in a great step. This means that
reducing poverty in developing countries it will take long time, but through empowering
their children that are emerging can look and remade their family challenges to Zero
poverty in the country because if majority of youth in the country will be successful as
well as their family will successful.
 At National Level.
If majority of young men in the country will be active enough the National GDP, will
simply go up time to time, the government will have multiple Revenue through multiple
taxes from new many emerging entrepreneurs, the country will have ability to compete
to the global economy. Any successful and powerful country has many successful
entrepreneurs / Practical dreamers that make the country powerful enough. It is time
now for our country leaders to look forward on to use youth potentials to built the
powerful country lather than forgetting them, their population it seem as a challenge but
under good policies and systems can be turned to be an opportunity in the country like
China as they are doing.
Public Finance.
Adrianus Muganga 2021 44
Figure 52.Revenue (Billion TZS) for the Year Ending 30 June,
Tanzania Mainland, 2010 – 2018.
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Total Revenue
4,662 5,736 7,221 8,443 10,182 10,958 14,048 16,640 17,945
Non-Tax Revenue
(incl.LGA)
234 443 741 713 888 1,066 1,637 2,585 2,753
Total Income from
Taxes
4,428 5,293 6,480 7,730 9,294 9,892 12,410 14,055 15,191
Income Tax
1,389 1,720 2,311 3,036 3,792 3,728 4,608 4,833 5,158
Customs and Excise
Duty
1,215 1,512 1,539 1,845 2,243 2,495 3,090 3,116 3,314
Sales Tax/VAT
1,488 1,633 2,073 2,375 2,648 3,032 3,554 3,979 4,479
Other Taxes
499 601 732 707 1,124 1,279 1,921 2,216 2,299
Refunds
-164 -173 -174 -233 -512 -642 -762 -90 -58
Source: Ministry of Finance and Planning
A salaried persons contributes to the government economy while not enough, but
Entrepreneurs contribute Millions and Millions to the National Economy through taxes.
On the Wealth Dynamic Spectrum of an individual in developing country most of
salaried persons are at Red- Survivors and stuck here over their entire life, they use
their earnings to enable survivor because are not enough to save sum of it for
investments and others are very poor so they are at Infrared - Victim those gets food
once a day and enough. But for entrepreneurs who manufacture money expand day to
day even to Indigo - Trustee and contribute more enough to their countries. So the
country that produce more followers ( salary dependents) with less entrepreneurs it take
time to grow and have power.
Figure 53.Wealth Dynamic Spectrum ( Rogers, 2015)
Adrianus Muganga 2021 45
Source: Millionaire Master Plan (MMP). GeniusU
7.0 Conclusion.
Particularly, religious, political, entrepreneurs and medication for human healing both
evolve human psychology, from this study, this great world challenge (world incurable
disease) of youth unemployment and underemployment problem was termed as
―mental disease” which is associated to an “incurable poverty”. So, if this
problem is a psychological problem likewise can be solved by psychological
principals to enhance mental healing, a task that specialists on this of psychology can
do very well. Mental healing among individuals can work better and successfully if the
government can put more efforts on building infrastructure like building better police
that providing better and conducing environment for small start – ups entrepreneurs,
building better business systems that can enable them to access the global market,
provision of better education (practical knowledge) from VOCATIONAL TRAINING/
TECHNICAL CENTRES( VTC), we recommend this training because they produce
practical graduates that can do tangible things by themselves than other school levels.
The World right now is after practical people and not certificate people of no even ability
to try things by themselves. In Tanzania out of all resource we have, we have around 60
million people by now and most are young men, we have 947300 sq.km of land and
most are fertile, and we have around 700,000 – 800,000 young men who inter into
labor market every year, others are graduates from different collage of different careers
and different talents, we have specialists of every kind so why we still importing things
that we have every reason to produce them in our country. Generally in our country we
have everything of multiple opportunities but we still mentally blind. It is a time now to
Adrianus Muganga 2021 46
work up. We have many reasons to be among of donor countries in the world based on
the vision of JPM. But we need visionary practical people like JPM and to enable our
young men in the country to wake up and see the world. By doing so we can join the
World change dynamic development journey based on proposed 17 United Nations
Sustainable Development Global Goals ( 17 UN SDGs 2030).Voluntary National Review
(VNR) for SDG Implementation. According to National Bureau of Statistics (2019),
Tanzania had submitted 2019 VNR Key messages to UN DESA by 17th May, 2019, of
which the results indicated that, Tanzania is doing reasonably well in goals 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
8, 10, 16. Goals 7, 9, 11, 12 are likely to be achieved with stepped-up efforts. Goals 1, 13,
14, 15 17 will need significant local efforts and international support to achieve. So, from
this study we recommend the government to invest on its young men that latter will
supports their originated families. If the government can fortunately manage this, thus
after COVID – 19 most countries over the world will suffer to great financial collapse, so
when those countries are looking the way their dropt economy, our country will have
solution already.
Adrianus Muganga 2021 47
Source: National Bureau of Statistics 2019.
Adrianus Muganga 2021 48
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Mahjabeen, H. (2015).Youth employment in Tanzania. Taking stock of the evidence and
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Roger, Hamilton. The Millionaire Master Plan (MMP).Your Personalized Path to Financial
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Adrianus Muganga 2021 53

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PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPALS THAT CAN ONLY HELP TO RESOLVE YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AND UNDEREMPLOYMENT CHALLENGIES IN TANZANIA

  • 1. ASGROUP 2021 Page 1 A SMALL GIANT GROUP ASGROUP COLLAGES AND UNIVERSITIES YOUTH SELF EMPLOYED ALLIANCE AFTER COVID - 19 PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPALS CAN ONLY HELP TO RESOLVE YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AND UNDEREMPLOYMENT CHALLENGIES IN TANZANIA BY: ADRIANUS A. MUGANGA SUPERVISED BY: Prof. Kallunde P. Sibunga JUNE, 2020
  • 2. Adrianus Muganga 2021 2 1.0 Introduction. AFTER COVID – 19 Covid – 19 is a Corona Virus, a pandemic disease. On other side of view it’s termed as a “A THIRD WORLD WAR”. It is there to change the world, to change people living style, to balance the world population in terms of Age group (productive and to non – productive population) that means that people of age between 60 – 90 will be very few worldwide. In terms of Economy is going to bring “A SECOND WORLD ECONOMIC COLLAPSE”. This is addressed to those in business world that only the strong will survival and the weak one will perish completely. Most entrepreneurs that will exist to this change are those PRACTICAL DREAMERS who are able to manipulate in any way to suit the current vibrations of the global frequencies of change by thinking a new way of doing things. In terms of employment most of Organizations, companies, and other more that carries a large number of employment, some are going to frees out and some are going to reduce their demands and some will be providing jobs under unsatisfactory pay to the employees. So, from that situation majority will lose their jobs and remain jobless, and those students how are graduating from the Collage and University will have no we go and finally the problem of YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT and UNDEREMPLOYMENT is going to take over in a different picture as it was before Covid – 19. OPPORTUNIES ASSOCIATED TO COVID – 19 Covid – 19 is regarded as “A GAME CHANGER”, is here to the world, to give the chances to those who whereof no chance before. To offer a new leadership, a new businesses and a new way of doing things. It is here to change the way we believed in things to new way of believing MENTALLY PROGRAMING. For those who had passion and strong in the business faculty but failed do to presence of competition, so now it’s a chance to take charge because now “ONLY THE STRONGEST WILL SURVIVAL”. For small business have a chance to grow and large companies of weak leadership to collapse and vise versa. Covid – 19 is associated with multiple to offer but is for only PRACTICAL DREAMERS to seize and go over them.
  • 3. Adrianus Muganga 2021 3 02. WHAT SHOULD BE DONE. A POSITIVE THINKING TOWARD THE SITUATION Based on previously researches it seemed that this existing problem of UNEMPLOYMENT, UNDEREMPLOYMENY TO YOUTH, POVERY and EXTREMLY POVERTY is basically connected to the human psychology or human mind (MENTAL PROGRAMING). HUMAN MIND, scientifically, philosophically and psychologically revealed that everyone is genius, but the issue is how to determine and realize the type of genius you are, majority fail to realize their natural capabilities (potentials) and how to use them, this is due to the way how we was MENTALY PROGRAMED from the day we was born to maturity. This makes people into groups based on how they see the SITUATION and JUDGE OVER SITUATION. What makes us different on judging is the way we THINK. Psychologists say ―Thinking is difficult, that is way people JUDGE‖. People Judge the way they think and the way they believe so no one can do beyond his believe and level of thinking. When a certain situation happen, some think and judge over it POSTIVELY and others NEGATIVELY based on the way they see over it here is where the word OPPORTUNITY and CREATIVITY come from. The question is why other people have negative vision and others of Positive vision over Situation? Psychology reveals that human ability (mental programing) is affected gradually from the day she was born to maturity. What affect human ability and believe are; the environment we are born, the parents that involve on raising the child, A school system that train the child from when she was young to maturity, a structure of belief bodies that involve to raise the child that can either be for religious or cultural believes and family general situation. So, a life background of a man is only that define a HUMAN VISION, the way she was mentally programed from day one, a day she was born. So, if a man is raised in negative environment with full of NEGATIVE THOUGHTS psychologically she will argue and deny over everything, she will JUDGE NEGATIVELY to every situation because is a way she was mentally programed to see over things. A man raised in positive environments of positive thoughts is of vice versa to the negative person. Questions to brainstorm i. What is your thinking over COVID – 19? Positively or Negatively? ii. Do you see any opportunities associated to the Situation? Yes or No? iii. How do you leaders to your area see and take control over the situation? And how the society judge over them? And you? iv. Do you think the problem of Unemployment, Underemployment, Poverty and Extreme poverty to the society is because of the government to have poor policy? Why?
