What are Memorandums
• Memorandums are less formal and shorter
• Used most often for communication within
• The heading and overall tone make a
Memorandum different from a business
• All information is on single topic.
A Memorandum is a document typically
used for communication with in
organization. Memorandums can be as
formal as a business letter and to present
Uses of Memorandum
• To give information to some one
• To issue an instruction
• To request for help
• To give suggestions
The layoutThe layout
1) First write the world “Memorandum” (as a
the middle on top of page.)
2) Include “To” (who should get the
3) “From” (who sent the Memorandum?)
4) Subject (what is the Memorandum
To: Mr. XYZ, Supervisor
From: ABC , Bookkeeper DM
Sub: Retirement Party
Date: March 24, 2015
My brother and I will be able to attend Mr. Khan’s
retirement party on March 28. We will bring
General template ofGeneral template of
Writing an effective
Three stages in Memorandum
Why? What? Where?
2. Writing: (Sequence)
Edit for Clarity, check spelling & grammar
Some types of
• In a persuasive Memorandum you must
constantly keep your reader's feelings in
mind. Consider how the person will react
to what you are saying. What would
convince him or her most readily? How
much should you rely on logic, and how
much should you appeal to emotion?
• A directive Memorandum states a policy or
procedure you want the reader or co-
worker to follow. The length of the
Memorandum depends on how much
space is required to properly explain the
• A technical Memorandum is a concise
presentation of results, with a logical
progression from the principles which are
core to the analysis towards the
conclusions that were drawn from the
A circular is in the form of a letter addressed
to all office branches or departments of a
company and is drafted in such a way that
the information is useful and understandable
to all concerned. The purpose of a circular is
to circulate the information contained in it.
Whenever the management has to inform
anything to the entire organisation, or
maybe a department, it uses office circulars.
Further, a circular may be issued for various
purposes ranging from invitation to the office
staff for a party to information about the
installation of a card punching machine in
Features of Office
• It is a letter or memorandum addressed to
a number of persons or intended for
general circulation in the organisation.
• It is an intra-office communication which
seeks to bring to notice important matters
of the organisation.
• It is usually brief and precise.
• Being unsolicited, it is persuasive in
approach with emphasis on you attitude
and an appealing format.
Effective Office Circular
• The circular must be made in simple
language. Technical terms may make it
difficult. It has to be clear, precise and
• An office circular is in the form of a letter
addressed by the office to all branches or
to all departments.
• The purpose of a circular is to circulate
some useful information. Whenever the
management has to convey anything to
the entire organisation or, sometimes, a
department, it uses an office circular.
• Since there may be many occasions when
a circular is issued by the management,
and also since they pertain to different
subjects, or emanate from different
departments, circulars bear a reference
number which is self-explanatory of the
purpose/department for which it is issued.
Note that in the example below,
the reference number of the
circular is HR/02/2011/5. The
number it shows that the circular
is issued by Human Resource
Department in the 2nd month of
the year 2011, and that it is the
5th circular of the year.
As the term denotes, it is an order containing
directions or instructions, which are required to
be complied with by the recipient. In case of non-
compliance of office orders, disciplinary action
may be initiated.
In an office, office order may be issued for
transfer, extension of probation period of an
employee, refusing leave to an employee, for
sitting overtime to complete the work, distribution
of work, termination (dismissal) of services of an
employee, granting promotion to an employee,
declaring benefits, or for other office work.
An office order should be drafted carefully, typed,
and signed by the concerned authority. It has to
be duly acknowledged by the person who has to
comply with it. This document is mostly used in
government departments and public companies.
Effective Office Order
• It should be correct, short and to the point.
• It should draw the attention of the person/s
that has to comply with it.
• It must contain specific instructions or
directions for compliance.
• It must be authentic and duly signed by a
Evolution of Technology
Communication technology has made rapid
development in recent era . In the initial phase ,
communication technology was “primitive” i.e..
Oral communication was confined to face-to-face
conversation while written required stationary
such as telegraph.
Typewriter came as a pivotal landmark in
improving quality & speed of written
communication. Which further enhanced to
Telephone brought a revolution in oral
Radio and Television enhanced the reach and
effectiveness of a message. Mimeograph &
Photocopy method of mass duplication came into
But the apex development in every form of
conversation is in courtesy to Computer &
The evolution over the period has been depicted as follows :-
Fax (short for facsimile), sometimes
called telecopying or telefax, is the telephonic
transmission of scanned printed material (both
text and images), normally to a telephone
number connected to a printer or other output
device. The original document is scanned with
a fax machine (or a telecopier), which
processes the contents (text or images) as a
single fixed graphic image, converting it into
a bitmap, and then transmitting it through the
telephone system in the form of audio-
The receiving fax machine interprets the tones
and reconstructs the image, printing a paper copy
Boon & Bane of Fax
•Enables accurate multi media transmission .
•Ensures authenticity .
•Admissible as an evidence in court , thereby
stands superior over e-mail in this aspect .
•Can be sent through computer as well.
•Expensive , if compared to e-mail & post.
•Reception disturbs due to defect at either side.
•Difficulty in maintaining secrecy
Short Message Service
Short Message Service (SMS) is a text
messaging service component of phone, Web, or
mobile communication systems. It uses
standardized communication protocols to
allow fixed line or mobile phone devices to
exchange short text messages . A person can
send a SMS from his/her mobile phone to that of
other without any hindrance of time and place. It
is very convenient , inexpensive , wide & quick
means of communication and can be established
at own convenience.