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REPRODUCTION IN HUMANS 
It is one of the most important 
characteristics of life.
WHAT IS REPRODUCTION? 
•Reproduction is 
the life process 
in which living 
things give rise 
to individuals of 
their own...
TYPES OF REPRODUCTION 
Asexual reproduction Sexual reproduction 
 Only one parent is 
involved in this type of 
reproduct...
WHAT IS PUBERTY ? 
 Puberty is the period in children's lives when they 
experience physical changes by which their 
bodi...
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION 
 Two parents are involved. 
 Offspring gets genetic characteristics from both the 
parents. 
 Repr...
REPRODUCTION IN HUMANS 
 Reproduction in humans is sexual reproduction. 
 Fertilization takes places inside mother`s bod...
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYTEM
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYTEM 
 The main organs of male reproductive system 
are: 
 ---testicles or testes 
 ---epididymis 
...
MALE REPRODUCTIVE 
SYSTEM 
 They move down to the outside of the body before the 
baby is born. 
 They are held in a bag...
MALE REPRODUCTIVE 
SYSTEM 
 EPIDIDYMIS : 
They are situated on top and side of every testicles. 
This is a coiled tube in...
MALE REPRODUCTIE SYSTEM 
 URETHRA : 
It runs through the middle of the penis. It is also 
connected to the urinary bladde...
MALE REPRODUCTIE SYSTEM 
Glans penis is covered with a fold of skin called 
foreskin. Fore skin is removed in CIRCUMCISION...
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE 
SYSTEM
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE 
SYSTEM 
 The main organs of female reproductive system 
are: 
 ---ovaries 
 ---uterus 
 ---fallop...
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE 
SYSTEM 
On puberty some of the eggs become matured. A 
matured women releases one ovum every month 
a...
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE 
SYSTEM 
Fallopian tubes or oviduct carry egg from ovaries to 
the uterus. 
 VAGINA : 
It is the musc...
MENSTRUAL CYCLE
MENSTRUAL CYCLE 
 This occurs from the beginning of Puberty. 
 It occurs approximately every month in females. It 
does ...
MENSTRUAL CYCLE 
 This causes menstruation. 
 The length of time of period of bleeding varies 
between girls and also am...
SEXUAL INTERCOURCE 
 Before sexual intercourse, the penis and vagina 
ready itself. 
 Penis becomes erect by action of m...
SEXUAL INTERCOURCE 
 During intercourse the sperms along with semen 
enter into the vagina. 
 The action of releasing se...
SPERMS AND OVUM 
Sperms Ovum 
 Male gametes produced 
in the testicles. 
 Sperm production 
requires lower 
temperature ...
SPERMS AND OVUM 
Sperm Ovum
PATH OF SPERM 
 The sperms do not contain food store to provide 
them energy for movement. 
 The get their nourishment f...
PATH OF SPERM 
 The sperm may survive for 2-3 days before they 
die. During this time if sperm meet an egg 
fertilization...
MOVEMENT OF THE OVUM 
 The ovum has its own food storage. This food 
provides energy and materials for early 
development...
FERTILIZATION 
 When the sperms reach to an ovum in the oviduct 
they crowd around it. The head of only one sperm 
penetr...
FERTILIZATION 
 Pregnancy: the period of time from fertilization or 
conception to the birth of the baby.
DEVELOPMENT OF A BABY 
 After fertilization the zygote divides into 2 cells 
then 4 and so on. It does not increase in si...
THE PLACENTA 
 The cells on the surface of hallow ball cells of the 
zygote will form placenta. 
 FUNCTIONS OF PLACENTA ...
THE PLACENTA
EMBRYO AND FOETUS 
 The placenta forms from the cells on the surface 
of hollow ball of zygote, while embryo is formed 
f...
EMBRYO AND FOETUS 
 At about 16 weeks the foetus starts its 
movement, it is about 10 cm long. By end of 20 
weeks it is ...
EMBRYO AND FOETUS
AMNION AND AMNIONTIC 
FLUID 
 A bag formed around the foetus during the 
development is called amnion. 
 The watery flui...
BIRTH
BIRTH 
 There are three stages of birth process 
 First stage : the muscles in the uterus wall begin to 
contract. The t...
