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Prepared by–
Aditya Jee
Roll No. - 02
Subject - Social Science
CLIMATE
 Introduction
 Climatic controls
 Factors affecting India’s Climate
 The Indian Monsoon
 The Seasons
 Distribution o...
Climate refers to the sum total of
weather conditions over a large area for a
long period of time, generally taken for 30
...
There are mainly six factors affecting the
climate of any place-
1. Latitude
2. Altitude
4. Ocean Currents
5. Relief Featu...
Factors
affecting
Climate
Latitude
Altitude
Distance
from sea
Pressure
and Wind
system
Relief
Features
Ocean
currents
 Latitude- Due to the curvature of the earth,
the amount of solar energy received varies
place to place according to the ...
 Pressure and Wind System- The pressure
and wind system of any area depends on the
latitude and altitude of the area. The...
 Ocean Currents- Ocean currents along with
the onshore winds affect the climate
of the coastal region .
 Relief Features...
Factors of Indian
Climate
Latitude
Pressure and
Winds
Altitude
 Latitude- The tropic of cancer passes through
the middle of the country from the Rann
of Kuchchh in the west to Mizoram ...
 Altitude-
India has mountains to the north,
which have an average height of 6000
metres. India also has a vast coastal a...
 Pressure and Wind System-
The climate of INDIA are governed
by the following atmospheric conditions-
• Pressure and surf...
The climate of India is
strongly influenced by
the monsoon winds
therefore the climate of
India is termed as The
Indian Mo...
The Monsoon Period
The monsoon are experienced in the
tropical area roughly between 20°𝑁 and
20°𝑆. To understand this we h...
 The shift of the position of Inter Tropical
convergence
zone (ITCZ) in summer,
over the Ganga plain
(this is equatorial
...
 The presence of the high pressure area,
east of Madagascar, approximately at
20°𝑆 over the Indian Ocean. The
intensity a...
 The movement of
the westerly jet
stream to the
Himalayas and the
presence of the
tropical easterly
jet stream over
the I...
The Onset Of The Monsoon
The Monsoon, unlike the trades, are not
steady winds but are pulsating in nature,
affected by dif...
Withdrawal of the monsoon
Withdrawal of the monsoon is a more
gradual process. The withdrawal of the
monsoon begins in nor...
The Monsoon type climate of India is
characterized by a distinct seasonal
pattern. The weather
conditions greatly
changes ...
The cold weather season
begins from mid-November in
northern India and stays till
February. December and
January are the c...
The hot weather season in India begins from the
month of March and carried away till May. The
summer months experience
Ris...
ADVANCING MONSOON
The inflow of the south west
monsoon into India by June brings
about a total change in the weather.
Earl...
During October-November, with
the apparent movement of the sun
towards the south, the monsoon
trough over the northern pla...
Parts of western coast and northeastern
India receive over about 400
cm of rainfall annually.
However, it is less than 60
...
A third region of low
precipitation is the region
of Ladhakh in Jammu and
Kashmir.
The rest of the
country experiences mod...
The Himalayas protect the subcontinent from
the Siberian air. This enables
the northern India to have
uniformly higher tem...
THANKS
Climate
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  1. 1. Prepared by– Aditya Jee Roll No. - 02 Subject - Social Science CLIMATE
  2. 2.  Introduction  Climatic controls  Factors affecting India’s Climate  The Indian Monsoon  The Seasons  Distribution of rainfall  Monsoon as a unifying bond CONTENTS
  3. 3. Climate refers to the sum total of weather conditions over a large area for a long period of time, generally taken for 30 years or more than that. Elements of Climate- Temperature Humidity Atmospheric pressure Wind Precipitation
  4. 4. There are mainly six factors affecting the climate of any place- 1. Latitude 2. Altitude 4. Ocean Currents 5. Relief Features 6. Pressure and Wind System 7. Distance From The Sea
  5. 5. Factors affecting Climate Latitude Altitude Distance from sea Pressure and Wind system Relief Features Ocean currents
  6. 6.  Latitude- Due to the curvature of the earth, the amount of solar energy received varies place to place according to the latitude. As a result, air temperature generally decreases from equator towards the poles.  Altitude- Due to the variation in altitude, the higher ground of earth is less dense and have less temperature. The hills are therefore cooler during summer. AFFECT OF
  7. 7.  Pressure and Wind System- The pressure and wind system of any area depends on the latitude and altitude of the area. Therefore it influences the temperature and rainfall pattern.  Distance from the sea- As the distance from the sea increases, its moderating influence decreases and the people experience extreme weather conditions. This system is also called continentality. AFFECT OF
  8. 8.  Ocean Currents- Ocean currents along with the onshore winds affect the climate of the coastal region .  Relief Features- Relief plays an important role in the determination of the climate of a place. High mountains act as barriers for cold and hot winds; the may also cause precipitation if they are high enough and lie in the path of rain-bearing winds. The leeward side of the mountains remain relatively dry. AFFECT OF
  9. 9. Factors of Indian Climate Latitude Pressure and Winds Altitude
  10. 10.  Latitude- The tropic of cancer passes through the middle of the country from the Rann of Kuchchh in the west to Mizoram in the east. Almost half of the country, lying south of the Tropic of Cancer, belongs to the tropical area. All the remaining area, north of the Tropics, lies to the sub-tropics. Therefore Indian climate has characteristics of both tropical and subtropical climates
  11. 11.  Altitude- India has mountains to the north, which have an average height of 6000 metres. India also has a vast coastal area where the maximum elevation is about 30 metres. The Himalayas prevents the cold winds from Central Asia from entering the subcontinent. It is because of this mountains that this subcontinent experiences comparatively milder winters as compared to the Central Asia.