  • 4. Adrianus Muganga 2021 4 SEE WHAT THE SOCIETY DO NOT KNOW ABOUT HOW OUR MIND WORK Source: GeniuseU. The human mind has two levels( mental faculties); THE CONSCIOUS or rational level and THE SUBCONSCIOUS or irrational level. Human think with his conscious mind, and whatever he habitually think sinks down into his subconscious mind, which creates according to the nature of his thoughts. The subconscious mind is the seat of human emotions and is the creative mind. If the human think good, good will follow, if he think evil, evil will follow and this is how human mind works (Joseph, 1963).CONSCIOUS MIND is limited by the perception and experience, it works on a garbage in, garbage out principle, it is only as it’s input, to maximize the conscious mind it needs something else, it needs the help of subconscious mind, so using only the conscious mind means living in a psychic prison, when human focus only on using his reason and emotion rooted in his conscious mind, he his limited by space, time and circumstances. A man that focusing only on use of his conscious mind and without involve his subconscious mind in any way he completely blind to it because he focused only on what can see, touch, taste, hear and smell, he his bound the limitation of his senses (Kenny, 2020). We are thinking consciously and rationally based on the world that we saw and interacted with during our historical period, so both our environment, our past and our cultural beliefs affects our natural being, were are limited people because we are product of our specific circumstances, the truth is given all these limitations, instead of taking our minds to the next levels and expand it, these limitations shrink our minds, it restrict our sense of possibility. We are limited by our trainings, the way our parents and our school systems programming us during our childhood (people who raised us), the
  • 5. Adrianus Muganga 2021 5 conscious mind is bound by habit as naturally to stick with what we know and become confortable with our programing and stick with it, we know we are capable of so much more, but because of the sheer force of habit, we stay on the course; we remain stuck. Different people have different minds, and they have different lives. All these stands that they have different minds that means human life is a product of his Mindsets, the way he look, the way he talks, how he hang out with, his values, what he strives for and everything, that is how crucial mindset is. QUESTION: DOES HUMAN MIND REPROGRAMED? The answer over the question is YES. It is “A CHOICE”. If human man Mind can be PROGRAMED, also can be REPROGAMED as well. Human mind it is like A COMPUTER. That is too bad because if you take ownership of your mindset, you would quickly realize that you chose your mindset. It’s a choice. It’s like choosing between the Apple operating system and the Window operating system. We all pretty much have the same type of hardware, we have two eyes, one nose, one head, two arms, and you name it. However, the big difference between people is the mental software they choose to install, that is your mindset and it is chosen because ultimately is nothing is an accident, it all beings with the mind you chose, when you chose a certain mindsets you start viewing reality a different way, it may start out as small different but it can read to a completely different place. You make totally different decisions; you feel different emotions about different things. Too many people fail to realize this, their mindsets often works against them instead of working for them, instead of taking their lives to the next level and allowing them to live out of their lives according to their fullest potential, they live small, defeated and powerless lives. The worse part of this they chose that existence. Your conscious mind is very powerful machine, but it depend the mindset you install on that machine, so now think for computer, you can have the most powerful computer on the planets at your disposal, and program it to only video games. Wouldn’t that be a waste? People do it all the time. You have an awesome biological computing machines called YOUR MIND, and you, fill it with junk, your mindsets chooses only to look at the negative, the limited, and the depressing, pathetic and your reality is the outcome. NOW ask yourself, When was the last time you thought about your life, and came up with deep insights that changed the way you look at certain things that happened in your past, or things that you normally worry about regarding the future? Those activities are part of your conscious mind. Your conscious mind would love to do those, because those can help to change your life. You can achieve tremendous breakthroughs. By reading novels, books, watching inspiration and motivation stories, attending seminars and shows, reading biographies of most famous people, and more likes to AWAKEN YOUR SLEPT MIND. Also you can step into other people’s lives. And by doing so, makes sense of your own life, because we’re not all that different. A lot of the deep personal, philosophical, psychological, and spiritual issues discussed in the great literature of history resonate to your life, if you only choose to see it.
  • 6. Adrianus Muganga 2021 6 NOW THINK FOR OPPORTUNITIES THAT YOUNG MEN DO NOT SEE TO THIS NEW WORLD OF TECHNOLOGY An opportunity over Connections! Do you think it makes difficult to you to reach the right people you may deserve to support your initiatives? Hope nowadays no. The connection is there, but most people don’t want to do that. They’d rather fill their minds with junk; I’m talking about Twitter, Facebook timeline, Facebook and Instagram, we can have a lot of vital information there, but the problem is the way we use it. It’s like we are filling our minds with intellectual and mental chewing gum. It’s garbage in, garbage out. So you have this powerful machine called your conscious mind, and it’s stuck in neutral. The more it processes, the more it overheats, and the more stuck you feel, you feel overwhelmed, you feel burned out. HOW TO REPROGAM OURSELF TO ATTRACT OPPORTUNIEAS TO OURSIDES Now look over your subconscious mind! SUBCONSCIOUS MIND, if you want to achieve a breakthrough, you have to rediscover your subconscious mind, everybody has a subconscious mind. It is one of the things that unite all humanity. The problem is most of us are unaware of it, and those who are aware of it, often go out of the way to deny it. They’re scared of it. They don’t want to take responsibility over it, and they struggle. What is the subconscious mind? It is very simple to understand the conscious mind, because we are aware of its operations. When we make judgment calls, when we make decisions, when we think about somebody, or we’re thinking about what to say while we are dealing with other people, ―our subconscious mind is at work”. By the same toke, when we are reading something and we try to analyze what we just read, we can see our conscious mind at work. But the subconscious mind is harder to pin down. Here are some of its qualities; your subconscious mind involves your collective non-conscious memory to every single second, the outside world is bombarding you with thousands of stimuli that you choose to perceive only a tiny fraction of that, and of that fraction you choose to remember only a smaller fraction. That means that a subconscious mind is a WILLFUL REMEMBRANCE, or a WILLFUL MEMORY. But there is a flip side to this; your subconscious is also picking up stuff, and it’s not bound by your conscious mind. It’s not bound by its biases, rules, or habits. It’s more random. It’s like a screenshot. There may be fuzzy details, but it’s still a screenshot. This can come in handy. It is no surprise that some people, when they find themselves in a certain situation, they remember certain details of what happened in the past, and this can lead them to a decision that is different from what they would’ve normally arrived at if they were to have relied only on their conscious mind. Your subconscious mind overrides your emotions; can enable you
  • 7. Adrianus Muganga 2021 7 to override your emotions, because it understands where your emotions are coming from. It revels in irrationality because it is above and beyond your conscious mind’s attempt at rationality. Your subconscious mind is the source of your intuition. Even if you haven't been somewhere before, or you haven't been exposed to a situation before, has it ever happened to you that you know what to do at the right time, with the right people, to produce the right outcome? This is not just a simple case of being lucky, but a lot of the times, that's intuition, and guess where that comes from? That’s your subconscious mind. It's able to connect the dots at the right time to produce a result. The truth is the complete opposite. Have you ever noticed that certain people seem to be at the right place at the right time doing the right things? It's as if it happens again to them. It turns out that there's a lot more planning and design going on than we cared to realize. Being at the right place at the right time doing the right things with the right people takes a lot more purpose and premeditation than you think. When you learn to tap your subconscious mind to serve your conscious mind, serendipity happens more often. How come? You’re simply prepared for it (Kenny, 2020). The ancient proverb says, ―The doctor dresses the wound and God heals it.‖ A personal healing will ever be the most convincing evidence of our subconscious powers. YOUR SUBCONSCIOUS MIND IS YOUR BOOK OF LIFE, What is impressed in the subconscious is expressed. The subconscious heals a malignancy of the skin, How the subconscious controls all functions of the body, How to get the subconscious to work for you, Healing principle of the subconscious restores atrophied optic nerves. Successful Scientists, entrepreneurs, musician, writers and many others use their Subconscious Mind, How a distinguished scientist brought forth his inventions? How a famous naturalist solved his problem? An out-standing, physician solved the problem of diabetes? It as been said as there is a gold mine within you from which you can extract everything you need to live life gloriously, joyously, and abundantly, you can bring into your life more power, more wealth, more health, more happiness, and more joy by learning to contact and release the hidden power of your subconscious mind (Joseph, 1963). THE SUBCONSCIOUS MIND consists of a field of consciousness, in which every impulse of thought that reaches the objective mind through any of the five senses, is classified and recorded, and from which thoughts may be recalled or withdrawn as letters may be taken from a filing cabinet. It receives, and files, sense impressions or thoughts, regardless of their nature. You may VOLUNTARILY plant in your subconscious mind any plan, thought, or purpose which you desire to translate into its physical or monetary equivalent. The subconscious acts first on the dominating desires which have been mixed with emotional feeling, such as faith (Napoleon,2016). Within your subconscious depths lie infinite wisdom, infinite power, and infinite supply of all that is necessary, which is waiting for development and expression. It is better now to recognize these potentialities of your deeper mind, and they will take form in the world without. The infinite intelligence within your subconscious mind can reveal to you everything you need to know at every moment of time and point of space provided you are open-minded and receptive. You can receive new thoughts and ideas
