EDF - Report on Nuclear Power


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EDF - Report on Nuclear Power

  1. 1. Leading the way in nuclear power generation. Our Nuclear Performance Summary 20111
  2. 2. Our Nuclear PerformanceSummary 2011In detail: Our nuclear performance In the UK, almost a third of carbon emissions come from In 2011, our nuclear fleet generated 55.8TWh. This is As a result of these life extensions so far, our fleet could power stations. According to the enough electricity to power deliver more than 500TWh Committee on Climate Change, 47% of the demand from UK of electricity and avoid moreOur stakeholders need to feel they can if the UK is to meet its target households. In total, our nuclear than 200Mt CO2 that wouldtrust us in the key areas of safety and of reducing carbon emissions by 80% by 2050, investment fleet helped avoid emissions of 33.6 Mt CO2 had the electricity otherwise be emitted by fossil fuel generation. In February ofsecurity, and want to know more about must be focused on low-carbon been generated by the prevailing 2011, we also announced thatour long-term plans for waste. This power-generating technologies, so that the electricity generation fossil fuel energy mix. To get the same benefit would be we had completed a further technical review of the potentialsection outlines how we are progressing sector is largely carbon-free equivalent to removing 45% of life-limiting plant areas. by 2030. We are proud to be UK passenger cars from Britishour plans to address these challenges. playing a key role when it comes roads in 2010. Subject to the necessary formal to helping prevent climate reviews and approvals in due change. The value of nuclear plant course, we are now expecting an life extension average of seven years across all Our low-carbon nuclear power Extending the life of our nuclear of the AGR stations – includingNuclear performance at a glance generation has long played an power generation stations makes Heysham 1 and Hartlepool important role in helping the UK good economic sense and keeps whose five-year extensions were meet its emissions targets. carbon emissions down now. announced in December 2010 –AMBITION MEASURE UNIT 2011 2010 2009 Plant lifetime extensions to date and 20 years for Sizewell B. Over their complete lifetime have saved around 100Mt CO2 our fleet of seven Advanced that would otherwise have been If all of the reductions above areLeader in Collective radiation dose (man-mSv reactor) 1-year average 0.114 0.036 0.116Nuclear Power collection Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR) emitted by fossil fuel power achieved, this could deliver moreGeneration radiation dose as nuclear stations will help avoid generation. than 900TWh of electricity and defined by WANO the emissions of over 1,000 save around 390Mt CO2 that Collective radiation dose (man-Sv reactor) 3-year average 0.089 0.106 0.117 million tonnes of carbon dioxide In December 2010, we would otherwise be emitted by year collection (Mega tonne (Mt) CO2) that announced the formal life fossil fuel generation. To put this radiation dose as defined by WANO would have been emitted had extensions of Heysham 1 and into context, to get the same Number of nuclear safety events rated Number 19 13 11 the same output been generated Hartlepool by five years to 2019 benefit would require all UK International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) by fossil fuel stations. Our most and indicated at the same time passenger cars to be removed Level 1 (lowest) modern Pressurised Water we were underpinning the from the roads for over five and Number of nuclear safety events rated Number 0 0 1 Reactor (PWR) power station, previous guidance of additional a half years. International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) Sizewell B, will alone help avoid life across our Advanced Gas Level 2 emissions in excess of 200 Mt Reactors (AGRs) of an average Unplanned automatic trip rate Per 7,000 hours 0.74 0.58 0.82 CO2 over its lifetime. of five years and 20 years for as defined by WANO Sizewell B. Uranium sent off-site Tonnes 211 132 147 Amount of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) m3 161 162 170 generated Amount of Low Level Waste (LLW) m3 608 498 607 sent off-site2 3
