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Accounting forEnergy-Reliant Serviceswithin Everyday Life at HomeOliver Bates,Adrian K. Clear,Adrian Friday,Mike Hazas, an...
Introduction• rel work: home energy sensing/feedback• a “services” approach• our study and findings• advantages of the appr...
Vignette 1Enter A very warm Adrian Clear, fanning himself.Adrian complains about the difficulties he has with keepingcool. ...
indoor climate• differing expectations of what iscomfortable, or normal• negotiating with others that do not engagewith kn...
Vignette 2Enter Adrian Friday (to the MiB theme tune),wearing a black suit and carrying a waterpistol and an ironAdrian ha...
keeping up appearancesin a busy life• social expectations dictate things like howwe need to look or smell, which has bigim...
Vignette 3Enter Oliver Bates with a Powerbook 170, introduced asan energy monitoring enthusiast by Mike.Oliver has spent t...
resource managers?• negotiable: feedback can expose thingsalready seen as wasteful• ...resulting changes tend to result in...
Vignette 4Enter Janine, holding a candle.Janine has turned the lights out, and is using 12.6 lumensof candle power instead...
energy competitor• resources and impacts are not as narrowlydefined as the feedback system implies(Brynjarsdóttir et al. 20...
Resource-centrism• Our examples start with an awareness ofresources, then run into problems.• If not resource-centrism, th...
How doesconsumption comeabout?"[R]elevant patterns of consumptionfollow from efforts to provide and sustainwhat people tak...
What is "service"?• e.g. lighting, heating, food preparation• services also support work and play athome• Thus, resources ...
Participants and methods• Four on-campus flats, 7-8 students each• High-average and low-average, historically (variation)• ...
See paper
Lighting• 16-29% of the energy in each flat• bedrooms are comparable (~10 kWh)• but communal areas more varied (46-85 kWh)•...
• Communal lights often left on• But, corridor switchoffs in “Green”• Navigation• Meanings around comfort and security?
Entertainment and IT• Big variation: 3.5% to 34% of the energy• room inventories• most had laptops; three PCs• 9/12 male p...
Computing• discrete periods of use, vs. consistently on• laptops vs. other: order of magnitude less• Blue: two server PCs;...
IT: one service to rulethem all?• multi-purpose: looking up lecture notes,doing coursework, listening to music,reading the...
Systems of devices• multiple devices clustered together• e.g.“computer” a bunch of devices served bytwo sockets• supportin...
Entertainment• socialising: casual and planned groupactivites• access to digital media infrastructures• boredom and filling...
Advantages of a service-oriented approach1. exposes service-reliance across areas ofpractice2. identifies systems of device...
Summary• the “services” approach is really aboutdesigning sustainability research to take thebroader view that it needs• f...
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Accounting for Energy-reliant Services within Everyday Life at Home, Pervasive 2012, Newcastle

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Presented at Pervasive 2012 in Newcastle, UK.

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Accounting for Energy-reliant Services within Everyday Life at Home, Pervasive 2012, Newcastle

