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Community energy: concepts, analysis, values

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Community energy: concepts, analysis, values

  1. 1. Thinking about community energy: concepts, analysis, values<br />Adrian Smith, SPRU, University of Sussex<br />presentation to UKERC workshop on local energy governance <br />Oxford, 3rd October 2011<br />
  2. 2. Community energy in the UK: diverse and dynamic<br />Wide variety:<br />- energy generation, efficiency, behaviours - technologies<br />- organisation - resource models<br />- geography and social groups - established, planned, aspiring<br />Policy narratives - government favourably disposed over last decade, but linked to different agendas (‘local awareness’ to ‘role in transition’ to ‘Localism’ and ‘Big Society’)<br />Policy support - advice services, grant programmes, competitions, market frameworks & social enterprise (CRI, LCBP/CCF, LCCCP, FIT/Green Deal)<br />Governance networks shifting & developing roles in response to policy and groundswell:<br />initiate community work and/or maintain networks (e.g. CORE, EST)<br /> share experience, good practice, expertise and advice (e.g. CSE) <br />lobby and advocate community energy in the policy context (e.g. LCCN) <br />provide specific products to community initiatives (e.g. revolving funds) <br />create an interface between initiatives and policy-makers/ business actors (e.g. CCAA) <br />create partnerships with community energy initiatives (e.g. LAs)<br />
  3. 3. Definitions<br />Godfrey Boyle (1978) Community Technology:<br />“Community technology likewise implies ... An emphasis on technologies tailored to the needs of, and amenable to control by, ‘the community’, where the community is of a size small enough to enable genuine face-to-face participation in all important decisions, and where the political institutions of the community place power in the hands of the community in general, rather than in the hands of an elite of ‘leaders’.”<br />Kate Hathway,(2010) Community Power Empowers<br />“Community projects involve local groups developing low carbon energy solutions appropriate to local situations and with community groups having ownership over the outcomes. Examples include solar water heating clubs, or insulation clubs, which provide mutual support for system installation; energy awareness and behaviour networks, which provide guidance and reassurance to neighbours on energy matters relevant to them; and co-operatively owned small-scale renewable energy systems such as micro-hydro and wind.” <br />United Nations (1953) <br />Community development is “a movement to promote better living for the whole community, with active participation and if possible on the initiative of the community.”<br />
  4. 4. Community energy as a mode of energy governance<br />Walker and Cass, 2007<br />
  5. 5. Community energy as set of characteristics<br />Steward et al (2009) – 6 characteristics:<br /><ul><li>doing things together
  6. 6. reaching the parts others can’t reach
  7. 7. increased visibility of personal behaviour
  8. 8. acting holistically
  9. 9. local not parochial
  10. 10. developing and demonstrating</li></li></ul><li>Community energy as community development<br />Source: Walker and Devine-Wright (2008)<br />Community development is ‘a movement to promote better living for the whole community [i.e. outcome], with active participation and if possible on the initiative of the community [i.e. process]’<br />(UN, 1953; italics added) <br />
  11. 11. Community energy as a social enterprise<br />Source: Pearce (2003)<br />
  12. 12. Conceptualising community energy and analytical themes<br />Partnerships:<br /><ul><li>Local authorities
  13. 13. Business
  14. 14. Advice, support & advocacy</li></ul>Social movement:<br /><ul><li>Identities and meanings
  15. 15. Resource mobilisation
  16. 16. Opportunity structures and influence</li></ul>Participation:<br /><ul><li>Inclusion
  17. 17. Exclusion
  18. 18. Representation
  19. 19. Power relations</li></ul>Policy goal:<br /><ul><li>Drivers and barriers
  20. 20. General policies
  21. 21. Specific CE policies</li></ul>Capabilities:<br /><ul><li>Individual & group
  22. 22. Cohesion & trust</li></ul>Energy initiatives:<br /><ul><li>Organisation & ownership
  23. 23. Resources & returns
  24. 24. Forms of energy service</li></ul>Development issue?<br />Energy issue?<br />Innovative space:<br /><ul><li>Adaptable forms of energy service
  25. 25. Diffusion of elements
  26. 26. System effects</li></ul>Social enterprise:<br /><ul><li>Business models
  27. 27. Entrepreneurship
  28. 28. Leadership</li></ul>Aspirations and values:<br /><ul><li>Asset/means to other goals
  29. 29. Local resilience / community
  30. 30. Alternative energy</li></ul>Performance:<br /><ul><li>Generation