  3. 3. Our Nuclear PerformanceSummary 2011Plans for nuclear new build Nuclear non-proliferation Nuclear safety The NIA places the responsibility It is within this robust process ofWe agree with the government’s In Our Sustainability We have operated safely for the safety of a nuclear the Periodic Safety Review (PSR)assessment in the revised draft Commitments, published in (EDF Energy and predecessor installation on the licensee and that new data is reviewed andNational Policy Statements that June 2010, we stated that we companies) for 50 years in the many of the licence conditions incorporated into station safety18GW of new non-renewable will “not allow nuclear materials UK and work to some of the require the licensee to ‘make cases to assess the risk to plant.capacity will be needed by 2025, from our business to be used for highest safety standards of any and implement adequateand agree with the policy that non-peaceful purposes”. We are global industry. arrangements’ to control some In addition, Licence Conditionnew nuclear power should be a civilian nuclear energy business. aspect of risk. Compliance with 11 requires us to make andfree to contribute as much as We will not give permission for A key part of our contribution these conditions is monitored implement adequatepossible towards this capacity. our materials to be used in a to the overall ambition of Zero and inspected by the Office for arrangements for dealing withWe intend to build up to four military context and we will Harm is to protect the public and Nuclear Regulation (ONR) which any incident or emergency arisingnew nuclear plants at two sites take all necessary measures to ourselves from the potentially administers the licensing function on the site and their effects.in the UK – subject to a robust prevent them being used for adverse effects of our nuclear on behalf of the HSE. Even though nuclear installationsinvestment framework. terrorist activity. technology. We recognise are designed and operated to the special risks of nuclear Licence Condition 14 covers high safety standards, it isPlans are being progressed for We comply fully with safeguards, technology and constantly safety documentation, and recognised that it is prudentour preferred sites at Hinkley legislation and UK obligations. examine our safety performance. requires all sites to produce to plan for accidents.Point in Somerset and Sizewell Safeguards are measures and assess ‘safety cases’ forin Suffolk, but other sites may enforced through independent The safety of nuclear installations the design, construction, Number of nuclearbe needed. The Hinkley Point regulation to ensure that civil in the UK is assured by a system manufacture, commissioning, safety eventsC application is currently being nuclear material is accounted for of regulatory control based on a operation and decommissioning The International Nuclear Eventexamined for approval. and is not diverted for uses other licensing process, controlled by phases of nuclear licensed sites. Scale (INES) is a rapid alert than those declared. the Health and Safety Executive These arrangements are then system used for consistent (HSE), by which a corporate body submitted for approval, and will communication of events across We know where all our is granted a licence to use a site not be amended by us unless the nuclear industry. These are nuclear material is and take full for specified activities. further approval is agreed. In categorised between Level 1, responsibility for its security on each instance, a case is made which is an anomaly with no each one of our nuclear sites by The Nuclear Installations Act to justify the safety of each impact on the safety of the working closely with the Nuclear (NIA) allows the HSE to attach station under certain general public or workforce, and Security Regulator and the UK to each nuclear site licence operational conditions. Level 7 which represents a major Nuclear Directorate’s Office for such conditions as it considers accident. No nuclear events in Civil Nuclear Security (OCNS). In necessary or desirable in the Under Licence Condition 15 2011 were rated higher than addition, these sites all have an interests of safety. The HSE has of every site’s licence, we INES Level 1 and we had a total armed presence in the form of developed a standard set of 36 are required to implement of 19 INES Level 1 events. the Civil Nuclear Constabulary. conditions which are attached arrangements for the periodic to all nuclear site licences. and systematic review and Movement of all nuclear assessment of safety cases. materials is carried out under The objective of the review is plans approved by the UK’s to compare the safety case nuclear security regulator. against modern standards to Movements of spent nuclear fuel see if there are reasonably take place in highly robust steel practicable improvements that casks and, once at its destination, could be made, to demonstrate the material is subject to the that the plant is safe to continue same safeguards and security to operate for the next defined controls that are applied at the period (which is usually 10 power stations. years) and to identify any life limiting factors.4 5
