Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Software Project Management
Activity Planning
Chapter 6
Lecture Slides By Adil Aslam
Email Me : adilaslam5959@gmail.com
Introduction
An Schedule in a Project Plan
• Ensure that the appropriate resources will be available
precisely when requir...
The Objectives of Activity Planning
• Providing project and resource schedules
• Feasibility Assessment: is a project poss...
Activity Planning and Scheduling Techniques
• The techniques place an emphasis on
• completing the project in a minimum ti...
When to Plan
• Planning is an ongoing process of refinement
• Each iteration becoming more detailed and more
accurate than...
Project Schedules
• A project schedule is a detailed project plan
showing dates when each activity should start
and finish...
Project Schedule (Four Main Stages)
• Constructing an ideal activity plan
• What activities need to be carried out and in ...
Project Schedules
Notes by Adil Aslam 8
Projects And Activities
• Defining Project and Activities
• A project is composed of a number of interrelated activities
•...
Identifying Activities
• Activity-based approach
• The product-based approach
• Hybrid approach
Notes by Adil Aslam 10
The Activity-Based Approach
• Consists of creating a list of all the activities
• A brainstorming session involving the wh...
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
• Creating a WBS is a much favored way of
generating a task list
• Involves identifying the...
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
• A fragment of an activity-based Work Breakdown
Structure
Notes by Adil Aslam 13
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
• Need to consider the final level of detail or depth
of the structure
• Too great of depth...
The Product-Based Approach
• Consists of producing a Product Breakdown Structure
(PBS) and a Product Flow Diagram (PFD)
• ...
The Product-Based Approach
• A set of generic PBS for each stage in SSDAM
Notes by Adil Aslam 16
The Hybrid Approach
• An alternative WBS based on
• A simple list of final deliverables
• For each deliverable, a set of a...
The Hybrid Approach
• A WBS based on deliverables
Notes by Adil Aslam 18
The Hybrid Approach
• IBM recommended the following five levels
• Level 1: Project
• Level 2: Deliverables
• Level 3: Comp...
Network Planning Models
• Sequencing the tasks according to their logical
relationship, and then scheduling them taking in...
Activity-On-Arrow
• Used by CPM (Critical Path Method) and PERT (Program
Evaluation Review Technique) to visualize the pro...
Activity-On-Node
• Used by precedence networks
• Has become popular
• Widely adopted
• Activities are represented as nodes...
Formulating A Network Model
• Constructing Precedence Network Rules
• A project network should have only one start node
• ...
Fragment of Precedence Network
• Installation cannot start until program testing is completed
• Program test cannot start ...
Network Contains Loop
• A loop is an error in that it represents a situation that
cannot occur in practice
• Program testi...
Formulating A Network Model
A Dangle
• A dangling activity such as “write user manual” should not
exist as it is likely to...
Formulating A Network Model
Resolving The Dangle
• The figure implies that the project is complete once the
software has b...
Formulating A Network Model
Labelling Convention
• There are a number of differing conventions that have
been adopted
• Ex...
Adding The Time Dimension
• The critical path approach
• Planning the project in such way that it is completed as
quickly ...
Adding The Time Dimension
Example of Estimated Activity Duration of A
Project
Notes by Adil Aslam 30
Activity Duration (we...
Identifying The Critical Path
The Critical Path
Notes by Adil Aslam 31
Method Used for Networking Planning
• PERT
• Program Evaluation and Review Technique
• Developed by U.S. Navy for Polaris ...
Method Used for Networking Planning
• CPM
• PERT
• Managing a project with networking planning
method involves four steps
...
PERT/CPM
• Project managers rely on PERT/CPM to help
them answer questions such as:
• What is the total time to complete t...
Critical Path Method(CPM)
• The CPM method is an algorithm for scheduling a set of
project activities.
• The process for d...
• The essential technique use for CPM is to
construct a model of the project that include the
following :
 A list of all ...
Steps in CPM Project Planning
• Specify the individual activities
• Determine the sequences of those activities
• Draw a n...