  • 8. Adrianus Muganga 2021 8 enabling you to bring forth new inventions, make new discoveries, or write books, plays and everything. Moreover, the infinite intelligence in your subconscious can impart to you wonderful kinds of knowledge of an original nature. It can reveal to you and open the way for perfect expression and true place in your life. POVERTY Ask yourself on the following Questions! What is poverty? i. How the societies look over poverty? ii. How the governments fight to poverty over its followers? iii. Do you think being to poverty scale is by voluntary or involuntary? iv. Do you think either poverty is linked to human mind in any way? v. Have asked yourself why poor keep poor and rich keep richer? vi. Why poor families keep difficult to break the chain or have a breakthrough the life style? HOW PSYCHOLOGY DEFINES POVERTY! Poverty is a mental disease, How to use the power of your Subconscious for Wealth? Wealth is of the mind, your invisible means of support, and the ideal method for building a wealth consciousness, a common stumbling block to wealth, rubbing out a great mental block to wealth, sleeps and grows rich; Serve yourself with the powers of your mind. Money is a symbol; you must never criticize money, getting the right attitude toward money, to attract the money you need and to attract the job you need. Through the wisdom of your subconscious mind you can attract the ideal companion, as well as the right business associate or partner. It can find the right buyer for your home, and provide you with all the money you need, and the financial freedom to be, to do, and to go, as your heart desires. Though invisible, its forces are mighty. Within your subconscious mind you will find the solution for every problem, and the cause for every effect. Because you can draw out the hidden powers, you come into actual possession of the power and wisdom necessary to move forward in abundance, security, joy, and dominion. Your subconscious mind is principle and works according to the LAW OF BELIEF (Joseph, 1963). Continue to plant these wonderful seeds (thoughts) in the garden of your mind, and you will reap a glorious harvest. Your subconscious mind may be likened to the soil, which will grow all kinds of seeds, good or bad It receive commands (thoughts) like computer, and process them to produce results( emotions) that control our daily lives, so if you feed your mind with negative thoughts in
  • 9. Adrianus Muganga 2021 9 a repetitive( affirmation) ways, your Subconscious mind that works like a Computer Processing Unit(CPU),it will combine all of them with no bias, and process them together and produce more than one results of similar thoughts(Feelings) and make you to believe on them and live on them as well, for your entire life (Napoleon, 2016). For example the child that is emerging from poor family, see how their parents criticize about money, keeps saying for those who are rich as are evil, money is evil. These are negative (toxic) thoughts to a child, so even when he grow up these negative feelings up on money in a repetitive manner always will talk as having more money is a bad thing and this is vice versa to child of another side. WHAT MAKES THE RICH RICHER AND THE POOR MORE POOR! From all stories mention above, most scholars commented that successful people have a well programed and successful mind. Although success does not grantee a personal background, a level of education a person have, the age of person or the past life of a man while it is about a development of a particular man’s mind and enough. That is why some are poor while are surrounded with multiple opportunities but are they genially blind they need to be awakened to enable them see. Successful people in any field they have spiritually awakened mind, their THIRD EYE (mind eye) are highly awakened that enable them to synchronize with the universe that enable them to see the world clearly and able to seize any opportunities in their fields of work even scarce resources that others never see by their normal eyes such like; entrepreneurs, inventors, doctors, musicians, footballers, physicians, scientists, writers and other famous and successful people around the world (Susannah, 2015). Figure 3.An individual of highly spiritual awakened (opened the third eye). Source: Youtube
  • 10. Adrianus Muganga 2021 10 Does this challenge of Unemployment and Underemployment to youth a psychological problem? Why does this problem do not have an exact solution over many years till now while are under many global efforts? Why majority of young men in the country who are daily or every year graduating from different collages, and Universities of different careers and knowledge keeps in streets with nothing even to try?. Why does majority do not believes as other employments rather than those offered by government as a real employment? Why does poor person criticize those successful and their money? Why poor keeps poor and successful keeps successful? Why people of power keeps more powerful and others not? Being with knowledge does it mean you have power? Recently from the study above we have mention already as is noticed that human mind can be programmed through either Training, environment and personal daily habits. The knowledge we acquire during our school life at any level of education can help nothing if can not put into action, because it was programed to help us to see the world and how it operate. The knowledge we receive from school that school teachers taught us in class feeds and train our conscious mind that is why if not put into action for some period you forget everything and remain with small stuffs. But for those from Vocational training centers or Informal local practical trainee that involving both physically and mentally into their studies as using subconscious mind (a willful remembering memory and a creative mind) to do their things and are the best than ever. For those graduates who are emerging from Vocational Training Centers like VETA, are physically and emotionally trained to depend on themselves than those from other Education systems and if they do they do better. The recent and current education system keeps mentally training employees (salary defendants or job defendants) no matter how talented or good they are, based on their acquired knowledge but can not even try to do things out of being employed. They even not believing in themselves, it is because the system keeps them blind with nothing to do. And here, their knowledge looks nothing at all. Skill is something now. So, from this study we recommend Vocational Training Centers that are after skills. The parents who are raising up their children in the streets and training them with negative thoughts since they are still young, especially for those who are emerging from poor families from this study. Most of psychologist says that ―the way you think you are” “you are” , The law of auto-suggestion, through which any person may rise to altitudes of achievement which stagger the imagination, is well described in the following verse: "If you think you are beaten, you are, If you think you dare not, you don't, If you like to win, but you think you can't, It is almost certain you won't.
  • 11. Adrianus Muganga 2021 11 "If you think you'll lose, you're lost For out of the world we find, Success begins with a fellow's will-- It's all in the state of mind. "If you think you are outclassed, you are, You've got to think high to rise, You've got to be sure of yourself before You can ever win a prize. "Life's battles don't always go To the stronger or faster man, But soon or late the man who wins Is the man WHO THINKS HE CAN!" Observe the words which have been emphasized, and you will catch the deep meaning which the poet had in mind (Napoleon, 2016). Figure 4.Identify as how human mind works here below: Source: Facebook Somewhere in your make-up (perhaps in the cells of your brain) there lies sleeping, the seed of achievement which, if aroused and put into action, would carry you to heights, such as you may never have hoped to attain. Just as a master (Napoleon, 2016).So, if this problem is a psychological problem, thus can be solved too through psychological principals (Reprograming).
  • 12. Adrianus Muganga 2021 12 Figure 10.Youth Unemployment Trend in Africa (Trading Economics, 2019) Source: Trading Economics N.B: THINK DIFFERENT! As one among of the collage and University graduates. Below you have given a screenshot about your country Tanzania. Then think for current situation of COVID – 19 the World is and then predict to next 2 years later. So, as a fully and knowledge personnel what are you going to do for yourself, your society, your country and for the world? THINK BIG!