  4. 4. Our Nuclear PerformanceSummary 2011Nuclear reportable events A very small number of events Radiation dose is measured in Unplanned Automatic Trip In terms of total UK radioactive Sustainable Approach to(NRE) are identified as requiring milliSieverts (mSv). The legal dose Rate (UATR) waste, over 90% of this is LLW Waste ManagementOver the last five years, the formal reports to the Office for limit is 20 mSv per year. In the Work has been ongoing in 2011 and the proportion of HLW is EDF Energy Nuclear Generationreactors operated by our Nuclear Nuclear Regulation (ONR) under calendar year 2011, the average to further reduce the risk of very small at only 0.03%. Limited (NGL) has a programmeGeneration business have seen our Site Licence Compliance individual dose received by all unplanned automatic trips and of work focused on delivering aan overall safety improvement arrangements or the reporting workers on our sites was 0.119 additional emphasis has been The amount of HLW produced Sustainable Approach to Wastelinked to a major effort to requirements of responsible mSv. The highest individual applied since a small adverse per kWh is also relatively small. Management (SAWM). As partupgrade the facilities and a government departments. dose received was 7.621 mSv in trend was identified in mid- Known as the radioactive waste of this, a new Fleet Strategystrong emphasis on further These are the Nuclear Reportable calendar year 2011 (this is 38% 2011. The overall UATR for all of intensity, for EDF Energy this and implementation plan hasimproving equipment reliability Events. Each such event will be of the legal limit). In AGR vessel our nuclear stations at the end figure was 0.007g/kWh from 1st been issued which provides aand operational focus. rated on the INES but because outage years we incur higher of the calendar year 2011 was April 2010 to 31st March 2011. cradle-to-grave framework for the reporting is determined by individual doses due 0.74. The long-term trend since the strategic planning and safeOur site license requires the type of event rather than its to the nature of the work 2003/2004 continues to improve. Very Low Level Waste (VLLW) management of all wastes. Thiscomprehensive arrangements severity, some may be rated at being performed. is a new disposal category work will help deliver valuablefor reporting and investigating INES Level 0. A wider range of Nuclear fuel cycle available to the nuclear industry business improvements byincidents at our power stations events are notified to the ONR The three-year average yearly An advantage of uranium is whose requirements are ensuring that radioactive wastesto the ONR. Within EDF Energy and/or other interested parties World Association of Nuclear that it is a very productive fuel. under development for future are managed and disposed of inNuclear Generation a large and all such events whose Operators (WANO) collective A single tonne of nuclear fuel implementation at our sites. a sustainable manner.number (~48,000) of ‘conditions descriptions are potentially public radiation dose for our nuclear can produce the same amountadverse to quality’ are reported receive an INES rating. generation plants at the end of electricity as 20,000 tonnes Future implementation ofeach year. Each of these reports of 2011 was 0.089 manSv/ of coal. In 2011, we loaded 212 revised Exemption Orders underis categorised and allocated This means that some events reactor compared to 0.106 tonnes (heavy metal1) of fuel into existing legislation will alloweither to immediate action, which are not nuclear reportable manSv/reactor in 2010 and our reactors. some waste to be disposedto further investigation or for may nevertheless be rated at 0.117 in 2009. There is no as conventional waste, whichdata trending. INES Level 1. This provides great legal or international limit Nuclear waste would otherwise be disposed as scrutiny of nuclear safety, our on this measure. We are We manage our nuclear waste radioactive waste (disposal asThe most significant are known number one priority. striving to show a continuous through regulation from the radioactive waste would involveas Nuclear Reportable Events. improvement (reduction) in this Office for Nuclear Regulation use of finite capacity facilities).The NRE and the events rated at Collective radiation dose key performance record, with (ONR), the Environment Agency This is acceptable as the risk ofLevel 1 on the INES are distinct We operate strict procedures a target to reach 0.074 manSv/ (EA) for England, and the harm from disposals of VLLWbut overlapping sets of events. to minimise and control the reactor by the end of 2016. Scottish Environment Protection to conventional disposal sites is radiation doses received by Agency. Radioactive waste is considered to be negligible byIn 2011 we had seven such employees and contractors at The 2011 levels are lower than classified by the government our regulators.events, a small reduction on the all of our nuclear power stations. were anticipated primarily due to as High Level Waste (HLW),previous year. These represent Any worker required to enter improved inspection and repair Intermediate Level Waste (ILW)only minor failures in very reliable a radiological controlled area practices at Hunterston B and or Low Level Waste (LLW)plant and management systems is issued with an electronic Hinkley Point B, even though according to its radioactivityto protect safety and maintain personal dose meter which more work was undertaken level and, for HLW, the need tolegal compliance. Fluctuations measures radiation dose than originally intended. The manage its heat output (HLWfrom year to year in the number and warns the wearer if company’s performance in this is not produced on any nuclearof such events are expected, pre-determined dose levels area remains among the best in generation site).and efforts to improve our are exceeded. the world when compared toarrangements and reduce the nuclear reactors worldwide.incidence of these events furtherare continuing. 1 Uranium6 7