  12. 12.  Pressure and Wind System- The climate of INDIA are governed by the following atmospheric conditions- • Pressure and surface Winds • Upper air circulation • Western Cyclonic Disturbances
  13. 13. The climate of India is strongly influenced by the monsoon winds therefore the climate of India is termed as The Indian Monsoon by the Arabs who came sailing to India. Monsoon meaning season in Arabic is home to a number of weather conditions.
  14. 14. The Monsoon Period The monsoon are experienced in the tropical area roughly between 20°𝑁 and 20°𝑆. To understand this we have to first learn about the following:  The differential heating and cooling of land and water creates low pressure on the landmass of India while the seas around experience comparatively high pressure
  15. 15.  The shift of the position of Inter Tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in summer, over the Ganga plain (this is equatorial trough normally positioned between 5°𝑁 of the equator. It is also known as the monsoon trough during the monsoon season).
  16. 16.  The presence of the high pressure area, east of Madagascar, approximately at 20°𝑆 over the Indian Ocean. The intensity and position of this high- pressure affects the Indian monsoon.  The Tibetan plateau gets intensely heated during summer, which results into strong vertical air currents and the formation of low pressure over the plateau at about 9 km above the sea level.
  17. 17.  The movement of the westerly jet stream to the Himalayas and the presence of the tropical easterly jet stream over the Indian peninsula during summer.
  18. 18. The Onset Of The Monsoon The Monsoon, unlike the trades, are not steady winds but are pulsating in nature, affected by different atmospheric conditions encountered by it, on its way over the warm tropical seas. The duration of the monsoon is between 100 to 120 days from early June to mid- September. Around the time of its arrival, the normal rainfall increases suddenly and continues constantly for several days. This is known as the ‘burst’ of the monsoon, and can be distinguished from the pre monsoon showers.
  19. 19. Withdrawal of the monsoon Withdrawal of the monsoon is a more gradual process. The withdrawal of the monsoon begins in northwestern states of India by early September. By mid- October, it withdraws completely from the northern half of the peninsula. The withdrawal from the southern half is fairly rapid. By early December, the monsoon has withdrawn from the rest of the country.
  20. 20. The Monsoon type climate of India is characterized by a distinct seasonal pattern. The weather conditions greatly changes from season to season. Four main Seasons are there in India- Cold weather Summer Rainy Season, Hot weather season, the advancing monsoon and the retreating monsoon. THE SEASONS
  21. 21. The cold weather season begins from mid-November in northern India and stays till February. December and January are the coldest months in the northern part of India. The temperature decreases from south to north. Days are warmer than the nights. Frost is common in the north and higher slopes of the Himalayas experience snowfall. During this season the northeast trade winds prevail over the country. They blow from land to sea, hence, it is a dry season. COLD WEATHER SEASON
  22. 22. The hot weather season in India begins from the month of March and carried away till May. The summer months experience Rising temperature and falling Air pressure in the northern Part of the country. Towards the end of May, an elongated Low-pressure area develops in the region extending from the Thar Desert in the Northwest to Patna and Chotanagpur plateau in the east and southeast. Circulation of air begins to set in around this trough. HOT WEATHER SEASON
  23. 23. ADVANCING MONSOON The inflow of the south west monsoon into India by June brings about a total change in the weather. Early in the season, the windward side of the western Ghats receives very heavy rainfall. The maximum rainfall of this season is received in the northeastern India, mainly in Mawsynram in the southern ranges of the Khasi Hills, which is also the highest average rainfall in the world. Rainfall in the Ganga valley decreases from east to west.
  24. 24. During October-November, with the apparent movement of the sun towards the south, the monsoon trough over the northern plains becomes weaker. This is gradually replaced by a high pressure System. The south west monsoon winds weaken and start withdrawing gradually. By the beginning of October, the monsoon withdraws from the Northern plains. The low pressure conditions get transferred towards the Bay of Bengal. This results into the heavy rainfall in the southern part. RETREATING MONSOON
  25. 25. Parts of western coast and northeastern India receive over about 400 cm of rainfall annually. However, it is less than 60 cm in Western Rajasthan and adjoining part of Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab. Rainfall is equally low in the interior of the Deccan plateau, and the east of the Sahayadris. DISTRIBUTION OF RAINFALL
  26. 26. A third region of low precipitation is the region of Ladhakh in Jammu and Kashmir. The rest of the country experiences moderate amount of rainfall. Snowfall is restricted to the Himalayan region. Owing to the nature of monsoons, the annual rainfall is highly variable from year to year.
  27. 27. The Himalayas protect the subcontinent from the Siberian air. This enables the northern India to have uniformly higher temperatures as compared to other areas on the same latitudes. The peninsular plateau, under the influence of the sea from three sides, has moderate temperatures. Despite such moderating influences, there are great variations in the temperature conditions. The unifying influence of the monsoon is quite perceptible. MONSOON-AS A UNIFYING BOND
  28. 28. THANKS
  • GwenAron

    Sep. 3, 2021
  • mattaganesh

    Apr. 6, 2020

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