BIRTH 
 LABOUR: THE TWO STAGES FROM THE FIRST 
CONTRACTIONS OF THE UTERS TO THE 
BIRTH OF THE BABY. 
 Third stage : it l...
TWINS 
Non- Identical Twins 
Identical Twins 
 They are dizygotic 
twins. 
 They are formed from 
two different fertiliz...
Reproduction in Human Beings
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Reproduction in Human Beings

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Reproduction in Human Beings

  1. 1. REPRODUCTION IN HUMANS It is one of the most important characteristics of life.
  2. 2. WHAT IS REPRODUCTION? •Reproduction is the life process in which living things give rise to individuals of their own kind. •It ensures perpetuation of their own species. •It brings about variation in the individual to adapt in the given surroundings. •Thus, the individual die but the species is not extinct.
  3. 3. TYPES OF REPRODUCTION Asexual reproduction Sexual reproduction  Only one parent is involved in this type of reproduction.  New individuals are identical to their parent.  Large numbers of new individuals are produced to ensure perpetuation.  Two parents are involved in this type of reproduction.  New individuals are not identical to their parents.  Few numbers of new individuals are produced with varition.
  4. 4. WHAT IS PUBERTY ?  Puberty is the period in children's lives when they experience physical changes by which their bodies eventually become adult bodies that are capable of reproducing.  SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS : Males Females Growth of hair on the face, armpits and pubic region Growth of hair on armpits and pubic region Voice becomes deeper Breasts develop Growth of penis and testicles Growth of vagina and uterus Shoulders grow wider and hevier Pelvis widens
  5. 5. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION  Two parents are involved.  Offspring gets genetic characteristics from both the parents.  Reproduction can be internal or external.  External reproduction takes place in fish, frog.  Internal reproduction takes place in humans, tortoise, crocodile.  The union of male and female gamete is called fertilization.  This results in formation of zygote which is unicellular.  Repetitive cell division of zygote results in formation of embryo.
  6. 6. REPRODUCTION IN HUMANS  Reproduction in humans is sexual reproduction.  Fertilization takes places inside mother`s body.  The male gamete is called SPERM while female gamete is called OVUM or EGG.  The union of sperm and ovum results in formation of embryo which develops in mother`s womb.  After nine months, mother gives a birth to baby.  After the birth, the baby feeds on mother`s milk secreted by her mammary gland for certain time.  As human baby takes birth from mother`s womb, humans are viviparous animals.(Viviparous animals are animals that give live birth and then provide nutrition for the offspring. )
  7. 7. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYTEM
  8. 8. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYTEM  The main organs of male reproductive system are:  ---testicles or testes  ---epididymis  ---vas deferens  ---prostrate gland and seminal vesicles  ---urethra  ---penis  TESTICLES or TESTES :  There is one pair of testicles.  They are developed inside the body of unborn male child.
  9. 9. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM  They move down to the outside of the body before the baby is born.  They are held in a bag of muscles in scrotum region.  They produce male gametes i.e. sperm cells.  Production of sperms requires lower temperature than body temperature.  Hence, testicles are situated outside the body in scrotum region.  The sperms are produced inside the testes in long microscopic tubules called SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES.  The sex hormone TESTOSTERONE is also produced in testes.
  10. 10. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM  EPIDIDYMIS : They are situated on top and side of every testicles. This is a coiled tube in which sperm cells are collected and matured.  VAS DEFERENS : The passage through which sperms travel towards the urethra.  PROSTRATE GLAND AND SEMINAL VESICLE : They are separate glandular structures together their secretion is know as semen or ejaculatory fluid.
  11. 11. MALE REPRODUCTIE SYSTEM  URETHRA : It runs through the middle of the penis. It is also connected to the urinary bladder. It is the tube through which urine flows. Semen and urine do not flow down the urethra at the same time.  Penis : It is cylindrical that delivers the sperms for fertilization. It contains spongy tissue along its length that can fill with blood to make it hard, stiff and erect. The tip of the penis is called GLANS PENIS. Glans penis has large number of receptors and is very sensitive.
  12. 12. MALE REPRODUCTIE SYSTEM Glans penis is covered with a fold of skin called foreskin. Fore skin is removed in CIRCUMCISION.
