Oc and resistance3


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  • 1 We will focus on the people and the process of change - Without staff buy-in and solid process management skills the organizational transformation will not last. Organizational transformation begins with leadership. Instead of a management/optimization approach, that is, a problem and management focused approach - we must now understand the change process and how complex systems work. Requires change at every level in the organization.
  • 1 The change process is characterized by considerable innovation and learning and continues almost indefinitely as staff discover new ways of improving the organization and adapting it to changing conditions.
  • Change is not the same as transformation. Change is situational - new policy; new technique. Transformation starts with an ending.
  • Oc and resistance3

    1. 1. Models and Resistance to Change
    2. 2. The Focus of Change <ul><li>Leavitt et al. (1973) proposed that change may focus on 1 of 4 subsystems in an organization: </li></ul><ul><li>Structure - levels of hierarchy, spans of authority, centralisation. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology - complexity, degree of employee usage, operator control & responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>People - values, beliefs, attitudes, motives, drives, competencies, KSAs. </li></ul><ul><li>Task - job design, repetitiveness, physical & cognitive demands, autonomy & discretion. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Lewin's Force Field Model <ul><li>The Three-stage Process of Change </li></ul><ul><li>Unfreeze - Creation of motivation to change. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice: </li></ul><ul><li>Disconfirmation or a lack of confirmation of present behaviours or attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of guilt , discomfort or anxiety to motivate change. </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of psychological safety by reducing barriers to change or reducing threat caused by past failures. </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of information to employees and stakeholders giving knowledge of the first stage of the change process. </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Change - Adjusting the equilibrium. </li></ul><ul><li>Approaches: Rational – Empirical, Normative- Educative and Power Coercive </li></ul><ul><li>Practice: </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing a sense of urgency . </li></ul><ul><li>Forming a powerful leading coalition. </li></ul><ul><li>Creating and communicating a vision . </li></ul><ul><li>Empowering others to act on the vision. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning for and creating short-term wins. </li></ul><ul><li>Institutionalizing new approaches. </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Refreeze - Making routine </li></ul>
    6. 6. The Seven-stage Model of Change <ul><li>In 1980, Edgar Huse proposed a seven-stage OD model based upon the original three-stage model of Lewin. </li></ul><ul><li>Scouting - Where representatives from the organization meet with the OD consultant to identify and discuss the need for change . The change agent and client jointly explore issues to elicit the problems in need of attention. </li></ul><ul><li>Entry - This stage involves the development of, and mutual agreement upon, both business and psychological contracts . Expectations of the change process are also established. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis - Here, the consultant diagnoses the underlying organizational problems based upon their previous knowledge and training. This stage involves the identification of specific improvement goals and a planned intervention strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning - A detailed series of intervention techniques and actions are brought together into a timetable or project plan for the change process. This step also involves the identification of areas of resistance from employees and steps possible to counteract it. </li></ul><ul><li>Action - The intervention is carried out according to the agreed plans. Previously established action steps are implemented. </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilization & Evaluation - The stage of 'refreezing' the system . Newly implemented codes of action, practices and systems are absorbed into everyday routines. Evaluation is conducted to determine the success of the change process and any need for further action is established. </li></ul><ul><li>Termination - The OD consultant or change agent leaves the organization and moves on to another client or begins an entirely different project within the same organization. </li></ul>
    7. 7. 1. Establishing a Sense of Urgency 2. Creating a Guiding Coalition 3. Developing a Vision & Strategy 4. Communicating the Change Vision 5. Empowering Broad-Based Action 6. Generating Short-Term Wins 7. Consolidating Gains & Producing More Change 8. Anchoring New Approaches in the Culture Source: Leading Change, John P. Kotter, 1998 The 8 Stage Process of Creating Major Change Creating Major Change
    8. 8. Six Sigma Basic Implementation Roadmap Understand and Define Entire Value Streams Deploy Key Business Objectives - Measure and target (metrics) - Align and involve all employees - Develop and motivate Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve Identify root causes, prioritize, eliminate waste, make things flow and pulled by customers Control -Sustain Improvement -Drive Towards Perfection Identify Customer Requirements Vision (Strategic Business Plan) Continuous Improvement (DMAIC) Identify Customer Requirements
    9. 9. Organizational Transformation... People Process Technology
    10. 10. Mission Strategic plan Organizational alignment “ Me” Incorporated Staff involvement Accountability Reward and recognition The Essential Components of Organizational Transformation
    11. 11. Approaches to Change Management <ul><li>Reactive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occur in response to external demands pressuring the organization; often not planned; less time to find a solution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proactive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the assumption that change is no longer elective, but a way of life; future oriented; staying attuned to the customer </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. FOLLOWERSHIP STYLES Alienated Conformist Passive Effective Pragmatic Survivor Dependent Independent Passive Active Why do we want ‘effective follower’ vs ‘conformist’?
