Gradation

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English Phonetics and Phonology I

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Gradation

  1. 1. ENGLISH PHONETICS and PHONOLOGY I IFDyT 9-001 Gral. José de San Martín Professor: Gonzalez, Adriana
  2. 2. GRADATION
  3. 3. WHAT IS GRADATION? It is a process in which the strong and weak form of CERTAIN WORDS is used, according to CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES or CONTEXTS.
  4. 4. ɒ Where are you from? ə I’m from London.
  5. 5. ə Are they from Italy? ɑː Yes, they are.
  6. 6. As we can see, some words have two pronunciations... a WEAK form and a STRONG form • from / frəm / • are / ə / from / frɒm / are / ɑː /
  7. 7. the WEAK FORM is the USUAL pronunciation
  8. 8. Which words DO NOT undergo the process of GRADATION?
  9. 9. * NOUNS; * VERBS; * ADJECTIVES; * ADVERBS
  10. 10. Which words have WEAK and STRONG FORMS?
  11. 11. * PREPOSITIONS; * VERB TO BE; * THERE BE; * AUXILIARY VERBS; * MODAL VERBS; * PRONOUNS; * POSSESSIVE * ADJECTIVES; * POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS; * CONJUCTIONS; * ARTICLES;
  12. 12. ARTICLES WEAK FORM STRONG FORM the /Də/ OR /DI/ /Di:/ a /ə/ /eI/ an /ən/ /æn/
  13. 13. CONJUCTIONS WEAK FORM STRONG FORM /ənd/ OR /n/ /n/ OR OR /n/ /nd/ but /bət/ /bt/ or /ə/ /:/ and
  14. 14. DETERMINER WEAK FORM STRONG FORM some /səm/ OR /sm/ /sm/ that /Dət/ /Dæt/ who /h/ /h:/ there /D/ /De/ than /Dn/ OR /Dn/ PRONOUN
  15. 15. PREPOSITIONS WEAK FORM STRONG FORM from /frəm/ OR /frm/ /frɒm/ to /tə/ OR /t/ /tuː/ at /ət/ /æt/ in /ɪn/ /ɪn/ on /ɒn/ /ɒn/ of /v/ OR /f/ /ɒv/ OR /ɒf/
  16. 16. AUX. VERBS WEAK FORM STRONG FORM am /əm/ OR /m/ /æm/ are /ə/ /ɑː/ have /həv/ OR /əv/ /hæv/ had /həd/ OR /əd/ /hæd/ does /dəz/ /dʌz/ do /də/ OR /d/ /du:/
  17. 17. MODAL VERBS WEAK FORM STRONG FORM can /kən/ OR /kn/ /kæn/ will /wɪl/ /wɪl/ would /wəd/ /wʊd/ shall /ʃəl/ OR /ʃl/ /ʃæl/ must /məst/ /mʌst/
  18. 18. Whenever a MODAL VERB (can, could, must, would, will, should) is followed by “BE”… it will always be used in the STRONG FORM!!
  19. 19. ARTICLES WEAK FORM STRONG FROM a /ə/ /eɪ/ an /Ən/ /æn/ the /ðə/ OR /DI/ /ðiː/
  20. 20. PRONOUNS WEAK FORM STRONG FORM I /aI/ /aI/ he /hI/ OR /I/ /hi:/ she /SI/ /Si:/ you /j/ /j:/ we /wI/ /wi:/
  21. 21. VERB TO BE WEAK FORM STRONG FORM am /əm/ OR /m/ /æm/ is /Iz/ OR /z/ /iz/ are /ə/ /ɑː/ was /wəz/ /wz/ were /wə/ /w:/
  22. 22. Here are some examples…
  23. 23. Yes, I am?
  24. 24. You aren’t listening.
  25. 25. Do you like English coffee? No, I don’t.
  26. 26. Do you think this is the actor?
  27. 27. A: Is that the boy you like? B: Yes, he is.
  28. 28. I can’t speak German but my friend can.
  29. 29. I do like your hat!
  30. 30. I didn’t crash my car! I crashed hers!

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