  1. 1. Accounting forEnergy-Reliant Serviceswithin Everyday Life at HomeOliver Bates,Adrian K. Clear,Adrian Friday,Mike Hazas, and Janine MorleyLancaster University
  2. 2. Introduction• rel work: home energy sensing/feedback• a “services” approach• our study and findings• advantages of the approach
  3. 3. Vignette 1Enter A very warm Adrian Clear, fanning himself.Adrian complains about the difficulties he has with keepingcool. He’s been told he can save on heating bills by turningthe heating down by a few degrees. But, this conflicts withhis housemate’s preferences, and with the heatinginstaller’s advice to just leave the heating system to takecare of itself.Exit Adrian, to find a refreshing drink or take a cold shower
  4. 4. indoor climate• differing expectations of what iscomfortable, or normal• negotiating with others that do not engagewith knowledges of resources• specific meanings associated with keeping acosy house (Gram-Hanssen 2010)• the role of competencies and expertise
  5. 5. Vignette 2Enter Adrian Friday (to the MiB theme tune),wearing a black suit and carrying a waterpistol and an ironAdrian has finished killing aliens for the day, but is waitingfor his laundry to tumble-dry. He knows that tumble-dryingis energy-intensive, but he must do so frequently becausehe’s too busy to line-dry, and his workplace has a strictdress code and hygiene expectations.Exit Adrian, to get back to his laundry
  6. 6. keeping up appearancesin a busy life• social expectations dictate things like howwe need to look or smell, which has bigimplications for daily practice (Shove 2003)• powerful institutions (like employment)• contribute to these expectations,• tend to organise time in certain ways,• ... making other ways of doing thingsmore difficult
  7. 7. Vignette 3Enter Oliver Bates with a Powerbook 170, introduced asan energy monitoring enthusiast by Mike.Oliver has spent the last 21 years calibrating a complexenergy monitoring system so he can calculate exactly howmuch energy each device he owns uses. However, Oliver’senergy bill still hasn’t reduced much, partly because of hisguilty pleasure: he is a serial TV watcher and can only getto sleep while [a boring crime show] plays in thebackground.Exit A tired Oliver to go and watch some TV
  8. 8. resource managers?• negotiable: feedback can expose thingsalready seen as wasteful• ...resulting changes tend to result insavings of about 10% (Darby 2006)• non-negotiable: external factors dictate thepossible range of actions, and which ofthem are affordable/rewarding/valued(Strengers 2011)
  9. 9. Vignette 4Enter Janine, holding a candle.Janine has turned the lights out, and is using 12.6 lumensof candle power instead. She’s taking part in an energysaving competition and has been in 2nd place for 3 weeks.She’s just 0.5 kWh behind the leaders and has worked outthat if she uses candles 3 nights a week she can win thecompetition. She hasn’t considered the environmentalimpact of candles, but is sure they can help her win.Exit Janine to check the competition web portal to seehow she’s doing
  10. 10. energy competitor• resources and impacts are not as narrowlydefined as the feedback system implies(Brynjarsdóttir et al. 2012)• Sustainability is complicated!
  11. 11. Resource-centrism• Our examples start with an awareness ofresources, then run into problems.• If not resource-centrism, then what?
  12. 12. How doesconsumption comeabout?"[R]elevant patterns of consumptionfollow from efforts to provide and sustainwhat people take to be normal serviceslike those of comfort and cleanliness"Elizabeth Shove, Comfort, Cleanliness and Convenience, p. 198
  13. 13. What is "service"?• e.g. lighting, heating, food preparation• services also support work and play athome• Thus, resources (energies) are just part ofthe picture.
  14. 14. Participants and methods• Four on-campus flats, 7-8 students each• High-average and low-average, historically (variation)• Twenty days (March 2011)• Kitchen, corridor, two showers• 22 private rooms monitored (out of 31)• Sensing: per-socket mains electricity, binarymotion & light; camera over cooker/stove• Experience sampling and 11 follow-up interviews
  15. 15. See paper
  16. 16. Lighting• 16-29% of the energy in each flat• bedrooms are comparable (~10 kWh)• but communal areas more varied (46-85 kWh)• A mix of conventions, expectations, meaningsand actions around the lighting in the flats
  17. 17. • Communal lights often left on• But, corridor switchoffs in “Green”• Navigation• Meanings around comfort and security?
  18. 18. Entertainment and IT• Big variation: 3.5% to 34% of the energy• room inventories• most had laptops; three PCs• 9/12 male participants had extra audio,video, or gaming devices• A room’s energy attribution correspondedroughly to its inventory.
  19. 19. Computing• discrete periods of use, vs. consistently on• laptops vs. other: order of magnitude less• Blue: two server PCs; four with AV/gaming• differing conventions for powermanagement (Chetty, Brush et al. 2009)
  20. 20. IT: one service to rulethem all?• multi-purpose: looking up lecture notes,doing coursework, listening to music,reading the news, keeping in touch withfriends• significant overlap of these activities• challenges in attributing which practices aservice supports
  21. 21. Systems of devices• multiple devices clustered together• e.g.“computer” a bunch of devices served bytwo sockets• supporting a service like gaming or watchingTV• often makes sense to bundle the energy ofthese devices, and attribute to a singleservice, like entertainment
  22. 22. Entertainment• socialising: casual and planned groupactivites• access to digital media infrastructures• boredom and filling time has resourceimplications
  23. 23. Advantages of a service-oriented approach1. exposes service-reliance across areas ofpractice2. identifies systems of devices and constellationsof services3. resource measurements can be actioned moreeffectively, taken in context4. facilitates higher-level reconsideration of howservice might be reconfigured for sustainability
  24. 24. Summary• the “services” approach is really aboutdesigning sustainability research to take thebroader view that it needs• far-reaching implications; scalability• because of the nature of variation, formativestudies are always needed• develop qualitative/quantitativeunderstandings, and in designing interventions

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