Sickle cell anemia presentation

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sickle cell anemia

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Sickle cell anemia presentation

  1. 1. Prepared by: Adil khan. SICKLE CELL ANEMIA
  2. 2. SICKLE CELL ANEMIA:  Sickle cell anemia is a disease in which the body makes sickle-shaped red blood cells  Normal red blood cells are disc-shaped .They move easily through blood vessels.  Red blood cells contain an iron-rich protein called hemoglobin. This protein carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body  Sickle cells contain abnormal hemoglobin called sickle hemoglobin or hemoglobin S. Sickle hemoglobin causes the cells to develop a sickle shape.
  3. 3.  Sickle cells are stiff and sticky.  They tend to block blood flow in the blood vessels of the limbs and other organs. Blocked blood flow can cause pain and organ damage
  4. 4. TYPES • There are the following types. • Sickle cell trait (HbAS) • A person has an HbS gene and normal hemoglobin A gene (HbA). • Under normal circumstances, these person have no symptoms of sickle cell disease • Such children have no symptoms of sickle cell disease. • Sickle cell anemia (HbSS) • Person having two HbS genes, one inherited from each parent • variety of symptoms and complications of sickle cell disease occur
  5. 5. SICKLE CELL TRAIT AND SICKLE CELL DISEASE
  6. 6. CAUSE  Red blood cells contain hemoglobin  Haemoglobin consist of two alpha and two beta chains  In beta chain a single nucleotide is change, from GAG TO GTG.  GAG codon code glutamic acid and GTG code valine. So here the whole protein structure is change and this type of mutation is called miss sense mutation.  So miss sense mutation is responsible for sickle cell anemia.
  7. 7. EPIDEMIOLOGY  The highest frequency of sickle cell disease is found in tropical regions, particularly Africa, India and the Middle-East.  total of 150,000 affected children born every year in Nigeria alone.  About 70,000 people in the United States have sickle cell disease  In Saudi Arabia about 4.2% of the population carry the sickle-cell trait and 0.26% have sickle cell disease  Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) affects 90,000 Americans
  8. 8. DIAGNOSES • Diagnosis of sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait can be done through blood testing. • A special technique is also used called hemoglobin electrophoresis • Hemoglobin Electrophoresis: A small blood sample is taken and sent to a laboratory where the percentage of normal and abnormal hemoglobin is measured.
  9. 9. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS • The most common symptom of anemia is fatigue (feeling tired or weak). Other signs and symptoms of anemia include: • Shortness of breath • Headaches • Coldness in the hands and feet • Jaundice (a yellowish color of the skin or whites of the eyes) • Hand –foot syndrome due to the blockage of blood vessels in the hands and feet. • Organs like spleen and liver also damages.
  10. 10. TREATMENT • Treatment of sickle cell anemia includes: • pain medications (for example, morphine). • Anti-inflammatory medications (for example, ibuprofen). • Antibiotics for infection. • Intravenous or oral fluids. • Transfusions of red blood cells are given for anemia. • Stem cell transplant is performed in young patients with severe sickle cell disease.
  11. 11. Thanks…….

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