General Awareness in steam
HCST, Farah, Mathura
OVERVIEW OF BHEL
BHEL was established in 1964.
BHEL is one of the only 7 Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs)
of India clubbed under the esteemed 'Maharatna' status. On
1st February 2013, the Government of
India granted Maharatna status to BHEL.
BHEL has a share of 59% in India’s total installed power
BHEL is engaged in the design, engineering, manufacture,
construction, testing, commissioning and servicing of a wide
range of products and services for the core sectors of the
economy, viz. Power Transmission, Industry, Transportation
(Railway), Renewable Energy, Oil & Gas and defence.
BHEL has 15 manufacturing divisions, two repair units, four
regional offices, eight service centers and 15 regional centers
and currently operate at more than 150 project sites across
India and abroad.
It is divided in 2 units i.e. Heavy Electrical Equipment
Plant (HEEP) and Central Foundry Forge Plant
I did my training at HEEP plant.
HEEP plant is divided into 8 blocks.
Steam turbines are manufactured at HEEP plant in
A turbine is a device that converts chemical energy into mechanical
energy, specifically when a rotor of multiple blades or vanes is driven
by the movement of a fluid or gas. In the case of a steam turbine, the
pressure and flow of newly condensed steam rapidly turns the rotor.
This movement is possible because the water to steam conversion
results in a rapidly expanding gas. As the turbine’s rotor turns, the
rotating shaft can work to accomplish numerous applications, often
1. IMPULSE TURBINE
2. REACTION TURBINE
IMPULSE TURBINE :
The principle of the impulse steam turbine consists of a casing containing
stationary steam nozzles and a rotor with moving or rotating buckets.
The steam passes through the stationary nozzles and is directed at high
velocity against rotor buckets causing the rotor to rotate at high speed.
The following events take place in the nozzles :
1. The steam pressure decreases.
2. The enthalpy of the steam decreases.
3. The steam velocity increases.
4. The volume of the steam increases.
TYPES OF STEAM TURBINES
REACTION TURBINE :
A reaction turbine has rows of fixed blades alternating with rows of
moving blades. The steam expands first in the stationary or fixed
blades where it gains some velocity as it drops in pressure. It then
enters the moving blades where its direction of flow is changed thus
producing an impulse force on the moving blades. In addition,
however, the steam upon passing through the moving blades again
expands and further drops in pressure giving a reaction force to the
blades. This sequence is repeated as the steam passes through
additional rows of fixed and moving blades.
WORKING OF STEAM TURBINE:
• steam is expanded only in nozzles.
• Blade passage of constant cross-section
• Pressure drop in fixed & moving blade.
• Blade passage of varying cross-section
TURBINES MANUFACTURED AT BHEL
The various types of turbines are :-
High pressure turbines
Low pressure turbines
Intermediate pressure turbines.
H.P TURBINE BLADES
A turbine blade is the individual component which
makes up the turbine section of a gas turbine. The
blades are responsible for extracting energy from the
high temperature, high pressure gas produced by the
Size of its blades are smaller than IP & HP turbines.
LOW PRESSURE TURBINE
Titanium alloys offer high strength to intermediate
temperatures at a density almost half that of steel and nickel-
based superalloys. As a result, they have been adopted widely
in the fan and compressor stages of the gas turbine for both
disc and blade applications..
LP blade is larger than HP & IP.
INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE TURBINE
Intermediate pressure turbine having more pressure then L.P
turbine and less than the high pressure turbine(H.P) . Its blade
is larger than high pressure turbine.
BLADE OF INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE
The size of blades of I.P steam turbine is larger than
H.P steam turbine , but smaller than L.P steam
Gas turbine have been used for electricity generation.
The gas turbine obtains its power by utilizing the energy of burnt
gases & air which are at high Pressure and Temperature.
For electricity generation, it is known as power turbine.
For propulsion unit in aircraft, it is called aircraft turbine.
BHEL is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in
BHEL is a major contributor of equipment and systems to
At the all, till now BHEL is best in supply and manufacturing
Summer Training gives the idea of ‘general awareness in
steam turbine manufacturing’, & its process. Its provides
practical idea to manufacturing several components of