  13. 13. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  14. 14. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM  The main organs of female reproductive system are:  ---ovaries  ---uterus  ---fallopian tubes / oviduct  ---vagina  OVARIES : Pair of oval shaped organs developed inside the female body. They is present in the lower abdomen and situated on the upper part of the uterus. They produce EGG OR OVUM. They also secrete female hormone, ESTROGEN. At the birth, the ovary contains about 2-4 millions of unmatured eggs.
  15. 15. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM On puberty some of the eggs become matured. A matured women releases one ovum every month as a part of MENSTRUAL CYCLE.  UTERUS : It is the muscular organ present in the lower abdomen. Muscles of uterus have the ability to contract and expand. Growing foetus is accommodated in uterus. Uterus is connected to the vagina by cervix.  FALLOPIAN TUBES / OVIDUCT:
  16. 16. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Fallopian tubes or oviduct carry egg from ovaries to the uterus.  VAGINA : It is the muscular tube like structure in which uterus opens. Vagina opens to the outside next to the opening of urethra. Both openings are protected by folds of skin called LABIA. Labia protects a small pea size called CLITORIS. This region has large number of receptors like glans penis. Vagina is the root for menstrual blood flow. It is the path way for the sperms to enter inside women’s body. During the process of child birth the baby comes out of the mother’s body through vagina.
  17. 17. MENSTRUAL CYCLE
  18. 18. MENSTRUAL CYCLE  This occurs from the beginning of Puberty.  It occurs approximately every month in females. It does not occur when the female is pregnant.  A mature women releases a ovum every month.  This ovum passes from the oviduct to the uterus. If ,on its way it is fertilized then it forms foetus.  But when the ovum is not fertilized it is thrown out of the body through vagina along with the blood and the mucus.  This blood and mucus flow lasts about 3-4 days in every month.
  19. 19. MENSTRUAL CYCLE  This causes menstruation.  The length of time of period of bleeding varies between girls and also amount of blood released.  Some feel pain before the menstruation starts.  This cycle continues until the beginning of menopause which may start at about the age of 45.  During the menopause menstrual cycle may become irregular and eventually stop.
  20. 20. SEXUAL INTERCOURCE  Before sexual intercourse, the penis and vagina ready itself.  Penis becomes erect by action of muscles at the base. Then the blood collects in the spongy tissue making it expand and hard.  The vagina widens itself to ease the passage of penis into it. The lining of vagina secretes a fluid which acts as lubricant and further helps the penis to enter easily.  When penis enters vagina, the male and female make thrusting movements to stimulate sensitive areas of glans penis and clitoris.
  21. 21. SEXUAL INTERCOURCE  During intercourse the sperms along with semen enter into the vagina.  The action of releasing semen is called ejaculation. Usually 3-5ml of semen is ejaculated.
  22. 22. SPERMS AND OVUM Sperms Ovum  Male gametes produced in the testicles.  Sperm production requires lower temperature than body temperature.  They are stored in seminal vesicles.  Parts of sperm: head, middle part, tail.  It can move with tail.  Female gametes produced in the ovaries.  Production of ovum requires normal body temperature.  They are released every month in puberty.  It cannot move and needs cilia to push for
  23. 23. SPERMS AND OVUM Sperm Ovum
  24. 24. PATH OF SPERM  The sperms do not contain food store to provide them energy for movement.  The get their nourishment from semen secreted seminal vesicles and prostrate gland as they make their way from testicles to urethra. This food provides with energy to lash its tail like a whip and sperm move forward.  The sperm move through cervix and mucus lining of uterus wall to the oviduct. Millions of them die during 4-6 hours of their journey only a few 1000 can enter into the oviduct.  As the sperms swim along the oviduct only few100 can reach to ovum- their destination.
  25. 25. PATH OF SPERM  The sperm may survive for 2-3 days before they die. During this time if sperm meet an egg fertilization may occur.
  26. 26. MOVEMENT OF THE OVUM  The ovum has its own food storage. This food provides energy and materials for early development of the embryo if the ovum is fertilized.  This is the reason for ovum being much larger than the sperm.  It does not move by itself. It is moved by the action of cilia in the wall of oviduct.  Cilia moves forward and backward and push the ovum.
