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Chapter 9


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Chapter 9

  1. 1. Chapter 9 Social Interaction and Social Relationships Group Members: Nimia Layug Dhannize Mae Pili Mr. Ivan I. Liwanag Rey Phe Jay Ramirez Ruelmar Madeja
  2. 2. Social Interaction - the process by which people act and react in relation to others.
  3. 3. The Nature of Social Interaction Sociologists are particularly interested in studying how people interrelate or interact with each other and how these social relationships are patterned and regulated. This takes place within groups, social institutions, and social structures which give form, direction, and meaning to individual concerned. It involves reciprocal contact carried out though spoken or written language.
  4. 4. Role of Language Social interaction occurs through communication, which is mediated by symbols possessed by an individual in common with others. The most important form of such symbol is language. It may be spoken or written, and makes social organization possible. Although interaction may occur through gestures or physical movements which express an idea or an emotion. T he greater part of interaction occurs through verbalized symbols.
  5. 5. Consensus - collective opinion; general agreement Important in achieving consensus is sharing certain perspectives. There can be no consensus without communication. Each member has to take into account the others, evaluate the tactics and strategies to be followed, and take into consideration their aims and commitments.
  6. 6. Various types of social relationships are :  Conflict.  Competition  Differentiation  Cooperation  And other types of social relationships which are derived from these basic types
  7. 7. Competetion Competition is a form of opposition or struggle to secure a reward or a goal such as a prize, material object, position, leadership, prestige, or power. The focus is chiefly on the reward rather than on the competitor. Because competition involves a struggle, it makes for order. Competition occurs between two individuals or groups when the satisfaction of the needs or desires of one or opposed to that of the other.
  8. 8. The scarcity of the object or the limited quantity of a good service is the crucial factor. The emergence and decline of competition is a function of the appearance or disappearance of scarcity. The aim of competition is to excel and surpass the opponent in order to achieve the goal. The competing individuals or groups try to achieve their ends through appeals or gimmicks to sway the judgment to their favour. In some cases, competitors adopt whatever means to find outdo the opponents are doing in an attempt to outdo them. The competition is carried on by peaceful means and is guided by a common set of regulations and values.
  9. 9. Competition may be personal or impersonal. Personal competition involves direct, face-to-face contact. Impersonal competition involves a struggle between persons or groups not directly aware of each other.
  10. 10. Conflict When rules of competition are broken and the opponents become openly antagonistic, conflict may develop. Business establishments may start as competitors but when malicious gossips, cut-throat techniques, and black propaganda are used, conflict may ensue. However, there are instances when the struggle starts as conflict from the beginning of the interactive process. Conflict is not always characterized by physical violence. Instances of non-violent conflict is contemporary society are cold wars and psychological warfare with its propaganda battles, espionage, economic struggle between industrial giants and super powers, and intergroup relations marked by hostility and ethnocentrism.
  11. 11. War The most and intense form of conflict is war. Combatants within society or between different societies organize force with a view of winning the struggle. War wreaks havoc to life and property and disrupts and disorganizes the existing social order.
  12. 12. Functions of conflict While conflict can be destructive and wreak havoc on the society or dissociate parties concerned, it also performs certain functions for society which are: • Conflict may help establish unity and cohesion within a group which has been threatened by hostile and antagonistic feelings among members. Conflict with outsiders may be deliberately instigated by leaders of a society to develop unity and hasten the formation of power within the society.
  13. 13. Internal conflict becomes a stabilizing and integrating mechanism in certain instances. The sources of discord are eliminated by threshing out differences and clarifying issues and goals. Conflict provides an outlet for the expression of suppressed emotions and frustrations. Inhibitions and passion are released during the course of the conflict.
  14. 14. Cooperation Cooperation may be defined as “a more specific aspect of human intercourse, one having to do with mutual aid or an alliance of persons or groups seeking some common goal or reward – in short, some kind of conjoint rather than opposing action”. Resources, talents, and efforts are pooled together and a number of persons, groups, or societies work together to achieve some common goals. Like competition and conflict, it is a reciprocal relation and is affected by the norms and values of society. Some members may work harder than the others, depending on the role relationships within groups.