CPM Calculation
• Path
• A connected sequence of activities leading from the
starting event to the ending event
• Critical...
CPM Calculation
• In order to calculate the critical path two
calculations take palace
The forward pass
• Calculate the E...
• Early Start (ES)
• Earliest time an activity can start once the previous
dependent activity is over.
• Early Finish (EF)...
• Last Start(LS)
• Latest time an activity can start without delaying critical
path time .
• In One method
• LS = LF – D +...
• Slack time (S)
• Slack time for an activity is the difference b/w Earliest
and Latest Start Time or b/w Earliest and Lat...
• Type of float
• Free Float
• Interfering Float
• Total Float
Notes by Adil Aslam 43
CPM Calculation
Type of Float/Slack
• Free Float (FF)
• The by which an activity may be delayed without
affecting any subsequent activity....
 Total Float
• TF refers to maxim flexibility or margin available
for delaying an activity.
• It would be difference betw...
 Interfering Float
• It is difference b/w total float and free float.
Notes by Adil Aslam 46
Type of Float/Slack
Example
Notes by Adil Aslam 47
Zero and One method
• Zero Method assumption:
• All starts and ends are at the end of a time period.
• One Method assumpti...
Example: Frank’s Fine Floats
Notes by Adil Aslam 49
Immediate Completion
Activity Description Predecessors Time (days)
A I...
Project Network
Notes by Adil Aslam 50
Start Finish
B
3
D
3
A
3
C
2
G
6F
3
H
2
E
7
Activity Name
Completion
Time
Using Zero Method
Notes by Adil Aslam 51
Earliest Start and Finish Times
• Step 1: Make a forward pass through the network as
follows: For each activity i beginnin...
Point To Note (Decision Point)
Note : in Activity “F” Which Previous EF valve is Put ,
Because there are Two Values one fr...
Earliest Start and Finish Times
Notes by Adil Aslam 54
Start Finish
3 6B
3
6 9D
3
0 3A
3
3 5C
2
12 18G
66 9F
3
5 7H
2
5 12...
Latest Start and Finish Times
• Step 2: Make a backwards pass through the network as
follows: Move sequentially backwards ...
Note (Decision Point)
• In Backward Path at a decision point Like below you can
see on Activity C which Latest Start (LS) ...
Latest Start and Finish Times
Notes by Adil Aslam 57
Start Finish
3 6
6 9
B
3
6 9
9 12
D
3
0 3
0 3
A
3
3 5
3 5
C
2
12 18
1...
Determining the Critical Path
• Step 3: Calculate the slack time for each activity
by:
Slack = (Latest Start) - (Earliest ...
Activity Slack Time
Notes by Adil Aslam 59
• Activity Slack Time
Activity ES EF LS LF Slack
A 0 3 0 3 0 (crit.)
B 3 6 6 9 ...
Determining the Critical Path
• A critical path is a path of activities, from the Start node
to the Finish node, with 0 sl...
Critical Path
Notes by Adil Aslam 61
Start Finish
3 6
6 9
B
3
6 9
9 12
D
3
0 3
0 3
A
3
3 5
3 5
C
2
12 18
12 18
G
66 9
15 1...
Notes by Adil Aslam 62
Another Example
Notes by Adil Aslam 63
Draw a Network
One Method
• Early Start (ES) = 1.
• EF = ES + D – 1 for the forward pass.
Notes by Adil Aslam 64
Notes by Adil Aslam 65
EF=ES+D-1
EF=1+6-1=6
LS=LF-D+1
LS=6-4+1=3
S=LF –EF
OR
S=LS-ES
S=6-3=3
Last time activity is
complet...
Critical Path
• Activity C,A and R have Slack Zero. Check in Previous
Network Diagram.
• So Critical Path is : Start - C –...
Zero Method
• Based on the same network diagram, the earliest the
activity can begin is at the end of week zero. Therefore...