  5. 5. Our Nuclear PerformanceSummary 2011Higher Activity Waste (HAW) Underground disposal – GDF Timescales Progress made towards a Long-term higher activity EPR waste disposallong-term storage and Studies into the best disposal A UK GDF facility will take solution during 2011 waste solutions – Scotland The NDA’s Radioactive Wastedisposal options have been ongoing many years to become a reality. Over the last year we have been The Scottish Government Management DirectorateThe stated strategic end point for more than 25 years in the A suitable location needs to working with government, has now formally published (RWMD) is responsible forfor HAW (i.e. ILW, HLW and UK alone. In July 2003, an be found, and like any major regulators, NGOs and others Scotland’s Higher Activity determining whether radioactivespent fuel) is disposal – i.e. independent task force, the planning project, it must be on the implementation of a Radioactive Waste Policy 2011. wastes will be disposable tomanaged storage leading to Committee on Radioactive acceptable to local people. long-term UK radioactive waste Their policy is to: “Support the planned GDF. A part of thedisposal. The UK Government Waste Management (CoRWM), solution in three main ways: long-term near surface, near UK’s Generic Design Assessmentpolicy is to pursue Geological was established to review and A Scottish Government strategy site storage or disposal facilities (GDA) process is to carry out aDisposal Facilities (GDF). However assess all options, and make to implement the “near surface, – We have made good progress so that the waste is monitored Disposability Assessment for thethe policy in Scotland differs from recommendations to the near site” storage or disposal in demonstrating that the and retrievable and the need higher activity wastes and spentthe rest of the UK. Here policy is government. CoRWM reported facilities will also take many years small quantities of radioactive for transporting it over long fuel expected to arise from the“near surface, near site” storage its findings in July 2006, and to come to fruition. Meanwhile, waste produced as a result distances is minimal.” We operation of an EPR. RWMDor disposal facilities so that waste recommended ‘geological higher-activity wastes can of generating electricity from actively participated within published their conclusions incan be monitored and retrieved, disposal’ as the solution for the continue to be safely stored for the European Pressurised the policy consultation and January 2010 and concludedand the need for transporting it long-term storage of the most as long as required at power Reactor (EPR) will be able to associated working groups that, compared with legacyover long distances is minimised. hazardous radioactive wastes. stations and other licensed be safely disposed of in the making a formal submission wastes and existing spentUK Government studies are now nuclear sites. UK’s planned GDF to the consultation. fuel, no new issues arise thatbeing carried out to create a This will involve constructing – We have been working jointly challenge the disposability ofsingle location which can safely an engineered storage facility It should be noted that we with other potential nuclear The consultation and associated wastes and spent fuel expectedstore all ILW, HLW and spent at a depth of between 200 support UK Government’s operators and the Nuclear works were key to the to arise from EPR operation.fuel. Over the years, various metres and 1 kilometre below intention to construct a central Decommissioning Authority development of the policyoptions have been considered, ground. In addition to barriers GDF for HAW. Until this is (NDA) to identify opportunities which will secure a robust waste This conclusion was supportedincluding storage above ground, provided by purpose-designed constructed, the waste from our to improve the implementation management strategy for the by the similarity of the wastesunderground storage in an containment, the surrounding operations is stored safely and of the UK’s waste strategy. long term in Scotland. It should to those expected to arise fromengineered store, and even rock structure would provide securely at our power stations For further information please be noted that there is no impact the existing Pressurised Waterdeep-ocean trenches. a further shield against any or at Sellafield. visit: