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  2. 2. WHAT IS ETHICEthics is a theory related to the action, and the purpose ofargument that leads to the meaning of an action. Ethics is notconcerned with facts or physical man, but is a moral philosophywhich takes into account human action or behavior. Ethics is adiscipline that studies the moral, morality, and moral rules ofhuman action and the correct behavior. The theory of ethics hasbeen practice is noble personality theory, theological theory,deontologist theory and theory of human rights.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION OF MEDICAL ETHICSThe World Medical Association Declaration of Geneva was made ​ in 1947 as ethics in the medical field. Medical ethics was established after the Geneva Declaration 1947. There is some discussion in the declaration are: 1. The doctor solemnly vowed to dedicate his life to service of humanity 2. The doctor will perform faithfully and integrated profession. 3. Patients health is a priority. 4. The doctor will keep the secrets entrusted 5. The doctor will maintain the most integrity and authority tradition of medical professionals 6. Doctors can not consider religion, nationality, ethnicity, political or social position influence on the patients responsibility. 7. The doctor will maintain the integrity of human life since the beginning even under threat and will not use medical knowledge contrary to humanitarian law.
  4. 4. THE CODE ETHICS OF DOCTOR 2002 / 5 / 4 The ethics to patients 1. The physician must maintain the standards (achievement levels) levels in professional behavior 2. A doctor must perform professional without being influenced by the motive for profit. 3. doctors do not have the professional freedom. for exampleReceive any money that is applied to patients even with knowledge of the patient4. Any act or advice which could weaken the human physical and mental stimulation can only be done in the interests of patients.5. A doctor advised to be cautious in applying the new discoveries or new treatment techniques. 6. A doctor permission or authority over the areas of expertise
  5. 5. Codes of doctor ethic : A 2002 / 5 / 6 - A doctor must always have the attitude to save the patients life. -A doctor must dedicate full attention and all the resources of knowledge to his patients.-The physician should fully protect the confidentiality of patient Ethical Responsibilities of Each Other Doctor : 1. The doctors are obliged to serve a colleague 2.The doctors can not take patients from his colleagues.
  6. 6. ETHICAL ISSUES IN MEDICAL ETHICS IN MALAYSIA Case 1 : Stories of Doctor HTAR(Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah- Klang) To Face Baby Injured Doctors negligence caused a baby was injured face. The reason given the hospital it unreasonable to say that the mother too much to ask and do not consider the problemof doctors who had worked day and night without adequate rest to treat patients. Ibrahim Umran, 23, as the father of the baby said more miserable until now the hospital failedto provide reasonable explanation on the cause of her injury and even angry with the doctor on duty when he was quite insistent demand an explanation.
  7. 7. CASE 2 :BUSINESSMAN CLAIM HOSPITAL NEGLIGENCE A businessman claims his wife and children died at birth due to the negligence of doctors and nurses at a private hospitalKhairul Anwar Abdul Halim, claimed his wife, Norliza Shariff, provided the nitrous oxide and oxygen for two hours more to render him in a state of semi-conscious while in the hospital for childbirth. his wife having contractions every half minute and lasted for 20 minutes, but the nurse did not notify a doctor instead sent his wife down. He said he then called on doctors to surgery to save his wife and children, but the hospital took a half hour surgery halls. He said the more regrettable, his wife and children confirmed dead at 6:35 pm, but he was only notified about an hour later.
  8. 8. COMPARISON OF MEDICAL ETHICSDEVELOPING COUNTRIES DEVELOPED COUNTRIES BANGLADESH  USA-satisfy the relationship between the -provide competent medical care, withmembers of the medical profession compassion and respect for the dignity and-enjoy the highest honor among the other human rights.professions -uphold standards of professionalism-concerned about the health care facility -respect the law and recognize the-negligence and malpractice cases taken to responsibilitycourt -respect the rights of patients, colleagues,-Bangladesh Medical Association described and other health professionalsthe code of conduct and ethics -continue to learn, apply, and advance- Historical and socio-cultural settings of scientific knowledgethe Geneva Declaration of medical ethics -appropriate patient care except inis based on the ancient concept of ethics in emergencies and be free to choose whom tomedical practice serve- Medical regulations are also found in -recognize the responsibility to participateAncient Egypt in activities- Code enforcement responsibilities -should support access to medical care forBangladesh Medical and Dental Council all.
  9. 9. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DEVELOPED COUNTRIES INDIA  SINGAPORE-all new graduates will need to agree and -accountable for their actions regardless ofcomply with the code at the time of the clinical environment in which they workregistration -any action must demonstrate the efficiency-such as the removal of hard-sentence given and safety deemed acceptable practice into anyone who violates any code of ethics patient care-no quality assurance system such as re- -indebted to the patients such as freedom toregistration choose patients , respect patients , honest at-ethics are taught and assessed as part of patients and communicate clearly withthe forensic medical curriculum patients.-cases with ethical issues selected from the -indebted to the public like promote healthward and presented by the trainees and measures and protection of incompetenceresidents or misconduct. -indebted to profession with integrity, maintain public confidence, working with partners and working with other health professions
  10. 10. PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN MEDICAL ETHICS AROUND THE WORLD unethical practices among professionals a)Misuse of power-in terms of religion openly opposed it because it was considered immoral and not fair to those other -regarded as selfish and ignore the norms of society -use power to abuse the information for the purpose of providing benefits to families and friends in the awarding of a contract or in managing loans or subsidies b)Corruption -seen in terms of religion, it is considered very serious sin and punishment -eliminate the open and healthy competition
  11. 11. -create a feeling of not happy in some quarters to others because they believe that they do not get treated fairly in a business that was carried out c) Fraud-occurs in a conscious and those who conspired in the fraud and they know the offense they had done-done to conceal the offense committed in the public knowledge -Fraud degrade the integrity and dignity of a person is in the public prestige. This will undermine the public trust to those involved -fraud is wrong and contrary to religious, professional code of ethics and the law and the norms of society in general
  12. 12. STEP TO IMPROVE MEDICAL ETHICS1. Attitude of the individual whether doctors, nurses and hospital staff to make changes to your self2. Health Ministrys decision to do the reduction of intern work hours, from 90 hours to 54 hours per week3. Doctors should be more sensitive to the assumed level of quality that today may no longer be considered in the future quality 4. Continuing medical education is essential to gain knowledge and skills, particularly in new developments in medicine
  13. 13. 5. Implementation of the Corporate Culture Campaign to implement ongoing initiatives in an effort to cultivate the best service delivery to citizens 6. Senior officials at all levels must play a role in triggering the changes of values ​and mindset of the officers and employees under their supervision7. Patient liaison officers are expected to document all complaints received and resolve the problem quickly. In instances where the officer can not resolve the complaint, the matter should bereferred to the people who worked at the hospital immediately or not later than three working days 8. Ministry of Health has stated that the public has a right to complain to the Malaysian Medical Council (MMC) on the practice of unethical doctors