and Social Relationships
Dhannize Mae Pili Mr. Ivan I. Liwanag
Rey Phe Jay Ramirez
- the process by which people act and react
in relation to others.
The Nature of Social Interaction
Sociologists are particularly interested in studying
how people interrelate or interact with each other
and how these social relationships are patterned
and regulated. This takes place within groups,
social institutions, and social structures which give
form, direction, and meaning to individual
concerned. It involves reciprocal contact carried
out though spoken or written language.
Role of Language
Social interaction occurs through communication,
which is mediated by symbols possessed by an
individual in common with others. The most
important form of such symbol is language. It may
be spoken or written, and makes social
organization possible. Although interaction may
occur through gestures or physical movements
which express an idea or an emotion. T he greater
part of interaction occurs through verbalized
- collective opinion; general agreement
Important in achieving consensus is sharing
certain perspectives. There can be no
consensus without communication. Each
member has to take into account the
others, evaluate the tactics and strategies to
be followed, and take into consideration
their aims and commitments.
Various types of social relationships are :
And other types of social relationships
which are derived from these basic types
Competition is a form of opposition or struggle to
secure a reward or a goal such as a prize, material
object, position, leadership, prestige, or power. The
focus is chiefly on the reward rather than on the
competitor. Because competition involves a
struggle, it makes for order. Competition occurs
between two individuals or groups when the
satisfaction of the needs or desires of one or
opposed to that of the other.
The scarcity of the object or the limited quantity of a
good service is the crucial factor. The emergence and
decline of competition is a function of the appearance
or disappearance of scarcity.
The aim of competition is to excel and surpass the
opponent in order to achieve the goal. The competing
individuals or groups try to achieve their ends through
appeals or gimmicks to sway the judgment to their
favour. In some cases, competitors adopt whatever
means to find outdo the opponents are doing in an
attempt to outdo them. The competition is carried on
by peaceful means and is guided by a common set of
regulations and values.
Competition may be personal or
Personal competition involves direct,
Impersonal competition involves a
struggle between persons or groups not
directly aware of each other.
When rules of competition are broken and the
opponents become openly antagonistic, conflict may
develop. Business establishments may start as
competitors but when malicious gossips, cut-throat
techniques, and black propaganda are used, conflict may
ensue. However, there are instances when the struggle
starts as conflict from the beginning of the interactive
Conflict is not always characterized by physical violence.
Instances of non-violent conflict is contemporary society are
cold wars and psychological warfare with its propaganda
battles, espionage, economic struggle between industrial
giants and super powers, and intergroup relations marked
by hostility and ethnocentrism.
The most and intense form of conflict is
war. Combatants within society or
between different societies organize force
with a view of winning the struggle. War
wreaks havoc to life and property and
disrupts and disorganizes the existing
Functions of conflict
While conflict can be destructive and wreak havoc
on the society or dissociate parties concerned, it
also performs certain functions for society which
• Conflict may help establish unity and cohesion
within a group which has been threatened by
hostile and antagonistic feelings among members.
Conflict with outsiders may be deliberately
instigated by leaders of a society to develop unity
and hasten the formation of power within the
Internal conflict becomes a stabilizing and
integrating mechanism in certain
instances. The sources of discord are
eliminated by threshing out differences
and clarifying issues and goals.
Conflict provides an outlet for the
expression of suppressed emotions and
frustrations. Inhibitions and passion are
released during the course of the conflict.
Cooperation may be defined as “a more specific
aspect of human intercourse, one having to do
with mutual aid or an alliance of persons or
groups seeking some common goal or reward – in
short, some kind of conjoint rather than opposing
action”. Resources, talents, and efforts are pooled
together and a number of persons, groups, or
societies work together to achieve some common
goals. Like competition and conflict, it is a
reciprocal relation and is affected by the norms
and values of society. Some members may work
harder than the others, depending on the role
relationships within groups.
• the action of working or acting together
for a common purpose or benefit.
Types of Cooperation
Informal cooperation - characterized as
spontaneous and involves mutual give and
Formal cooperation – a deliberate
contractual nature prescribing the
reciprocal rights and obligations of
A cooperative is an
individuals who get
together and run a
business for the
purpose of improving
their social status. It
is managed by all its
Symbiotic cooperation – a situation where two or
more members of society live together
harmoniously and are supportive and
interdependent, resulting in mutual self-interest.
Functions of Cooperation
1. It makes for social cohesion and integration
among the members of a group. In this way, they
can achieve unity to enable them to harmonize
2. It contributes to social stability and order.
With the coordination and marshalling of
their resources, talents and efforts, the
members can readily achieve their goals.
3. It fosters consensus and compromise in various social
issues. This is especially evident with groups of diverse
backgrounds who can join forces and maximize harmony
interests and common benefits. Political parties can join
forces to win an election, or nations can form alliances to
win a war or attain peace in the world.
the creation of interests resulting
in individuals or groups needing or
wanting different things or services
rather than the same thing.
An Engineer and an Architect will not
compete with each other. Rather, they
can work cooperatively in a construction
Mack and Pease use accommodation in
two senses :
As a condition – refers to ‘’the fact of equilibrium
between individuals and groups and the rules of
the game which have to be followed.’’
As a process – it refers to ‘’ the conscious efforts
of men to develop such working arrangements
among themselves as will suspend conflict and
make their relations more tolerable and wasteful
Types of Accomodation
1. Domination is characteristic of the superordinate-
subordinate type of relationship where the stronger party
imposes its will and makes the other yield. In the family, a
dominant husband may subdue his wife in order to
minimize the conflict.
2. A truce is an agreement to cease hostilities or fighting
for a certain period of time. In the meantime, both parties
talk to arrive at a peaceful solution to the problem which
will be satisfactory to both. If no agreement is realized,
fighting is resumed.
3. Compromise refers to the giving up by both
parties of some of their demands and the mutual
giving of concessions. Husband and wife may
compromise after their bitter quarrels by sitting
down and discussing how they can resolve their
4. When a conflicting parties cannot resolve their
disputes because of no willingness to see the
point of view of the other side, conciliation and
mediation may be restored to.
5. Arbitration is a special method of settling disputes
through the efforts of a third party who may be chosen
by the contending parties or appointed by some large
agency of power.
6. Toleration is a form of accommodation without
formal agreement. It is a result of the ‘’live and let
live’’ policy or the agreement to disagree.
Individuals or groups put up with others without
trying to modify the patterns of the others. They
maintain their identity and yet interact with each
Reciprocity or Utang na Loob
It is a principle where every service received,
solicited or not, demands a return, the
nature and proportion of the return
determined by the relative status of the
parties involved and the kind of exchange at
Utang na Loob – means ‘’internal’’ or debt of
gratitude. It is an obligation to repay a
person from whom one has received a favor.
Inability to pay results in hiya (shame).
Even children are supposed to have utang na
loob to their parents for giving them life,
education or guidance. They can repay their
parents by taking care them in old age.
- is a process in which members of one cultural group
adopt the beliefs and behaviours of another group.
- When one group blends in and takes on the
characteristics of another culture.
- implies the acceptance by a person or group
of the cultural traits attitudes, and sentiments
When contacts between persons or
groups are direct, continuous, and friendly,
differences are decreased and assimilation may
This may be observed between husband and wife,
parent and child, teacher and student who, after
constant exposure to each other, begin to think and
feel like even though one may be more affected than
- intermarriage of persons coming from different