DECC on Torness and Hunterston B’s Reactor (PWR) at Sizewell B. potential release of radioactivity. – We actively participated in current operations, and that we Given a disposal site with suitableWith hazardous waste, the Underground locations provide the Scottish Government’s are actively engaging with the characteristics, the wastes andbottom line for any possible a natural storage facility. After consultation and associated ongoing implementation of the spent fuel from the EPR aresolution is the same: how can all, billions of cubic metres of working groups regarding policy, including participating in expected to be disposable.we separate it completely from natural gas have existed and Scotland’s higher activity Scottish Government and NDApeople and the environment, stayed there for many millions waste policy lead working groups. More detailed work on theand monitor, manage and of years. In comparison, nuclear disposability of spent fuel andprotect it? waste is a relatively simple ILW is currently under way with proposition: it will need a minute RWMD as part of their “Letter fraction of the space, and it will of Compliance” process. This be in a solid and stable form. considers, in progressively increasing levels of detail, whether a proposed waste package will be compliant with packaging standards and associated safety and environmental assessments.8 9
  6. 6. Our Nuclear PerformanceSummary 2011Intermediate Level Waste UK waste strategy The study notes that there is Under our contracts, the NDA Off-site disposal of We continue to implement aIntermediate Level Waste (ILW) The UK Government has set potential to look at alternative determines whether spent fuel is radioactive waste range of measures to avoidis much less radioactive than out a Waste Base Case which GDF disposal concepts and ways reprocessed to separate uranium All of Nuclear Generation’s disposals to the LLWR, which willspent fuel but will still need to be describes the arrangements in which the length of time and plutonium for possible future power stations have permits/ extend the capacity of this finitedisposed of to the UK’s planned and assumptions for managing needed for on-site storage of use or stored for the longer term. authorisations to dispose of resource. The LLWR will needGDF in a suitably conditioned and disposing of waste from spent fuel could be reduced. Spent fuel is not considered radioactive waste by either the to manage the wastes arisingand packaged form. For the UK new nuclear stations. We The RWMD work is preliminary waste until a decision has been Environment Agency (in England) from the decommissioning ofEPR, we plan to use packaging have been working with other and conceptual in nature and taken to dispose of it. In either or the Scottish Environment the UK legacy nuclear facilitiessolutions that have been prospective new nuclear power we intend to work with them case, safety and protection of Protection Agency. These require so it is important that we avoidsuccessfully and safely applied station operators, under the to develop some of the options the environment are paramount. us to record the amount of waste consigning waste, which couldover many years throughout the umbrella of the NIA, to look at in more detail. sent off-site each year through otherwise be reduced in volumeFrench EDF power station fleet. how we could support these Amount of Intermediate Level different treatment or disposal (e.g. incineration or compaction), arrangements and whether there Spent fuel Waste generated routes. According to UK law, reused/recycled or disposedThe mechanisms for processing were improvements that could HLW arises from the reprocessing The ILW indicator is derived from low level waste (LLW) is waste as VLLW.and packaging of the waste be implemented. of our spent AGR nuclear fuel at the UK’s 2010 radioactive waste with a radioactive content notdiffer from the standard Sellafield. The spent AGR nuclear inventory produced by DECC exceeding 4 GBq per tonne of The ability to treat and recycleUK approach and we have We commissioned RWMD to fuel is transported to Sellafield and the NDA in association with alpha emitting radionuclides, radioactively contaminated metaltherefore been working with the review a number of key issues in specially designed flasks. The the waste producers. It includes and 12 GBq per tonne of beta/ is now well embedded at allregulators to develop a wider impacting the disposal of waste spent fuel from our AGRs can estimates, provided by the waste gamma emitting radionuclides. our sites by use of the Studsvikunderstanding, drawing on the and spent fuel from new nuclear be temporarily stored in cooling producers, of the annual volume The data in this report is Metal Recycling Facility (MRF).experience of our colleagues power stations. As a result ponds on site. Spent fuel at our of ILW that will be produced compiled from information Low level radioactive metals arethroughout EDF. the RWMD has produced and