  27. 27. FERTILIZATION  When the sperms reach to an ovum in the oviduct they crowd around it. The head of only one sperm penetrates the cell membrane of the ovum. Then the sperm’s head breaks off from the tail and moves through ovum’s cytoplasm to the nucleus. When the head reaches the nucleus fertilization takes place, the head fuses with the nucleus ,this fertilized cell is called ZYGOTE.  Changes to the cell memebrane around the zygote prevent other sperm head entering and fusing with the nucleus. This zygote contain instructions for the development of the baby. Zygote implants on the uterus wall and can develop into baby
  28. 28. FERTILIZATION  Pregnancy: the period of time from fertilization or conception to the birth of the baby.
  29. 29. DEVELOPMENT OF A BABY  After fertilization the zygote divides into 2 cells then 4 and so on. It does not increase in size in first 7 days. The cells become smaller and smaller at each division. After 7 days the cells look like a hallow ball, this ball reaches the uterus and sinks into the thick lining of the uterus walls.  The process of sinking the zygote into the uterus wall is called implantation.
  30. 30. THE PLACENTA  The cells on the surface of hallow ball cells of the zygote will form placenta.  FUNCTIONS OF PLACENTA :  It takes in food and oxygen from mothers blood and supplies to the cells of zygote so that it can grow and divide.  Waste products such as carbon dioxide formed due to cells activity pass across placenta to the mothers blood for elimination.  It separates baby’s blood and mother’s blood.  It makes harmones that stop the overies from producing any more ovum and stop the uterus wall to break as in normal menstrual cycle.  Antibodies pass from mother’s blood to the baby to protect against diseases.
  31. 31. THE PLACENTA
  32. 32. EMBRYO AND FOETUS  The placenta forms from the cells on the surface of hollow ball of zygote, while embryo is formed from the cells inside of the hallow ball.  At the end of the first 2 weeks the development of embryo is like a flat disc. After 4 weeks, embryo develops into a simple body shape with stumps where the limbs will grow.  Internally the heart starts beating. By 8 weeks all the organ systems have developed and the embryo is 2.5 cm long. This embryo after 8 weeks is called foetus. By the end of 14 weeks the sex of the foetus can be reveled by ultra sound scan.
  33. 33. EMBRYO AND FOETUS  At about 16 weeks the foetus starts its movement, it is about 10 cm long. By end of 20 weeks it is 12.5 cm long. Legs are growing quickly.  By end of 28 weeks the foetus turns upside down with its head over the cervix, the alveoli in its lungs begin to grow and continue to grow after birth.  By end of 38 weeks the foetus is about 50 cm long and has mass about 3 kg, the baby is ready born.  Gestation period: length of time during fertilization and birth. It is about 40 weeks.
  34. 34. EMBRYO AND FOETUS
  35. 35. AMNION AND AMNIONTIC FLUID  A bag formed around the foetus during the development is called amnion.  The watery fluid inside amnion is called amniotic fluid.  This fluid acts like a cushion around the foetus and protects it from pressures outside the uterus.  It allows the foetus to float freely so that the growing limbs have space to develop.
  36. 36. BIRTH
  37. 37. BIRTH  There are three stages of birth process  First stage : the muscles in the uterus wall begin to contract. The time between successive contractions is 30 minutes at first. Then it reduces to 2-3 minutes. At some point during contraction, amnion breaks and amniotic fluid passes down through vagina, this is called breaking of waters. At the end the cervix widens, enabling the head of the foetus to come out.  Second stage : the mother contracts her abdominal with contractions of the uterus, to push the foetus down the birth canal. This stage may last up to few minutes and is completed when the baby is born. The umbilical cord is cut and clamped to prevent loss of blood.
  38. 38. BIRTH  LABOUR: THE TWO STAGES FROM THE FIRST CONTRACTIONS OF THE UTERS TO THE BIRTH OF THE BABY.  Third stage : it lasts for about 20 minutes after the second. During this time the placenta comes away from the walls of uterus, and passes down the vagina. When it has left the mother , the placenta is called after birth.
  39. 39. TWINS Non- Identical Twins Identical Twins  They are dizygotic twins.  They are formed from two different fertilized eggs.  Two different sperms fertilize two different eggs.  They have different genetic material.  They are monozygotic twins.  They are formed from same fertilized eggs.  One sperms fertilize one eggs and divides into 2 to form 2 different embryo.  They have same genetic material.

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