  • 13. Adrianus Muganga 2021 13 TANZANIA Geography: Geographical Location, Boundaries and Area. Figure 12.Tanzania is located in Eastern Africa between longitudes 290 and 410 East and latitudes 10 and 120 South: Most northerly point Mutukula 10 01'S and 310 25' E, Most southerly point Mtalika 110 32'S and 370 05' E, Most westerly point Kigoma 40 52'S and 290 38' E, and Most easterly point Msimbati 100 21'S and 400 26' E. Source: National Bureau of Statistics Tanzania Mainland has frontiers with the following countries/ocean: North: Kenya and Uganda; West: Rwanda, Burundi and Democratic Republic of Congo; South West: Zambia and Malawi; South: Mozambique; and East: Indian Ocean. Figure 13.Africa Source: Google
  • 14. Adrianus Muganga 2021 14 Figure 14.Area of the United Republic of Tanzania by Region, 2018(National Bureau of Statistics, 2019). Place (―000‖ sq. km.) Tanzania (total area) 947.3 Inland Water 61.5 Land Area 885.8 Tanzania Mainland 883.3 Tanzania Zanzibar 2.5 Source: National Bureau of Statistics Population: The population of Tanzania has increased more than four times from 12.3 million in 1967 to 54.2 million in 2018 and around 60 million in 2020. The average annual intercostal growth rate according to the 2012 Population and Housing Census is 2.7 percent. Figure 15.Estimated total employment Tanzania Population Trend in Millions, 1967 - 2018 from 2014 to 2018. Projected figures based on 2012 Population and Housing Census Source: National Bureau of Statistics; Population and Housing Censuses of 1967, 1978, 1988, 2002 and 2012. Source: National Bureau of Statistics
  • 15. Adrianus Muganga 2021 15 Figure 16.Percentage Distribution of the 2018 Projected Population by Age Group and Sex, Tanzania. Source: National Bureau of Statistics, 2019. Tanzania in figures 2018. Education: Figure 17.
  • 16. Adrianus Muganga 2021 16 Figure 18.Total Enrolment (number) by Level and Ownership, Tanzania Mainland, 2012 – 2018. Source: Ministry of Education, Science, Technology and Vocational Training Figure 19.Number of Students Enrolled in Universities and Colleges: by Type of Institutions Tanzania, 2018 – 2019. Employment: The projected statistics shows an increase of labor force of 2.0 million people over the past five years; i.e. from 2014 to 2018. The national labor force has grown from 22.3 million people in 2014 to 24.3 million people in 2018. In addition, the number of people with employment has increased from 20.0 million in 2014 to 22.0 million in 2018. In addition, there has been a decline in the rate of unemployment in the country from 10.3 percent in 2014 to 9.7 percent in 2018(National Bureau of Statistics, 2019).
  • 17. Adrianus Muganga 2021 17 Figure 20.Estimated total employment from 2014 to 2018(National Bureau of Statistics, 2019). Source: National Bureau of Statistics; 2014 Integrated Labor Force Survey (ILFS) Figure 21.Formal Employment Created (number) by Sector, in Tanzania Mainland, 2013/14 - 2017/18 (National Bureau of Statistics, 2019). Sector/Project 2013/14 2014/15 2015/16 2016/17 2017/18 Government 49,615 44,797 71,496 82,302 18,000 Government Development Projects 172,245 271,920 124,178 132,147 397,009 Private Sector 408,756 257,323 195,002 239,017 137,054 Total 630,616 574,040 390,676 453,466 552,063 Source: PMO-Labor, Youth, Employment and Disability Youth Unemployment problem: The Current Analytical Situation of Youth Unemployment problem in Tanzania (Seleman, 2019). As we have seen already the current Population in Tanzania is around 60 Million people by now in 2020, where such population keeps increasing at the rate of 3.11 per cent every year (World Meter 2019). The increase in youth population has opportunities as well as challenges. One of the challenges is youth unemployment (Agwanda & Aman, 2014). Youth unemployment in Tanzania has been a long-time problem (Haji 2015, DTCIDC, 2016, Kiaga 2016). The larger problem of chronic underemployment can be traced back since independence 1961. The current youth unemployment rate is 11.5 percent.
  • 18. Adrianus Muganga 2021 18 Figure 22.Forecast Unemployment rate from 2014 to 2018(National Bureau of Statistics, 2019). Source: National Bureau of Statistics; 2014 Integrated Labour Force Survey (ILFS) Gender gap: Gender gap as challenges on employment in Tanzania: Young female gender in the rural are mostly affected (Ministry of labour, employment and youth, 2007) According to the National/Expanded definition, 13.36% of all youth aged 15-24 years are Unemployed (11.84% of males and 14.82% of females in this age group). In the 10-17 Years age group, 11.2% of those in rural areas (28.4% of males and 30.9% of females) and 29.7% in all urban areas (10.6% of males and 11.9% of females) were unemployed. Figure 23.Youth population in employment, unemployment and NNET in Tanzania mainland, % and gender gap 2014(LO/FTF Council, 2018) Men Women Gender Gap, percentage point(p.p) Employment participation rate* 78% 76% -2p.p Youth unemployment* 7.0% 12% +5p.p Not in employment(NEET)** 12% 21% +9p.p Age group:15 – 24.** Not in employment or in Education and training(NEET). Source: Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics, Integrated Labour Force Survey from 2014.
  • 19. Adrianus Muganga 2021 19 Poverty: Tanzania Mainland Poverty General Overview (Nadia et al, 2018). Over the past decade Tanzania recorded remarkable economic growth and a persistent decline in poverty. The country’s strategic location, its rich and diverse resources, its sociopolitical stability, and its economic reforms over the past four decades contributed to its economic success and serve as a foundation for further building up the economy. Continued government efforts to improve living conditions have resulted in a sustained increase in access to basic services and improvement in human capital outcomes (though from a low base), which helped to reduce poverty. After plateauing between 2001 and 2007, in 2018 the poverty rate fell from 34.4 to 26.4 percent. However, Tanzania’s success is not unmitigated. Poverty was not reduced as much as the population grew, resulting in an increase in the absolute number of poor people. In 2018, about 14 million people lived below the national poverty line of TZS 49,320 per adult equivalent per month and about 26 million (about 49 percent of the population) lived below the $1.90 per person per day international poverty line. Vulnerability is also still high: for every four Tanzanians who moved out of poverty, three fell into it. A large number of non poor people living just above the poverty line are at risk of slipping below it. Beyond the persistent gaps between urban and rural areas, there are large disparities in the distribution of poverty across geographic regions. Poverty is highly concentrated in the western and lake zones, and lowest in the eastern zones. The reduction in poverty was also low in relation to Tanzania’s remarkable economic growth. The growth elasticity of poverty in 2019 was indicated that a 10 percent increase in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth per capita in Tanzania can be expected to reduce the proportion of the poor by about 4.5 percent—low compared to estimates for other developing countries.. This is due to both the concentration of employment in slow-growing sectors and the dilatory transformation of the economy. The depth and severity of poverty also eased. For 2007–18, the depth of poverty, which measures how far on average poor households are from the poverty line, decreased from 10 to 6 percent—in other words, a poor household in rural areas, the amount needed there is TZS 3,650, far more than the TZS 1,726 per adult equivalent per month for poor households in urban areas. The low poverty severity index which was more than halved, from 4.5 in 2007 to 2.1 in 2018, suggests that inequality between poor households is fairly low. Would on average need TZS 3,058 per adult equivalent per month to escape poverty. Since poverty is deeper. But due to the circumstances of COVID – 19 in 2020 the GDP will go down than the normal the fact that will lead the problem to raise again. Figure 24.Poverty Trends, National Poverty Line in Tanzania, 2007–18, Percent (Nadia et al, 2018) Year 2007 34.4% Year 2012 28.2% Year 2018 26.4% Urban 20% 15.4% 15.8% Rural 39.1% 33.4% 31.3% Source: HBS 2007, 2011/12, and 2017/18
  • 20. Adrianus Muganga 2021 20 Figure 25.Poverty Incidence by Region, 2018, Percent (Nadia et al, 2018). Source: HBS 2017/18 and auxiliary variables Figure 26.Poverty Incidence by District, 2018, Percent (Nadia et al, 2018) Source: HBS 2017/18 and auxiliary variables
  • 21. Adrianus Muganga 2021 21 Figure 27.Poverty Status by Area, Tanzania Mainland, 2007 and 2011/12 (National Bureau of Statistics, 2019). Year Area % of Population below Food Poverty Line % of Population below Basic Needs Poverty Line % of Female Headed Households 2007 Dar es Salaam 3.2 14.1 24.4 Other Urban 8.9 22.7 30.1 Rural 13.5 39.4 23 Total 11.8 34.4 24.5 2011/12 Dar es Salaam 1 4.1 22.5 Other Urban 8.7 21.7 27.6 Rural 11.3 33.3 24.3 Total 9.7 28.2 24.7 Source: National Bureau of Statistics; Household Budget Surveys, 2007 and 2011/12 Figure 28.Percentage Distribution of Poverty by Number of Employees, Tanzania Mainland, 2007 and 2011/12 (National Bureau of Statistics, 2019). Number of Employees in a Household 2007 2011/12 Headcount Ratio % of the Poor Headcount Ratio % of the Poor None 41.0 75.1 30.5 78.0 1 20.9 14.2 19.8 14.0 2 21.9 6.9 24.5 2.5 3 19.7 1.8 23.9 1.9 4 or More 31.3 2.0 18.5 3.6 Total 33.6 100.0 28.4 100.0 Source: National Bureau of Statistics; Household Budget Surveys 2007 and 2011/12 Crime Statistics in Tanzania: Figure 29.Number of Offences against Person, Tanzania, 2013 – 2018 (National Bureau of Statistics, 2019). Offence 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Murder 3,929 3,775 3,560 3,318 3,026 2,655 Rape 6,105 6,028 5,802 7,645 8,039 7,617 Un-natural Offence 820 944 928 1,202 1,184 1,201 Child Stealing 192 146 146 170 129 113 Child Desertion 243 237 205 159 142 112 Defilement 10 15 12 18 26 34 Human Trafficking 36 21 45 55 32 27 Total 11,335 11,166 10,698 12,567 12,578 11,759 Source: Tanzania Police Force
  • 22. Adrianus Muganga 2021 22 Figure 30.Number of Offences Related to Property, Tanzania, 2013 – 2018 Offence 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Theft of Arms 76 59 53 33 28 35 Robbery in Highway 3 0 3 29 55 1 Armed Robbery 1,266 1,127 913 726 574 438 Robbery with Violence 5,710 5,294 4,507 3,945 2,796 2,117 Breaking 23,017 21,479 20,337 19,803 16,883 14,741 Theft 0 0 179 193 148 157 Theft of Motorcycle 4,695 5,232 5,317 5,633 5,077 5,236 Theft of motor vehicles 464 427 488 452 267 228 Livestock theft 5,307 5,119 4,879 5,106 4,908 4,203 House burning/arson 2,402 2,293 2,031 1,962 1,439 1,137 Fire accidents 369 740 577 828 0 0 Financial Crime 1,276 995 1,146 1,990 1,640 1,303 Total 44,585 42,765 40,430 40,700 33,815 1,303 Source: Tanzania Police Force Figure 31.Main Criminal Offences Reported by Region, Tanzania, 2018 Source: Tanzania Police Force