PWR at Sizewell remains throughout the sites’ lives. It was required for the annual returns processed at the facility by a published a feasibility study in storage on the site. estimated in the 2010 radioactive submitted to the regulator. range of techniques includingUsing this information we have exploring options for storage, waste inventory that 161m3 of size reduction and a surfacebegun to develop conceptual transport and disposal of spent In 2011, 211 tonnes of spent ILW would need to be disposed Most of our waste is lightly treatment process called shot-Letters of Compliance, for fuel from potential new nuclear fuel was sent off-site excluding of from our sites in 2011. contaminated material such as blasting. By decontaminatingsubmission to RWMD, for all ILW power stations. cladding and packaging redundant equipment, used/ metallic waste, the quantitythat will be generated during the measured as a weight of This waste volume is the worn protective clothing, metal, of waste needing disposal atoperation of the UK EPR. The study concludes that whilst unirradiated uranium. At the packaged waste volume for wood and rubble. There are a the LLWR is greatly reduced, the current Waste Base Case end of 2011, 507 tonnes (heavy disposal, based on currently number of treatments that are and the metal is recovered forA Letter of Compliance is the provides effective arrangements metal) of spent fuel was stored proposed waste package types. carried out on waste prior to recycling. This has the benefit offormal mechanism by which to manage and dispose of waste in our cooling ponds. ILW includes sludge and resins disposal, for example shredding substantially reducing the finalRWMD accepts that conditioned from new nuclear stations, from the treatment of radioactive or compacting to reduce the amount of waste for disposal.and packaged wastes will be there are a number of feasible We have contracts with the liquids, and graphite and metallic overall volume for disposal. The We have also increased our usesuitable for disposal to the alternative options which could Nuclear Decommissioning components from spent nuclear volume of waste from all of of off-site incineration to avoidGDF. We are also establishing a optimise the management Authority (NDA) for the fuel assemblies. All ILW is safely our stations sent off-site to be disposals to the LLWR. Thecontract with RWMD to enable of spent fuel. These include management of our spent AGR stored on-site in appropriately disposed of at the designated adoption of a lower categorythe assessment of Letter of the planning of storage and fuel. Sellafield Ltd carries out the engineered and shielded National LLW Repository near of waste for disposal (Very LowCompliance submissions for packaging, and alternative contracted services on behalf facilities, pending the availability Drigg in Cumbria, (LLWR) Level Waste) remain on thenew build wastes and spent fuel. disposal casks. of NDA. We also monitor the of an appropriate disposal route. incinerated at Hythe, or metal horizon, and this is something performance and progress of sent for recycling at Lillyhall in that we are actively involved the management by the NDA Appropriate controls are in place Cumbria was 608m3 of in developing whilst ensuring of reusable materials obtained to minimise the volumes of waste packaged waste in 2011. compliance requirements and from our fuel. generated to reduce the volume relevant risks are managed to of waste requiring disposal. meet regulator expectations.10 11
  7. 7. Our Nuclear PerformanceSummary 2011Radioactivity in theEnvironment Both approaches agree well for discharges to air (both The maximum dose due discharges to sea from a nuclear Nuclear DefinitionsThe Food Standards Agency, approaches yielded a maximum generation site in both 2010the Environment Agency, the dose of 0.007 mSv at Hunterston and 2011 was 0.004 mSv Amount of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) Number of nuclear safety events rated InternationalScottish Environment Protection B for 2009), but the assessment at Hartlepool. This is slightly generated (m3) Nuclear Event Scale (INES) Level 1 (lowest)Agency and the Northern for discharges to water by less than the dose received Definition: The Intermediate Level Waste Indicator provided Definition: Nuclear safety events rated at Level 1 (the lowest by EDF Energy is derived from the UK’s 2010 radioactive level) or above on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES).Ireland Environment Agency environmental measurement by taking a single flight from waste inventory produced by the Nuclear Decommissioning Level 1 events are operational anomalies that have no impactindependently monitor any is dominated by accumulated Dublin to Paris. These doses Authority. It provides an estimate of the annual arising on the safety of the general public or our employees.radioactivity present in food radioactivity discharged over are substantially below the UK volume of waste