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  1. 1. Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)<br /> Elyssa (Dobrinsky) Rudin<br /> EDUC 803<br />
  2. 2. What is ADHD?<br />ADHD is a “syndrome characterized by serious and persistent difficulties in….attention span, impulse control, and hyperactivity.” (“Teaching Children with”, 1998).<br />It is a chronic disorder that may begin during a child’s infant years and continue through adulthood.<br />Approximately 3-5% of the current school-age population is affected by ADHD (“Teaching Children with”, et. al.).<br />Among all childhood behavior disorders, ADHD is one of the most common ones found in children. (Brock, 2002)<br />
  3. 3. Causes of ADHD <br />The cause of ADHD is unknown, however scientists are looking into the following possible causes and risk factors for ADHD:<br /><ul><li>Genetics
  4. 4. Brain injury
  5. 5. Environmental exposure (example: lead)
  6. 6. Alcohol or tobacco use during pregnancy
  7. 7. Premature delivery
  8. 8. Low birth weight </li></ul>("Facts About ADHD", 2010)<br />
  9. 9. ADHD Signs & Symptoms <br />The three most main symptoms of ADHD are:<br /><ul><li>Inattention
  10. 10. Hyperactivity
  11. 11. Impulsivity </li></ul>Each of the above symptoms have different signs that can be seen in children with ADHD.<br />(Smith, Jaffe-Gill, & Segal, 2010)<br />
  12. 12. Signs of Inattention<br />Individual does not pay attention to detail or makes careless mistakes<br />Distracted easily and has trouble focusing<br />Seems not to listen when being spoken to<br />Has trouble following directions and remembering things<br />Unorganized and has trouble planning ahead and/or finishing products or activities<br />Often loses or misplaces items <br />(Smith,<br />
  13. 13. Signs of Hyperactivity<br />Constantly moving and fidgeting<br />Often gets up from seat at times when sitting quietly is expected<br />Always moving around<br />Talks excessively<br />Has trouble playing quietly<br />Always has lots of energy <br />(Smith, <br />
  14. 14. Signs of Impulsivity<br />Screams out answers without waiting to be called on or before hearing the entire question<br />Has trouble waiting for their turn<br />Frequently interrupts and disrupts others<br />“Intrudes” on other people’s conversations or activities <br />(Smith, <br />
  15. 15. NOTE:<br />Not all children have all three of the above mentioned symptoms, however that is what is most commonly found in children with ADHD. <br />Some children with ADHD may be:<br /><ul><li>Inattentive without being hyperactive or impulsive
  16. 16. Hyperactive and impulsive, but is able to pay attention</li></ul>Being inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive all at the same time is the most common form of ADHD but it is not the ONLY form. <br />(Smith, <br />
  17. 17. Other Signs & Symptoms of ADHD<br />Daydream <br />Easily distracted from what they are doing<br />Forgetful<br />Act and speak before thinking<br />("Facts About ADHD", 2010)<br />
  18. 18. Treatment for ADHD <br />There is no single treatment that will cure ADHD. <br />Medication combined with behavior therapy can help children with ADHD control the symptoms of ADHD <br />("Facts About ADHD", et. al.)<br />
  19. 19. ADHD Myths<br />All children with ADHD are hyperactive<br />Children with ADHD can never pay attention<br /><ul><li>Children with ADHD are often able to focus on activities that they find to be enjoyable</li></ul>Children with ADHD choose to be difficult and could behave better if they wanted to<br /><ul><li>Children with ADHD may seem to deliberately not be listening, but that does not mean that they are necessarily acting out on purpose</li></ul>Children will eventually grow out of ADHD<br /><ul><li>ADHD often continues into adulthood</li></ul>Medication is the best treatment option for ADHD<br /><ul><li>While medication is often prescribed for children with ADHD, it is not always the best option for every child. </li></ul>(Smith, 2010)<br />
  20. 20. Positives of ADHD <br />Creativity<br />Flexibility<br />Enthusiasm and spontaneity<br />Energy and motivation <br />(Smith, et. al.)<br />
  21. 21. Proper Learning Environment<br />Students with ADHD should be seated towards the front of classroom<br /><ul><li>This allows teacher to keep an eye on the student, and limits the possibility of being distracted by other students around them</li></ul>Encourage peer tutoring<br />Have a set daily schedule<br /><ul><li>Any changes in the schedule should be told to the student as much in advance as possible</li></ul>Limit transitions<br /><ul><li>Children with ADHD do not respond well to transitions, so have as few transitions as possible. Make sure to have specific transition goals and expectations set to make necessary transitions go smoother for the child </li></ul>Make directions clear, short, and to the point<br />Avoid giving more than one demand or instruction at a time <br />("Teaching Children with", 1998)<br />
  22. 22. Proper Learning Environment (cont.)<br />Do majority of difficult and academic work in the mornings<br /><ul><li>Children with ADHD tend to be more alert and focused first thing in the morning rather than the afternoon (“How Does ADHD”, 2010).</li></ul>The more stimulation, the better<br /><ul><li>Children with ADHD respond well to stimulating learning environments and having variety in the classroom</li></ul>Keep class or group size small<br />Play soft music<br /><ul><li>This will create a soft atmosphere and help drown out background noise</li></ul>Allow students to get into a comfortable position before starting to work (Andries, 2004). <br />
  23. 23. Most Importantly… <br /> Make sure the classroom is a safe and risk-free environment!!! <br />(“ADHD Helpful Hints”)<br />
  24. 24. References <br />ADHD Helpful Hints for Classroom Teachers. (n.d.). Retrieved from<br />Andries, D. (2004, August 24). Classroom Strategies for ADHD. Retrieved from<br />Brock, S.E. (2002). Helping the Students With ADHD in the Classroom. Retrieved from<br />Facts About ADHD. (2010, May 25). Retrieved from<br />How Does ADHD Affect School Performance? (2010). Retrieved from<br />Smith, M., Jaffe-Gill, E., & Segal, R. (2010, January). ADD / ADHD in Children. Retrieved from<br />Teaching Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD ADD. (1998). Retrieved from<br />