  • 23. Adrianus Muganga 2021 23 Figure 32.Main Criminal Offences Reported by Region,Tanzania, 2018………. Source: Tanzania Police Force Mortality Rates: Figure 33.Trend in Mortality Rates, Tanzania. Survey Year Infant Mortality (per 1,000 live births) Under-Five Mortality(per 1,000 live births) Maternal Deaths (per 00,000 live births) 2004/05 TDHS 68 112 578 2010 TDHS 51 81 454 2012 PHC 46.2 66.5 432 2015/16 TDHS 43 67 556 Source: National Bureau of Statistics; 2004/05, 2010, 2012 PHC and 2015/16 TDHS
  • 24. Adrianus Muganga 2021 24 Economic Indicators: Figure 34.GDP Growth Rate at 2015 Prices, Tanzania Mainland, 2013-2018 The annual GDP in Tanzania Mainland has been growing at an average rate of 6.7 percent from 2013 to 2018. Figure 35.Percentage Share of GDP at Current Prices by Activities, Tanzania Mainland, 2018 Note: Primary activity comprises agriculture and mining. Secondary activity comprises manufacturing, electricity, gas, water and construction Tertiary activity comprises wholesale trade, retail trade, information, transport, communication and others.
  • 25. Adrianus Muganga 2021 25 Figure 36.Consumption Expenditure and Balance of Trade: Figure 37.Government Minimum Wage (Thousand TZS), Tanzania Mainland, 2009/10-2016/17 Source: President’s Office Public Service Management
  • 26. Adrianus Muganga 2021 26 Figure 38.Non-Government Minimum Wage by Sector, Tanzania Mainland, 2016. Source: President’s Office Public Service Management Figure 39.Ctd: Non-Government Minimum Wage by Sector, Tanzania Mainland, 2016 Source: President’s Office Public Service Management
  • 27. Adrianus Muganga 2021 27 Figure 40.The predominance of self-employment and young firms Figure 41.Cross-country comparison of earnings per worker 2012 ( Mahjabeen, 2015). Note: in GDP per person employed 2012- constant 1990 $PPP. (PPP = purchasing power parity) Source: WDI Indicators
  • 28. Adrianus Muganga 2021 28 TANZANIA DEVELOPMENT PLAN, VISION AND INVESTMENT PRIORITIES TO ACHIEVE MIDDLE INCOME STATUS BY 2025. Figure 42.Tanzania Development Plan, Vision and Investment Priorities Source: Tanzania Investment Centre. Tanzania’s development aspirations are outlined in the Tanzania Development Vision 2025 TDV 2025) which was developed in the late 1990s to guide economic and social development efforts up to the year 2025 Targets. 1. Transforming Tanzania into a middle-income country, imbued with five main national attributes: a) High quality livelihood; b) Peace, stability and unity; c) Good governance; d) A well educated and learning society; and e) A competitive economy capable of producing sustainable growth and shared benefits. 2. Transforming the economy from a predominantly agricultural one to a diversified and semi-industrialized economy with a substantial industrial sector comparable to typical middle-income countries. The original plan to implement Vision 2025 through five year development plans (FYDPs) was sidelined by heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) process. Qualifying
  • 29. Adrianus Muganga 2021 29 for debt relief under HIPC required the preparation of poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs), which focused on delivery of social sectors Subsequent acceptance of the importance of ―growth‖ as a basis for stimulating the capacity to finance social services and reducing aid dependence led to the emergence, in 2005, of the National Strategy for Growth and Poverty Reduction commonly known as MKUKUTA I, followed by MKUKUTA II in 2010. Priority Areas and Objectives. To mobilize and organize the national resources strategically in order to: 1. Nurture an industrial economy in a bid to transform Tanzania into a semi-industrialized nation by 2025; 2. Accelerate economic growth while making sure that the quality of that growth will benefit the majority of the people in terms of significant poverty reduction and job creation especially for the youth and women; and 3. Foster and strengthen implementation effectiveness. Figure 43.Nurturing an Industrial Economy. Source: Tanzania Investment Centre
  • 30. Adrianus Muganga 2021 30 Source: Tanzania Investment Centre Figure 44.To mobilize and organize the national resources strategically in order to Nurture an industrial economy in Tanzania. Source: Tanzania Investment Centre Priority interventions. Source: Tanzania Investment Centre
  • 31. Adrianus Muganga 2021 31 The Effects of Youth Unemployment Challenges and COVID – 19 in relation to Tanzania Development Visions (TDV 2025) based on the all above mentioned National Analytical Statistics. The country has a challenge of investing more money to young men by paying of their school bills to be knowledgeable but finally left non productive at all (knowledge without put into action is equal to nothing ), they are so many in the streets, keeps wasting their time on social media with no important to benefit their country. Every year hundred thousands of experts are graduating and others enrolled to the school system, but finally left of nothing to do, it is a wastage of resources in other way, low level of economic growth and abduct poverty are linked to unemployment due to the function of lack of Employability (E1), Employment Creation (E2), Entrepreneurship (E3) and Equal Opportunity (E4) by Ministry of Labour, Employment and Youth Development (MLEYD, 2007). If this challenge of Unemployment keeps growing, majority become psychologically addicted that bring them into difficulties to see opportunities that is emerging in the country (slow perception). The slogan of ―HAPA KAZI TU” in a real sense it carries the vision of the country to next 10 – 20 years but youth( a group with great potential ) are still not physically and emotionally active to seize it. In general this group its very important to be activated to seize the government vision (TDV 2025). The effects and potentials of COVID – 19” to Youth unemployment challenges and TDV 2025. COVID – 19, is a global crisis that we are expecting that the global economy will fall apart in a great way; every country will probably suffer a lot to financial crisis, as in terms of economy most of entrepreneurs who were strong enough in the field of business will exist, and for those who were recently weak will perish indeed. Right now the global and National goals ( visions) are now affected to this serious pandemic disease, no one right now is producing, processing, distributing and no one is earning anything (all people are in lock down worldwide). By considering the aggressiveness of the disease and its effects will cause, we expect the challenge of Unemployment over the world to go up than the normal to the next years, because majorities will loss their jobs due to the fact that some companies where they worked before will reduce the number of its employees and employ few based on their capabilities and others will perish totally due to the fact of failure to pay back their debt(bank loans), and others relative to these, which is very similar to their public sectors (government employment rate will go down than the normal as well). However, this is a global challenge, but this crisis is going to bring some chances (opportunity) to those who were weak economically while are physically and emotionally strong (Practical dreamers) to emerge and grow up. Tanzania as one among of Developing Countries can use another side of this crisis to solve its challenge of Youth Unemployment problem in the country by preparing them psychologically and letting them solve this problem by themselves with little effort from the government. The government can win the game by creating the stressful environment (harnessing environment) that will ignite the mind of the majority of young men in the country and force them to heal by themselves and automatically get into action unknowingly with no force, ―a powerful psychological message” should be created and announced openly to all young men in the country to put them aware that (the government will not offer any kind of employment for over three
  • 32. Adrianus Muganga 2021 32 years concegatively based on the great effects caused by COVID – 19 in the country, but only can provide conducive environment to new emerging Entrepreneurs). This massage can work at highly efficiency if some of the social Media such like WhatsApp, Instagram, and Facebook can be banned in the country if possible, because here it is where majority of young men their mind slept, they wasting their time with no even to think to try things, and even to those who at work already do their works below their efficiency (this can be help as in 2015 / 2016 where all TV and Radio Stations in the country was forced to stop providing the Parliament work during the day to enable people who were wasting time to adopt the slogan of JPM of HAPA KAZI TU, by then that was a very tough situation but helped majority in street to get into works). If the government can be able to manage those two; a psychological message and banning those media (a new stressful and harnessing environment will be created among youth and automatically their mind will be ignited and unknowingly will get into action by themselves with no force).The books called Think and Grow Rich written by Napoleon Hill, Think Big written by Ben Carson, and Gifted Hands written by Ben Carson as well as a reference , both tells that if the human mind is harnessed into harsh environment, the mind automatically use its six sense to find the new way of survive or to solve the existing problem( the human slept genius become awakened and see the new way to solve the current existing problem in anyway, and through using the creative imagination to solve upon the problem the more his creativity expands and the more start to see more opportunities around him) (Napoleon, 2016 and Ben, 2005). The country can use this opportunity to make more youth even those with their parents at home get into action by establishing their own jobs and drive their own living. If this can be successfully in the country, the country will be successful as well as it will take short time to recover from the globe financial crisis and fit the country visions in advance than that was before. When the opportunity came, it appear in different form, and from a different direction than that had been expected, that is one of the tricks of opportunity, it has a sly habit of slipping in by the back door, and often it comes disguised in the form of misfortune, or temporary defeat(Napoleon, 2016).