    13. 13. Stephen Covey <ul><ul><li>Dependent people expect someone to take care of them and blame others when things go wrong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent people have developed a sense of self-worth and an attitude of self-reliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interdependent people realize that it is best to work cooperatively with others </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Managing resistance to Change
    15. 15. Figure 6.1 Change Factors An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 6 Slide
    16. 16. Resistance Natural Reactive Predictable Emotional
    17. 17. Sources of Resistance to Change <ul><li>Ignorance: a failure to understand the situation or the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Mistrust: motives for change are considered suspicious </li></ul><ul><li>Disbelief: a feeling that the way forward will not work </li></ul><ul><li>“ Power-Cut”: a fear that sources of influence and control will be eroded. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Sources of Resistance to Change <ul><li>Loss: change has unacceptable personal costs </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequacy: the benefits from the change are not seen as sufficient </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety: fear of being unable to cope with the new situation. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Sources of Resistance to Change <ul><li>Comparison: the way forward is disliked because an alternative is preferred </li></ul><ul><li>Demolition: change threatens the destruction of existing social networks. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Types of Resistance <ul><li>Functional Resistance: </li></ul><ul><li>critically assessing whether change will lead to improvements </li></ul><ul><li>exploring the personal consequences of change. </li></ul><ul><li>Dysfunctional Resistance: </li></ul><ul><li>avoiding dealing with urgent and pressing issues </li></ul><ul><li>declining to work on what really needs to be done. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Types of Resistance <ul><li>Functional Resistance: </li></ul><ul><li>feelings of regret, anxiety or fear </li></ul><ul><li>to a previous history of non-disclosure and poor working relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Dysfunctional Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>blaming and criticising without proposing alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>sabotaging change </li></ul><ul><li>non-collaboration with others. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Change Model An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 6 Slide
    23. 23. Life Cycle of Resistance to Change (part 1 of 5) <ul><li>The response to change tends to move through a life cycle of 5 phases: </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only few people who see need for change. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance appears massive . </li></ul></ul></ul>An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 6 Slide
    24. 24. Life Cycle of Resistance to Change (part 2 of 5) <ul><li>Phase 2. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forces for and against change become identifiable. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change more thoroughly understood. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Novelty of change tends to disappear. </li></ul></ul></ul>An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 6 Slide
    25. 25. Life Cycle of Resistance to Change (part 3 of 5) <ul><li>Phase 3. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct conflict and showdown between forces. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This phase probably means life or death to change. </li></ul></ul></ul>An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 6 Slide
    26. 26. Life Cycle of Resistance to Change (part 4 of 5) <ul><li>Phase 4. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remaining resistance seen as stubborn. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possibility that resisters will mobilize support to shift balance of power. </li></ul></ul></ul>An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 6 Slide
    27. 27. Life Cycle of Resistance to Change (part 5 of 5) <ul><li>Phase 5. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resisters to change are as few and as alienated as were advocates in first phase. </li></ul></ul></ul>An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 6 Slide
    28. 28. Strategies to Lessen Resistance <ul><li>Leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>Reward systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit and implicit coercion. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate conducive to communications. </li></ul><ul><li>Power strategies. </li></ul>
    29. 29. THE CHANGE EQUATION: FACTORS NECESSARY FOR EFFECTIVE CHANGE A The individual, group or organisation level of dissatisfaction with the status quo B A clear and shared picture of a better future - how things could be C The capacity of individuals, groups and the organisation to change (orientation, competence and skill) D Acceptable and “do-able” first action steps E The cost (financial, time, “aggro”) of making the change to individuals, groups and the organisation.
    30. 30. The Change Equation A + B + C + D must be greater than E
    31. 31. The Change Equation: When Elements Are Missing B + C +D means that the urgent will drive out the important and change will go to the “bottom of the in-tray”.
    32. 32. The Change Equation: When Elements Are Missing A + B + D means that with no investment to improve change management capacity, anxiety and frustration will result.
    33. 33. The Change Equation: When Elements Are Missing A + B + C means that the change effort will be haphazard and there will be a succession of false-starts.
    34. 34. A 4-Stage Process For Dealing With Resistance <ul><li>Consider Different People </li></ul><ul><li>Work With Values and Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Understand and Relate to Needs and Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Tailor Your Message to Your Audience. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Consider Different People <ul><li>Identify the “adopters” - the staff the change will affect </li></ul><ul><li>Identify key professional and organisational groups </li></ul><ul><li>Identify crucial opinion-leaders in the organisation. </li></ul>
    36. 36. <ul><li>CHANGE AGENTS </li></ul>
    37. 37. <ul><li>Read your Cases </li></ul>