  15. 15. COOPERATION • the action of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit.
  16. 16. Bayanihan
  17. 17. Types of Cooperation Informal cooperation - characterized as spontaneous and involves mutual give and take.
  18. 18. Formal cooperation – a deliberate contractual nature prescribing the reciprocal rights and obligations of members. A cooperative is an organization of individuals who get together and run a business for the purpose of improving their social status. It is managed by all its members.
  19. 19. Symbiotic cooperation – a situation where two or more members of society live together harmoniously and are supportive and interdependent, resulting in mutual self-interest.
  20. 20. Functions of Cooperation 1. It makes for social cohesion and integration among the members of a group. In this way, they can achieve unity to enable them to harmonize their activities.
  21. 21. 2. It contributes to social stability and order. With the coordination and marshalling of their resources, talents and efforts, the members can readily achieve their goals.
  22. 22. 3. It fosters consensus and compromise in various social issues. This is especially evident with groups of diverse backgrounds who can join forces and maximize harmony interests and common benefits. Political parties can join forces to win an election, or nations can form alliances to win a war or attain peace in the world.
  23. 23. Differentiation the creation of interests resulting in individuals or groups needing or wanting different things or services rather than the same thing.
  24. 24.  An Engineer and an Architect will not compete with each other. Rather, they can work cooperatively in a construction project.
  25. 25. Accomodation Mack and Pease use accommodation in two senses :  As a condition – refers to ‘’the fact of equilibrium between individuals and groups and the rules of the game which have to be followed.’’  As a process – it refers to ‘’ the conscious efforts of men to develop such working arrangements among themselves as will suspend conflict and make their relations more tolerable and wasteful of energy.
  26. 26. Types of Accomodation 1. Domination is characteristic of the superordinate- subordinate type of relationship where the stronger party imposes its will and makes the other yield. In the family, a dominant husband may subdue his wife in order to minimize the conflict. 2. A truce is an agreement to cease hostilities or fighting for a certain period of time. In the meantime, both parties talk to arrive at a peaceful solution to the problem which will be satisfactory to both. If no agreement is realized, fighting is resumed.
  27. 27. 3. Compromise refers to the giving up by both parties of some of their demands and the mutual giving of concessions. Husband and wife may compromise after their bitter quarrels by sitting down and discussing how they can resolve their conflict. 4. When a conflicting parties cannot resolve their disputes because of no willingness to see the point of view of the other side, conciliation and mediation may be restored to.
  28. 28. 5. Arbitration is a special method of settling disputes through the efforts of a third party who may be chosen by the contending parties or appointed by some large agency of power. 6. Toleration is a form of accommodation without formal agreement. It is a result of the ‘’live and let live’’ policy or the agreement to disagree. Individuals or groups put up with others without trying to modify the patterns of the others. They maintain their identity and yet interact with each other peacefully.
  29. 29. Reciprocity or Utang na Loob It is a principle where every service received, solicited or not, demands a return, the nature and proportion of the return determined by the relative status of the parties involved and the kind of exchange at issue. Utang na Loob – means ‘’internal’’ or debt of gratitude. It is an obligation to repay a person from whom one has received a favor. Inability to pay results in hiya (shame).
  30. 30. Even children are supposed to have utang na loob to their parents for giving them life, education or guidance. They can repay their parents by taking care them in old age.
  31. 31. Acculturation - is a process in which members of one cultural group adopt the beliefs and behaviours of another group. - When one group blends in and takes on the characteristics of another culture.
  32. 32. Assimilation - implies the acceptance by a person or group of the cultural traits attitudes, and sentiments of another. When contacts between persons or groups are direct, continuous, and friendly, differences are decreased and assimilation may follow.
  33. 33. This may be observed between husband and wife, parent and child, teacher and student who, after constant exposure to each other, begin to think and feel like even though one may be more affected than the other.
  34. 34. Amalgamation - intermarriage of persons coming from different ethnic groups.