  • 33. Adrianus Muganga 2021 33 5.0 Recommendations from this study:  Government: Recently many researchers had been focusing on this problem of Youth Unemployment and Underemployment in Tanzania over how to solve it, with multiple insights and approaches over it with no exact solution, many recommendations have made with no even efforts and others had fortunately put into action but the problem keeps on. So, from this study based on the seriousness of the problem and the overhead vision of the country to next 10 – 20 years later of reaching a stage of industrization and having middle economy in relation to the Global approaches on 17UN proposed Sustainable Development Goals and its adoption in the country, we recommended some insights that the government, youth in themselves, Parents, and Educational Institution should focus on to solve that complicated problem in relation toward winning the proposed country and Global visions: Ministry.  Based on the seriousness of the problem and the importance of the affected group for the country and global vision 2020/2030, the government should have to establish the Ministry body that will seriously focus and investing on that issue by building new polices to youth efforts in the country like other affairs as they does; to support them, to motivate them, to inspire them, empower their efforts and build the web that can connect and bring both employed and non - employed youth in the country to one Unit and work together as a team( team work).  This problem based on the given previous and currently statistical data as are given from this study, the government has no need to keeps hiding it open, The Ministry should have a task of being integrity and accountability to tell the youth over the country over this challenge to find the new way of self – employment lather than depending mostly on government, and tell them that if the government will have a demand of new employees to his public sectors will offer those chances like other private sectors are doing from now onwards based on the big of the problem in the country and over the world right now. That will be a psychological principle that will trigger the subconscious mind of most youth in the country to awaken their slept genius and find the new way of life rather than keeping believing that is only governments that offer jobs, and this will be adopted very easy because they know, they see and most have been already experienced over 5 – 7 years at their home jobless waiting for government, But by doing this all jobless youth will go out to find new ways and try to anything for to enable earning their life and from there they will able to see the world and identify most hidden opportunities in the Universe. This will be accompanied to new policies that bring better working and conducive environments to ―new small start – ups Entrepreneurs” to enable them establish their own job. We normally knew that the government do the best to put better environment to giant businesses in the country and forget for Small Start – ups, but the time is now to look on this second side of business because we know our country have full of opportunities to young men but the issues still the policies that keep them
  • 34. Adrianus Muganga 2021 34 down over the time. Also for those who at Universities and other Middle Collages whose their study funded by government will even start budgeting their money acquired from Loan Board and start establishing themselves and do anything to ensure their future life after school than like as they live dormant now with money of and using them with no even budgeting and of no plan. The ministry body will link directly to the Youth Forum to enable them participate on discussions to their favorable policies and their needs to a particular time (MLEYD, 2007). For the things to go better we recommend that whole bodies, the Ministry and the youth forum should be lead by Young men of strong will, by doing this will reduce inconveniences and politics to the management, because they know better their needs, by letting them involve directly in themselves upon solving their own problem, will develop strong trust among them with little or no questions to their government. Policy. The government must have to establish new policies that can enable new emerging entrepreneurs (start ups) to establish themselves and grow with little obstacles in term of irregular taxes and others relative stuffs that may hinder their efforts, to bring them the room of conducive environment to emerge by themselves rather than killing them. The government should treat them differently to other like those who are already grown up by considering their capacities to giant entrepreneurs, we believe as these new emerging entrepreneurs will latter grow up and contribute to the nation GDP like those giant companies( Jack Ma, 2018).The new policies that can help them to reach the money and the jobs. Education. The government should have to put more effort to Vocational / Technical training schools to ensure that they can produce good and better practical graduates because the World right now needs Practical people with ability to do things rather than focusing on Certificate. VETA and SIDO can be more important now. For the graduates who preferring to be employed will decide to continue with further studies by themselves based on their own visions and for those who need to employ themselves will go directly to work based on their passions. We know the government spent more money on Education, it is better because it reduce illiteracy rate in the country. But if those who graduates from those schools with good certificates after using the country resources while have no ability or have nothing to do by themselves, and complain of no job, so how can we term them as have educated?. Being jobless for so long it lead to something called CAREER DEPRESSION. That according to the Oxford program, Career depression generally goes through three stages: Career Dissatisfaction, Career Demotivation and Career Paralysis. So, we need to change our Current education system (the way we program our trainee) by now, because we are in the 21st Millennium, the new world or the changed world that needs new training and new ways of doing things to
  • 35. Adrianus Muganga 2021 35 match the current universal frequencies, we need our people to vibrate at high level in proportional to the current global frequencies. We need practical people now (Yolanda, 2002). Financial and Material supports. Currently, we are the world of technology, and the government has possibilities of money, the government can put seriously on the issue of government financial loan to support small start – ups entrepreneurs, as well as the government can provide government machine loan to support young men who are in groups and wishing for machines like; Tractors, water pumping machines and others those SIDO’s small industries can produce in our country. This to government can be possible although it is more expensive but within five to ten years of investment to young men in production under good business environments the outcome can be of right big with no complain about no job, many small and giant companies can emerge in the country and many employment can emerge, those practical young’s can compete, inspire and support each other and also other newly emerging one will follow the flow. The government will gain back in more return, and the National GDP in five years of investment can be stable than ever for the next years. Information Basic Unit. Information is the heart of the matter; it can unlock the door to the vault called success (Herb, 1982). The government should establish a Single Information Unit / Center as most researches as been advising to do in Tanzania where all information concerning employment from public and private sectors will be announced as a single source, information about NGOs that funding projects in the country, information about Government Financial Funding Support and Motivation, where all information will be put together to enable easier access in time with no bias. Because most research have revealed that Most Youth in Tanzania they lack Information on important opportunities that emerge in the country that can help them put their knowledge acquired from school into practical, and because some a given of bias to benefit uninterested group, fore instance President loan ( ―Mabilion ya JK‖), The most researches revealing that those money released by the Former President Dr. Jakaya M. Kikwete during his time couldn’t benefiting the targeted group as was intended(Simon,2013) . The same time now the current President Dr. John P. Magufuri had put on effort to provide sum amount of money to every District and Municipals to support youth of new emerging Entrepreneurs as a President loan of zero Interest that are intending to push them up from where they are, but few knew this and majority are not aware at all. So here you can see as the government as a good effort but the issue is the information to reach the targeted group. There is a need of new system of information right now to help young’s because Information is very now to this fast changing World, so for those who are more interested to employment will get news about it from every in time and very easily, and for those who are more interested in building projects / businesses and employ in themselves of little starting funds will get news of where to access supports including sponsors / Funders very easily and in time as well. This is 98% possible if can be put into action and we assure that majority of young men can have
  • 36. Adrianus Muganga 2021 36 information in time over the country because Tanzania has an opportunity as got step in Information and Communication Technology than other countries in Africa and we assure majority of young men have a smart phone that can access and do anything he/ she want over the world very easily and in time, this is an opportunity and very advantageous to this matter get done as intended at high efficiency as usual. Below are statistical data that show the real picture of where we are in Information and Communication Technology status in Tanzania from year 2013 / 2018: Information and Communication Technology Status in Tanzania. Telecom Services. Figure 45.Subscriptions and Teledensity, 2013 – 2018. Year 2013 2014 2015 2016 2015 2018 Fixed 164,999 142,950 142,819 129,597 127,094 124,238 Mobile 27,442,823 34,108,851 39,665,600 40,044,186 39,953,860 43,497,261 Total 27,607,822 34,251,801 39,808,419 40,173,783 40,080,954 43,621,499 Penetration 61% 71% 79% 80% 78% 81% Source: Tanzania Communication Regulatory Authority Internet Services. Figure 46.Estimated number of users by technology type, 2013 – 2018 Type of Service 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Fixed Wireless 1,056,940 1,913,082 662,882 1,218,693 3,468,188 697,216 Mobile Wireles 7,493,823 11,320,031 16,280,943 18,014,358 19,006,223 22,281,727 Fixed Wired 761,508 984,198 319,698 629,474 520,698 164,017 Total 9,312,272 14,217,311 17,263,523 19,862,525 22,995,109 23,142,960 Penetration 21% 29% 29% 34% 40% 43% Source: Tanzania Communication Regulatory Authority Broadcasting Services. Figure 47.Number of TV Stations, 2013 – 2018 Type 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Free to Air 23 25 25 25 27 30 Satellite TV 3 3 3 3 3 3