  31. 31. Reduction
  32. 32. Awareness
  33. 33. Distribution</li></ul>Normative claims:<br /><ul><li>Collective rewards
  34. 34. Reach & depth
  35. 35. Power of demonstration
  36. 36. Legitimacy</li></ul>Localities and scales:<br /><ul><li>Geography of CE
  37. 37. Distribution of consequences
  38. 38. Communities of interest</li></ul>Measurement:<br /><ul><li>Metrics
  39. 39. Definitions
  40. 40. Monitoring processes
  41. 41. Performativity of research</li></li></ul><li>Conceptualising community energy and analytical themes<br />Partnerships:<br /><ul><li>Local authorities
  42. 42. Business
  43. 43. Advice, support & advocacy</li></ul>Social movement:<br /><ul><li>Identities and imaginaries
  44. 44. Resource mobilisation
  45. 45. Opportunity structures and influence</li></ul>Participation:<br /><ul><li>Inclusion
  46. 46. Exclusion
  47. 47. Representation
  48. 48. Power relations</li></ul>Policy goal:<br /><ul><li>Drivers and barriers
  49. 49. General policies
  50. 50. Specific CE policies</li></ul>Capabilities:<br /><ul><li>Individual & group
  51. 51. Cohesion & trust</li></ul>Energy initiatives:<br /><ul><li>Organisation & ownership
  52. 52. Resources & returns
  53. 53. Forms of energy service</li></ul>Development issue?<br />Energy issue?<br />Innovative space:<br /><ul><li>Adaptable forms of energy service
  54. 54. Diffusion of elements
  55. 55. System effects</li></ul>Social enterprise:<br /><ul><li>Business models
  56. 56. Entrepreneurship
  57. 57. Leadership</li></ul>Aspirations and values:<br /><ul><li>Asset/means to other goals
  58. 58. Local resilience / community
  59. 59. Alternative energy</li></ul>Performance:<br /><ul><li>Generation
  60. 60. Reduction
  61. 61. Awareness
  62. 62. Distribution</li></ul>Normative claims:<br /><ul><li>Collective rewards
  63. 63. Reach & depth
  64. 64. Power of demonstration
  65. 65. Legitimacy</li></ul>Localities and scales:<br /><ul><li>Geography of CE
  66. 66. Distribution of consequences
  67. 67. Communities of interest</li></ul>Measurement:<br /><ul><li>Metrics
  68. 68. Definitions
  69. 69. Monitoring processes
  70. 70. Performativity of research</li></li></ul><li>Theoretical approaches<br />Practice theory<br />Partnerships:<br /><ul><li>Local authorities
  71. 71. Business
  72. 72. Advice, support & advocacy</li></ul>Social movement:<br /><ul><li>Identities and imaginaries
  73. 73. Resource mobilisation
  74. 74. Opportunity structures and influence</li></ul>Participation:<br /><ul><li>Inclusion
  75. 75. Exclusion
  76. 76. Representation
  77. 77. Power relations</li></ul>Policy goal:<br /><ul><li>Drivers and barriers
  78. 78. General policies
  79. 79. Specific CE policies</li></ul>Capabilities:<br /><ul><li>Individual & group
  80. 80. Cohesion & trust</li></ul>Energy initiatives:<br /><ul><li>Organisation & ownership
  81. 81. Resources & returns
  82. 82. Forms of energy service</li></ul>Development issue?<br />Energy issue?<br />Innovative space:<br /><ul><li>Adaptable forms of energy service
  83. 83. Diffusion of elements
  84. 84. System effects</li></ul>Aspirations and values:<br /><ul><li>Asset/means to other goals
  85. 85. Local resilience / community
  86. 86. Alternative energy</li></ul>Performance:<br /><ul><li>Generation
  87. 87. Reduction
  88. 88. Awareness
  89. 89. Practices</li></ul>Normative claims:<br /><ul><li>Collective rewards
  90. 90. Reach & depth
  91. 91. Power of demonstration
  92. 92. Legitimacy</li></ul>Localities and scales:<br /><ul><li>Geography of CE
  93. 93. Distribution of consequences
  94. 94. Communities of interest</li></ul>Measurement:<br /><ul><li>Metrics
  95. 95. Definitions
  96. 96. Monitoring processes
  97. 97. Performativity of research</li></li></ul><li>Theoretical approaches<br />Theories of energy systems<br />Partnerships:<br /><ul><li>Local authorities
  98. 98. Business
  99. 99. Advice, support & advocacy</li></ul>Social movement:<br /><ul><li>Identities and imaginaries
  100. 100. Resource mobilisation
  101. 101. Opportunity structures and influence</li></ul>Participation:<br /><ul><li>Inclusion
  102. 102. Exclusion
  103. 103. Representation
  104. 104. Power relations</li></ul>Policy goal:<br /><ul><li>Drivers and barriers
  105. 105. General policies
  106. 106. Specific CE policies</li></ul>Capabilities:<br /><ul><li>Individual & group
  107. 107. Cohesion & trust</li></ul>Energy initiatives:<br /><ul><li>Organisation & ownership
  108. 108. Resources & returns
  109. 109. Forms of energy service</li></ul>Development issue?<br />Energy issue?<br />Innovative space:<br /><ul><li>Adaptable forms of energy service
  110. 110. Diffusion of elements
  111. 111. System effects</li></ul>Aspirations and values:<br /><ul><li>Asset/means to other goals
  112. 112. Local resilience / community
  113. 113. Alternative energy</li></ul>Performance:<br /><ul><li>Generation