Using Zero Method
Notes by Adil Aslam 68
EF=ES+D
EF=0+6=6
LS=LF-D
LS=6-4=2
S=LF=EF
S=6-3=3 ES=Previous EF
Advantages and Disadvantages
• Advantages of CPM
• Helpful for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling projects
• The acti...
Notes by Adil Aslam 70
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Activity Planning in Software Project Management

11,533 views

Published on

An Schedule in a Project Plan
The Objectives of Activity Planning
Project Schedules
Projects And Activities
Identifying Activities
The Activity-Based Approach
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
The Product-Based Approach
The Hybrid Approach
Network Planning Models
Adding The Time Dimension
Method Used for Networking Planning
Critical Path Method(CPM)
Critical Path Method Example
Steps in CPM Project Planning
Zero and One Methods
Earliest Start and Finish Times
Advantages of CPM

Published in: Education

Activity Planning in Software Project Management

  1. 1. Software Project Management Activity Planning Chapter 6 Lecture Slides By Adil Aslam Email Me : adilaslam5959@gmail.com
  2. 2. Introduction An Schedule in a Project Plan • Ensure that the appropriate resources will be available precisely when required • Avoid different activities competing for the same resources at the same time • Produce a detailed schedule showing which staff carry out each activity • Produce a detailed plan against which actual achievement may be measured • Produce a timed cash flow forecast • Replan the project during its life to correct drift from the target Notes by Adil Aslam 2
  3. 3. The Objectives of Activity Planning • Providing project and resource schedules • Feasibility Assessment: is a project possible within required timescales? • Resource Allocation: what are the most effective way of allocating resources? • Detailed Costing: How much will the project cost and when is that expenditure to take place? • Motivation: Providing targets is an effective way of motivating staff • Coordination: when do other staff (in other departments) need to be available? Notes by Adil Aslam 3
  4. 4. Activity Planning and Scheduling Techniques • The techniques place an emphasis on • completing the project in a minimum time at an acceptable cost • meeting a set target dates at minimum cost • One effective way of shortening project duration is to carry out activities in parallel • Not all activities can be carried out in parallel Notes by Adil Aslam 4
  5. 5. When to Plan • Planning is an ongoing process of refinement • Each iteration becoming more detailed and more accurate than the last • Over successive iterations, the emphasis and purpose of planning will shift • Timescales, risks, resource availability, cash flow control Notes by Adil Aslam 5
  6. 6. Project Schedules • A project schedule is a detailed project plan showing dates when each activity should start and finish and when and how much of each resource will be required • Creating a project schedule comprises four main stages Notes by Adil Aslam 6
  7. 7. Project Schedule (Four Main Stages) • Constructing an ideal activity plan • What activities need to be carried out and in what order • Risk analysis • Identifying potential problems • Resource allocation • The expected availability of resources might place constraints on when certain activities can be carried out • Schedule production Notes by Adil Aslam 7
  8. 8. Project Schedules Notes by Adil Aslam 8
  9. 9. Projects And Activities • Defining Project and Activities • A project is composed of a number of interrelated activities • A project may start when at least one of its activities is ready to start • A project will be completed when all of the activities it encompasses have been completed • An activity must have a clearly defined start and a clearly defined end-point • If an activity requires a resource then that resource requirement must be forecastable • The duration of an activity must be forecastable • Some activities might require that others are completed before they can begin Notes by Adil Aslam 9
  10. 10. Identifying Activities • Activity-based approach • The product-based approach • Hybrid approach Notes by Adil Aslam 10
  11. 11. The Activity-Based Approach • Consists of creating a list of all the activities • A brainstorming session involving the whole project team • An analysis of past projects • When listing activities, it might be helpful to sub- divide the project into the main life-style stages and consider each of these separately Notes by Adil Aslam 11
  12. 12. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) • Creating a WBS is a much favored way of generating a task list • Involves identifying the main (or high level) tasks required to complete a project and then breaking each of these down into a set of lower-level tasks Notes by Adil Aslam 12