  • 37. Adrianus Muganga 2021 37 Pay DTT 3 3 3 3 3 3 Cable TV 15 15 15 15 15 15 Total 44 46 46 46 48 51 Source: Tanzania Communication Regulatory Authority Figure 48.Number of Radio Stations, 2012 – 2018 Source: Tanzania Communication Regulatory Authority E – Commerce and logistics systems. A logistic system (LS) is a network of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in the physical flow of products from supplier to consumer (Shokoofeh, 2011). Figure 49.Logistic system and its application. Source: Google The Order Management System (OMS), is a first point of logistics system contact with customers by managing order receiving and placement, and are closely related to WMS for checking products availability, from this system the customer ordered items may be available from inventories or may be seen in the production schedules. This system provides information about the location of the product in the supply network, quantity available and possibly the estimated time for delivery.E – Commerce (electronic commerce) business system, is the buying and selling of goods and services, or the transmitting of funds or data, over an electronic network,
  • 38. Adrianus Muganga 2021 38 primarily the internet. These business transactions occur either as business – to – business(B2B), business – to – consumer(B2C),consumer – to – consumer or consumer – to – business. Figure 50.E–commerce Business Model. Source: Google In Tanzania and Africa in general we still have a great challenge of not connected to global market, what we produce fail to access the real market globally due to lack of proper business system in our country. If the government can manage to put better business systems such as e – commerce and logistics systems in collaboration with other giant business system in developed countries we can able to reach the global market and enable our young men to do business abroad(importation delivery). Here we recommend partnership. We are currently in a changed world, so we need new systems of businesses (jack, 2017). Generally Africa’s recent economic growth rates and rising youth population have meant more and more entrepreneurs are looking there for potential business opportunities and the typical strategies is to introduce new companies by recreating foreign business model on the continent, while for e – commerce for start – ups, it’s not that easy because for current existing systems are
  • 39. Adrianus Muganga 2021 39 associated with number of challenges like Distrust, Cost of broadband, Africa open market, Fragmented markets and literacy rates(Ndubuisi,2015). Leaders in the country in the country and over the continent must understand that besides launching websites, there are many elements entrepreneurs need to be profitably and successful. These includes more integration of the disparate nation economies; investing in infrastructures like postal system, setting up a pan – national system to prosecute fraud and improve business trust in the country internet and most importantly, improving literacy rates. To make the web work for business, the country leaders need to focus on how to improve the number of total domains registered and instead fix the physical business ecosystem which they continue to neglect in order to unleash the wealth – creating power of the web in the country. This system can help likewise to Integrated Logistic System (ILS), ILSGateway is a logistic system established in Tanzania by USAID/ DERIVER PROJECT in collaboration with Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) to save the medical delivery in the country, where this new system saved 94% of effectiveness. The government is now on foot to register all houses over the country, this is an opportunity for home delivery business if the business environment is conducive. It is better now for the government to show them the easiest way to reach the money for the seek of their life and the government in general.  Youth: Youth by themselves should focus on the following way to remade this great challenge that hindering their life. Solution upon the problem. Unemployment challenges to youth in the country can’t be solved by the government either by now and then as most research revealing over the world do to the big of the problem that increase with increasing rate worldwide, but its about 90% sure that this challenge can be solved by the youth in themselves only if the government policies are conducive. If the government can collaborate with private sectors and other NGOs that supporting new ideas this problem can be solved in advance. For youth now to solve this problem is simple but what is needed here to change their recent believes to match the current world so they need to be spiritually awakened (to use their six senses) to solve their own existing problem lather than looking and complaining to government to everything. Below is the a picture of pupils of Standard V at Mushabago primary school called Octavian Theodory. Figure 51.Octavian Theodory: A class V student at Mushabago primary school in Muleba District.
  • 40. Adrianus Muganga 2021 40 Source: A photo taken from Omukinyinya village on Saturday, 11th April, 2020 Octavian Theodory, this young child that is just solving their family challenges by making mats and sell them to market where he get money to pay their family bills , so if this small kid can manage to do as his doing now, thus, how about a well trained experts’ holding Certificates, Diploma level, Bachelors and master level graduates?. By now it is better to see where the world is, where the world is currently going and what the current world need to do (creativity). Education. The current world prefers creative and practical people indeed. So it is better now to have study based on the Passion and talents of an individual. So if we can educate and develop our own inner naturality and specialize on what we love most in relation to our natural talents we can develop our creativity more and more and do better in a field of work, lather than having school to get certificate to be employed even to career that is not natural theirs ( by doing so we can also have good and better employees). Educational Institutions focus on two things; Knowledge and Skills to a graduate and forget about passion and talent of an individual as is most important as well, but this can a part of parents and there children. Having Knowledge alone will not attract money and anything or to solve poverty problem or youth unemployment challenge in the country, unless it is organized and intelligently directed, through practical plan to a definite end of accumulation of wealth, this is due to the lack of understanding of this fact has been the source of confusion to millions of people who falsely believe that ―Knowledge is power‖.it is nothing of the sort! Knowledge is only potential power. It become power only when, and if, it is organized into definite plan of action, and directed to a definite end (Napoleon, 2016). Youth Forum. University Student Leaders from different Universities in the country that still leading a large communities of targeted group and that still have a power should establish ―Youth
  • 41. Adrianus Muganga 2021 41 Forum ―and select strong leaders among them that they believe as they can to lead the forum and link it with graduates and then to the government body (here they can discuss their challenges and how to remade them in collaboration with government and private sectors and come up with solution). Youth forum will develop the web that will includes most youth in the country and ensure that every one is connected and can access and get information in time and very easily, this can reduce bias in most areas including gender gaps. Team Work. Napoleon Hill, on his book called “Think and Grow rich “on (page 90), he said that, No individual has sufficient experience, education, native ability, and knowledge to ensure the accumulation of a great fortune, without the cooperation of the other people ( he was emphasizing to something called MASTER MIND GROUP). Master mind group to any activities is a key of success of any business or company and not otherwise. In page 74 on the same book he mentioned that, business associations are vital factors in both failure and success. Working in a team is a key factor to adopt now lathers than working individually if you need to be successful (Napoleon, 2016). Also it very simple to support a team than an individual especially for government and other supports NGOs. Home Study. Most of youth in developing country do not have the costumes of learning and studying books as for motivation and inspiration so as to awaken their slept genius (creativity). Ben Carson on his book of Think Big on page 19 he said, “Reading is the way out of ignorance, and the road to achievement, also on page 57 he kept saying that “The mind is not a vessel to be filled but a fire to be ignited”(Ben,2005). It is about having both General and specialized knowledge. While specialization is everything, Napoleon hill on his book of Think and grow rich on page 64 – 67, he said that; A successful men, in all callings, never stop acquiring specialized knowledge related to their major purpose, business, or professions. Those who are not successful usually make the mistake of believing that the knowledge acquired period ends when one finishes schools. The truth is that schooling does but little more than to put one in the way of learning how to acquire practical knowledge. Also, he said why school teachers have no money while have full of knowledge? It is because they specialize on teaching rather than on organizing their knowledge into action plan, this is because knowledge by itself is nothing until put into action plan. So, with this Changed World which began at the end of the economic collapse, came also astounding changes in educational requirement. The order of the day is SPECIALIZATION! (Napoleon, 2016). Most scholars as mention that, the miracle reveal or show up to an individual’s genius especially when have a desire to ―know more” and “act” on his area of specialization, this has been revealed on the Biography’s of most famous people and world Inventors over the world like Nikola Tesla, Thomas Edison, Ben Carson, Albert Einstein, Stave Jobs, Henry Ford and