that will be classified as Intermediateand the environment due to previous years, so inflates annual public dose limit of 1 Level Waste at the end of the site’s life. The waste volume Number of reportable nuclear eventsradioactive discharges from the assessment for a given mSv for the controlled release is given as a packaged waste volume based on the Nuclear Definition: Events that are required, by arrangements madenuclear sites. The monitoring year (the dose assessed from of radioactivity from artificial Decommissioning Authority proposed waste package types. under conditions attached to our nuclear site licences, to be All Intermediate Level Waste is stored on power station sites reported formally in writing to the Office for Nuclear Regulation.data are used to determine the measurements in 2009 was sources, and the average UK pending a national decision on final disposal.highest radiation dose received 0.014 mSv at Hartlepool, the annual dose of 2.2 mSv received Tonnes of uranium sent off-siteby members of the public in the equivalent based on dispersion by the general public due to Amount of Low Level Waste sent off site (m3) Definition: Tonnes of spent fuel sent off-site excludingvicinity of each site. A joint report modelling was just over 0.003 natural radiation. Definition: UK Low Level Waste (LLW) sent off-site having a cladding and packaging measured as weight of unirradiatedis published annually entitled mSv). Therefore, from this year radioactive content not exceeding 4 GBq (gigabecquerels) per uranium in tonnes. tonne of alpha, or 12 GBq per tonne of beta/gamma activity.Radioactivity in Food and the onwards, we are reporting Unplanned automatic trip rateEnvironment and is available on the public dose for the most One-year average collective radiation dose Definition: Number of unplanned automatic trips per 7,000the above agencies’ websites. recent year based on dispersion (man mSv/reactor) hours of operation as defined by WANO. modelling. This year we are Definition: Average one-year collection radiation dose perHowever, as this is not published including an assessment for reactor as defined by the World Association for Nuclear Operatorsuntil later in the year, any 2010, as last year’s report (WANO). The measure covers all employees, agency and contractors. It does not include a guided party of visitors; thesereported dose assessment is covered only the 2009 parties walk a known visitors’ route where exposure is negligible.always a year in arrears (the assessment.most recent data available Three-year collective radiation dose (man Sv/reactor)for this report are for 2010). The maximum dose due to Definition: Average three-year collective radiation doseFurthermore, these assessments discharges to air from a nuclear per reactor as defined by the World Association for Nuclear Operators (WANO). The measure covers all staff – employees,do not readily distinguish generation site in 2010 was agency and contractors. It does not include a guided partybetween the impact of our plant 0.007 mSv at Hunterston B, of visitors; these parties walk a known visitors’ route whereand that of our neighbours. similar to 2009. To put this into exposure is negligible.An alternative approach is to context, this is broadly similarassess the public dose from the to the radiation dose receivedreported discharges in the most by taking a single flight fromrecent year, using dispersion London to Rome. That formodelling to assess the 2011 was 0.006 mSv, also atconcentration of radionuclides Hunterston B, which is equivalentin the environment, rather to the radiation dose receivedthan results of environmental by taking a single flight frommeasurements as published by Luxembourg to Madrid.the above Agencies.12 13
  8. 8. Our Nuclear PerformanceSummary 2011Nuclear vocabulary This content is assured by Two Tomorrows using the AA1000ASand terminology principles. For further information on our assurance statement please see Our Assurance Statement 2011:AGR Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor Assurance Statement 2011CoRWM Committee on Radioactive Waste ManagementDECC UK Government Department of Energy andClimate ChangeEA Environment AgencyEPR European Pressurised ReactorGDF Deep Geological Disposal Facility for higher activity wastegW GigawattHAW Higher Activity WasteHLW High Level WasteHSE Health and Safety ExecutiveILW Intermediate Level WasteINES International Nuclear Event ScaleLLW Low Level WasteLoC Letters of CompliancemSv milliSievertsMt CO2 Million tonnes of carbon dioxideNDA Nuclear Decommissioning AuthorityNGO Non-Governmental OrganisationNIA Nuclear Installations ActNII Nuclear Installations InspectorateNSD Nuclear Safety DirectorateOCNS The UK Nuclear Directorate’s Office forCivil Nuclear SecurityPWR Pressurised Water ReactorRWMD Radioactive Waste Management DirectorateSEPA Scottish Environment Protection AgencyTWh Terawatt hoursUATR Unplanned Automatic Trip RateWANO World Association of Nuclear Operators14