  114. 114. Reduction
  115. 115. Awareness
  116. 116. Distribution</li></ul>Normative claims:<br /><ul><li>Collective rewards
  117. 117. Reach & depth
  118. 118. Power of demonstration
  119. 119. Legitimacy</li></ul>Localities and scales:<br /><ul><li>Geography of CE
  120. 120. Distribution of consequences
  121. 121. Communities of interest</li></ul>Measurement:<br /><ul><li>Metrics
  122. 122. Definitions
  123. 123. Monitoring processes
  124. 124. Performativity of research</li></li></ul><li>Theoretical approaches<br />Theories of social justice<br />Partnerships:<br /><ul><li>Local authorities
  125. 125. Business
  126. 126. Advice, support & advocacy</li></ul>Social movement:<br /><ul><li>Identities and imaginaries
  127. 127. Resource mobilisation
  128. 128. Opportunity structures and influence</li></ul>Participation:<br /><ul><li>Inclusion
  129. 129. Exclusion
  130. 130. Representation
  131. 131. Power relations</li></ul>Policy goal:<br /><ul><li>Drivers and barriers
  132. 132. General policies
  133. 133. Specific CE policies</li></ul>Capabilities:<br /><ul><li>Individual & group
  134. 134. Cohesion & trust</li></ul>Energy initiatives:<br /><ul><li>Organisation & ownership
  135. 135. Resources & returns
  136. 136. Forms of energy service</li></ul>Development issue?<br />Energy issue?<br />Innovative space:<br /><ul><li>Adaptable forms of energy service
  137. 137. Diffusion of elements
  138. 138. System effects</li></ul>Aspirations and values:<br /><ul><li>Asset/means to other goals
  139. 139. Local resilience / community
  140. 140. Alternative energy</li></ul>Performance:<br /><ul><li>Generation
  141. 141. Reduction
  142. 142. Awareness
  143. 143. Distribution</li></ul>Normative claims:<br /><ul><li>Collective rewards
  144. 144. Reach & depth
  145. 145. Power of demonstration
  146. 146. Legitimacy</li></ul>Localities and scales:<br /><ul><li>Geography of CE
  147. 147. Distribution of consequences
  148. 148. Communities of interest</li></ul>Measurement:<br /><ul><li>Metrics
  149. 149. Definitions
  150. 150. Monitoring processes
  151. 151. Performativity of research</li></li></ul><li>Theoretical approaches<br />Socio-technical transitions theory<br />Partnerships:<br /><ul><li>Local authorities
  152. 152. Business
  153. 153. Advice, support & advocacy</li></ul>Social movement:<br /><ul><li>Identities and imaginaries
  154. 154. Resource mobilisation
  155. 155. Opportunity structures and influence</li></ul>Participation:<br /><ul><li>Inclusion
  156. 156. Exclusion
  157. 157. Representation
  158. 158. Power relations</li></ul>Policy goal:<br /><ul><li>Drivers and barriers
  159. 159. General policies
  160. 160. Specific CE policies</li></ul>Capabilities:<br /><ul><li>Individual & group
  161. 161. Cohesion & trust</li></ul>Energy initiatives:<br /><ul><li>Organisation & ownership
  162. 162. Resources & returns
  163. 163. Forms of energy service</li></ul>Development issue?<br />Energy issue?<br />Innovative space:<br /><ul><li>Adaptable forms of energy service
  164. 164. Diffusion of elements
  165. 165. System effects</li></ul>Incumbent energy systems:<br /><ul><li>Utility strategies
  166. 166. Political economy of energy
  167. 167. Consumers</li></ul>Aspirations and values:<br /><ul><li>Asset/means to other goals
  168. 168. Local resilience / community
  169. 169. Alternative energy</li></ul>Performance:<br /><ul><li>Generation
  170. 170. Reduction
  171. 171. Awareness
  172. 172. Distribution</li></ul>Normative claims:<br /><ul><li>Collective rewards
  173. 173. Reach & depth
  174. 174. Power of demonstration
  175. 175. Legitimacy</li></ul>Localities and scales:<br /><ul><li>Geography of CE
  176. 176. Distribution of consequences
  177. 177. Communities of interest</li></ul>Measurement:<br /><ul><li>Metrics
  178. 178. Definitions
  179. 179. Monitoring processes
  180. 180. Performativity of research</li></li></ul><li>Values and knowledge<br />
  181. 181. Summarising<br />Community energy reminds us in quite stark ways how energy governance involves issues of social development<br />A plurality of research approaches helps to reflect a dynamic and plural reality <br />Comparing research in enriching ways requires us to be clear about our respective starting points, perspectives and purposes<br />The kinds of knowledge we help develop, either in ‘linear’ or ‘co-produced’ modes, will be interpreted, emphasised, and remembered through the values and framings in play<br />Plural research that emphasises the different energy and development issues is therefore important for policy too – keeping open an awareness of the different possibilities and countering restricting top-down tendencies<br />Community Innovation in Sustainable Energy<br />www.grassrootsinnovations.org<br />

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