  13. 13. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) • A fragment of an activity-based Work Breakdown Structure Notes by Adil Aslam 13
  14. 14. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) • Need to consider the final level of detail or depth of the structure • Too great of depth will result in a large number of small tasks • Too shallow structure will provide insufficient detail for project control • Each branch should be broken down at least to a leaf where each leaf may be assigned to an individual or responsible team Notes by Adil Aslam 14
  15. 15. The Product-Based Approach • Consists of producing a Product Breakdown Structure (PBS) and a Product Flow Diagram (PFD) • The PFD indicates, for each product, which other products are required as inputs • Easily transformed into an ordered list of activities • Proponents claim that it is less likely that a product will be left out of a PBS than that an activity might be omitted from an unstructured activity list • Particularly appropriate if using a life cycle methodology such as waterfall • Clearly specifies, for each step or task, each of the products required and the activities required to produce it Notes by Adil Aslam 15
  16. 16. The Product-Based Approach • A set of generic PBS for each stage in SSDAM Notes by Adil Aslam 16
  17. 17. The Hybrid Approach • An alternative WBS based on • A simple list of final deliverables • For each deliverable, a set of activities required to produce that product • As with a purely activity-based WBS, having identified the activities, we are then left with the task of sequencing them Notes by Adil Aslam 17
  18. 18. The Hybrid Approach • A WBS based on deliverables Notes by Adil Aslam 18
  19. 19. The Hybrid Approach • IBM recommended the following five levels • Level 1: Project • Level 2: Deliverables • Level 3: Components • Level 4: Work-packages • Level 5: Tasks Notes by Adil Aslam 19
  20. 20. Network Planning Models • Sequencing the tasks according to their logical relationship, and then scheduling them taking into account resources and other factor • Modeling the project’s activities and their relationship as a network • Time flows from left to right • Originally developed in the 1950’s • Two best known: CPM and PERT Notes by Adil Aslam 20
  21. 21. Activity-On-Arrow • Used by CPM (Critical Path Method) and PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique) to visualize the project as a network • Activities are drawn as arrow joining circles, or nodes, which represent the possible start and/or completion of an activity or set of activities Notes by Adil Aslam 21
  22. 22. Activity-On-Node • Used by precedence networks • Has become popular • Widely adopted • Activities are represented as nodes • The links between nodes represent precedence (or sequencing) requirements Notes by Adil Aslam 22
  23. 23. Formulating A Network Model • Constructing Precedence Network Rules • A project network should have only one start node • More than one activity starting at once? Invent a ‘start’ activity with zero duration • A project network should have only one end node • If necessary, invent an ‘end’ activity • A node has duration • Links normally have no duration • Precedents are the immediate preceding activities • All have to be completed before an activity can be started • Time moves from left to right • A network may not contain loops • A network should not contain dangles • If necessary, connect to the final node Notes by Adil Aslam 23
  24. 24. Fragment of Precedence Network • Installation cannot start until program testing is completed • Program test cannot start until both code and data take- on have been completed Notes by Adil Aslam 24
  25. 25. Network Contains Loop • A loop is an error in that it represents a situation that cannot occur in practice • Program testing cannot start until errors have been corrected? Notes by Adil Aslam 25
  26. 26. Formulating A Network Model A Dangle • A dangling activity such as “write user manual” should not exist as it is likely to lead to errors in subsequent analysis Notes by Adil Aslam 26
  27. 27. Formulating A Network Model Resolving The Dangle • The figure implies that the project is complete once the software has been installed and the user manual written • We should redraw the network with a final completion activity Notes by Adil Aslam 27
  28. 28. Formulating A Network Model Labelling Convention • There are a number of differing conventions that have been adopted • Example Notes by Adil Aslam 28
  29. 29. Adding The Time Dimension • The critical path approach • Planning the project in such way that it is completed as quickly as possible • Identifying delayed activities • The method requires the estimation of duration of each activity • Forward pass: calculate the earliest dates at which activities may commence and the project completed • Backward pass: calculate the latest start dates for activities and the critical path Notes by Adil Aslam 29