  • 42. Adrianus Muganga 2021 42 other many successful people worldwide of different careers. This is another gap we have in Africa. Education is now free, everything is available now, and every knowledge is available free online (internet), a single book that cost about TSZ 50,000, can be downloaded online from either PDFDrive.com or other sources for a cost of only 1 Gb or 650 – 800Kb. It cost nothing. In You Tube, there is every kind you may need to know at zero cost. We have other important online applications we have never have, such are LinkedIn and GeniusU, those two contain professional people from over the world, provides connections and multiple wonderful free online training( of zero cost).  Parents. Parents that possessing youth at their home, its better to be aware on the following to help their emerging children to grow positively. Education. Most parents who takes care to their children still confusing the meaning of the word ―EDUCATION‖ and keep pushing their children to the poor system of employment as salary dependent although even when other children to show their own vision to their parents out of school, and do not know why most successful people are less educated and others not even at all. To purchase knowledge is expensive indeed, so it will be helpful if your children can determine which knowledge she need, because purchasing knowledge without organizing and put it into action is useless. WHY LESS and NON SCHOOLING PEOPLE become more successful as well and sometimes even more educated one?. Napoleon Hill on his book of Think and Grow rich on page 65, had shown the real meaning of education after his research of 25 years by looking and interviewing thousands of most successful giant entrepreneurs over the world and found that most were less educated including Mr. Ford the founder of V8, how has still with many companies over the world till now including the 16 President of America ABLAHIM LINKOLIN whose till now believed to be the 1st best president of America. After his research he realized the meaning of the word ―educate‖ as that word is delivered from the Latin word ―educo,‖ meaning to educe, to draw from within, to DEVELOP FROM WITHIN. And finally he said; An educated man is not, necessarily, one who has an abundance of general and specialized knowledge. So, “An educated man is one who has so developed faculties of his Mind that they may acquire anything he wants, or its equivalents, without violating the rights of others” (and Mr. Henry Ford comes well within the meaning of this definition)( Napoleon,2016). Financial support. For those family that have ability financially, if possible it is better to support their children to put their knowledge acquired from school and collage into action.  Educational Institutions:
  • 43. Adrianus Muganga 2021 43 It is advised that for all educational institutions and collages, including Universities over the country, on their curriculum of the final semesters of the all graduates, based on their selected subjects or modules should include the subjects that teaching them the way, HOW TO ORGANIZE AND USE KNOWLEDGE AFTER ACQUIRE IT (Napoleon, 2016). 6.0 Anticipants of this study:  At Youth level. After all youth have been spiritually awakened no one will keep wasting his time on the street or even on social media as they do now, everyone will try to do anything that can help his survival. If the systems and policies are conducive in the country we believe everyone who will try and committed in himself to do anything will grow and become successful, and those who will work as team if are committed in themselves with good management will accumulate more fortune and become giant. Through this new system the problem of gender gap will solved in great way (here both men and women have the same chance of success, it is a matter of effort). Also through this system the bias or classes between youth based on their family capacities will solved, here will work together and depend on each other. In general both youth in the country will be active no matter what everyone is doing and how much everyone is earning but what is important is to do something. Napoleon Hill on his book of Think and Grow rich on page 73, he said that; a person who are at the bottom never manage to lift their heads high enough to be seen by the OPPORTUNITY, so they remain at the bottom, this mean that the more you do the more you see more opportunities(Napoleon, 2016).  At Household Level. At the level of household, poverty will be reduced in a great step. This means that reducing poverty in developing countries it will take long time, but through empowering their children that are emerging can look and remade their family challenges to Zero poverty in the country because if majority of youth in the country will be successful as well as their family will successful.  At National Level. If majority of young men in the country will be active enough the National GDP, will simply go up time to time, the government will have multiple Revenue through multiple taxes from new many emerging entrepreneurs, the country will have ability to compete to the global economy. Any successful and powerful country has many successful entrepreneurs / Practical dreamers that make the country powerful enough. It is time now for our country leaders to look forward on to use youth potentials to built the powerful country lather than forgetting them, their population it seem as a challenge but under good policies and systems can be turned to be an opportunity in the country like China as they are doing. Public Finance.
  • 44. Adrianus Muganga 2021 44 Figure 52.Revenue (Billion TZS) for the Year Ending 30 June, Tanzania Mainland, 2010 – 2018. 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Total Revenue 4,662 5,736 7,221 8,443 10,182 10,958 14,048 16,640 17,945 Non-Tax Revenue (incl.LGA) 234 443 741 713 888 1,066 1,637 2,585 2,753 Total Income from Taxes 4,428 5,293 6,480 7,730 9,294 9,892 12,410 14,055 15,191 Income Tax 1,389 1,720 2,311 3,036 3,792 3,728 4,608 4,833 5,158 Customs and Excise Duty 1,215 1,512 1,539 1,845 2,243 2,495 3,090 3,116 3,314 Sales Tax/VAT 1,488 1,633 2,073 2,375 2,648 3,032 3,554 3,979 4,479 Other Taxes 499 601 732 707 1,124 1,279 1,921 2,216 2,299 Refunds -164 -173 -174 -233 -512 -642 -762 -90 -58 Source: Ministry of Finance and Planning A salaried persons contributes to the government economy while not enough, but Entrepreneurs contribute Millions and Millions to the National Economy through taxes. On the Wealth Dynamic Spectrum of an individual in developing country most of salaried persons are at Red- Survivors and stuck here over their entire life, they use their earnings to enable survivor because are not enough to save sum of it for investments and others are very poor so they are at Infrared - Victim those gets food once a day and enough. But for entrepreneurs who manufacture money expand day to day even to Indigo - Trustee and contribute more enough to their countries. So the country that produce more followers ( salary dependents) with less entrepreneurs it take time to grow and have power. Figure 53.Wealth Dynamic Spectrum ( Rogers, 2015)
  • 45. Adrianus Muganga 2021 45 Source: Millionaire Master Plan (MMP). GeniusU 7.0 Conclusion. Particularly, religious, political, entrepreneurs and medication for human healing both evolve human psychology, from this study, this great world challenge (world incurable disease) of youth unemployment and underemployment problem was termed as ―mental disease” which is associated to an “incurable poverty”. So, if this problem is a psychological problem likewise can be solved by psychological principals to enhance mental healing, a task that specialists on this of psychology can do very well. Mental healing among individuals can work better and successfully if the government can put more efforts on building infrastructure like building better police that providing better and conducing environment for small start – ups entrepreneurs, building better business systems that can enable them to access the global market, provision of better education (practical knowledge) from VOCATIONAL TRAINING/ TECHNICAL CENTRES( VTC), we recommend this training because they produce practical graduates that can do tangible things by themselves than other school levels. The World right now is after practical people and not certificate people of no even ability to try things by themselves. In Tanzania out of all resource we have, we have around 60 million people by now and most are young men, we have 947300 sq.km of land and most are fertile, and we have around 700,000 – 800,000 young men who inter into labor market every year, others are graduates from different collage of different careers and different talents, we have specialists of every kind so why we still importing things that we have every reason to produce them in our country. Generally in our country we have everything of multiple opportunities but we still mentally blind. It is a time now to
  • 46. Adrianus Muganga 2021 46 work up. We have many reasons to be among of donor countries in the world based on the vision of JPM. But we need visionary practical people like JPM and to enable our young men in the country to wake up and see the world. By doing so we can join the World change dynamic development journey based on proposed 17 United Nations Sustainable Development Global Goals ( 17 UN SDGs 2030).Voluntary National Review (VNR) for SDG Implementation. According to National Bureau of Statistics (2019), Tanzania had submitted 2019 VNR Key messages to UN DESA by 17th May, 2019, of which the results indicated that, Tanzania is doing reasonably well in goals 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 16. Goals 7, 9, 11, 12 are likely to be achieved with stepped-up efforts. Goals 1, 13, 14, 15 17 will need significant local efforts and international support to achieve. So, from this study we recommend the government to invest on its young men that latter will supports their originated families. If the government can fortunately manage this, thus after COVID – 19 most countries over the world will suffer to great financial collapse, so when those countries are looking the way their dropt economy, our country will have solution already.
  • 47. Adrianus Muganga 2021 47 Source: National Bureau of Statistics 2019.
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