  30. 30. Adding The Time Dimension Example of Estimated Activity Duration of A Project Notes by Adil Aslam 30 Activity Duration (weeks) Precedents A Hardware selection 6 B Software design 4 C Install hardware 3 A D Code & test software 4 B E File take-on 3 B F Write user manuals 10 G User training 3 E, F H Install & test system 2 C,D
  31. 31. Identifying The Critical Path The Critical Path Notes by Adil Aslam 31
  32. 32. Method Used for Networking Planning • PERT • Program Evaluation and Review Technique • Developed by U.S. Navy for Polaris missile project • Developed to handle uncertain activity times • CPM • Critical Path Method • Developed by Du Pont & Remington Rand • Developed for industrial projects for which activity times generally were known • Today’s project management software packages have combined the best features of both approaches. Notes by Adil Aslam 32
  33. 33. Method Used for Networking Planning • CPM • PERT • Managing a project with networking planning method involves four steps  Describing the project  Diagraming the network  Estimation time of completion.  Monitoring project progress Notes by Adil Aslam 33
  34. 34. PERT/CPM • Project managers rely on PERT/CPM to help them answer questions such as: • What is the total time to complete the project? • What are the scheduled start and finish dates for each specific activity? • Which activities are critical and must be completed exactly as scheduled to keep the project on schedule? • How long can noncritical activities be delayed before they cause an increase in the project completion time? Notes by Adil Aslam 34
  35. 35. Critical Path Method(CPM) • The CPM method is an algorithm for scheduling a set of project activities. • The process for determining and optimizing the critical path. • It is an impartment tool for effective project management. • Commonly used with all form of projects. • For example Research project, product development . Notes by Adil Aslam 35
  36. 36. • The essential technique use for CPM is to construct a model of the project that include the following :  A list of all activities require to complete the project(also know as WBS)  The time(duration) that take each activity will take to completion.  The dependencies b/w the activities . Notes by Adil Aslam 36 Critical Path Method(CPM)
  37. 37. Steps in CPM Project Planning • Specify the individual activities • Determine the sequences of those activities • Draw a network diagram • Estimate the completion time for each activity • Identify the critical path (longest path through the network) • Update the CPM diagram as the project progresses. Notes by Adil Aslam 37
  38. 38. CPM Calculation • Path • A connected sequence of activities leading from the starting event to the ending event • Critical Path • The longest path (time); determines the project duration • Critical Activities • All of the activities that make up the critical path Notes by Adil Aslam 38
  39. 39. CPM Calculation • In order to calculate the critical path two calculations take palace The forward pass • Calculate the Early Start (ES) and Earliest Finish(EF) Time dates for activities. The backward pass • Calculate the Latest Start Time (LS) and Latest finish time (LF) dates for activities. Notes by Adil Aslam 39
  40. 40. • Early Start (ES) • Earliest time an activity can start once the previous dependent activity is over. • Early Finish (EF) • Earliest time an activity can finish • In One method • EF = ES + D – 1 for the forward pass • In Zero method • EF = ES + D Notes by Adil Aslam 40 Time(Duration) CPM Calculation
  41. 41. • Last Start(LS) • Latest time an activity can start without delaying critical path time . • In One method • LS = LF – D + 1 for the backward pass • In Zero method • LS = LF – D for backward pass • Last Finish(LF) • Latest time an activity can be completed without delaying critical path time. Notes by Adil Aslam 41 CPM Calculation
  42. 42. • Slack time (S) • Slack time for an activity is the difference b/w Earliest and Latest Start Time or b/w Earliest and Latest Finish Time. • Critical path is path of activities having zero slack time. • Slack time also call the Float. Notes by Adil Aslam 42 CPM Calculation
  43. 43. • Type of float • Free Float • Interfering Float • Total Float Notes by Adil Aslam 43 CPM Calculation
  44. 44. Type of Float/Slack • Free Float (FF) • The by which an activity may be delayed without affecting any subsequent activity. • It is calculated by as the difference b/w earliest completion date for the activity and the early start date of the succeeding activity. • Simply we can say • FF=ES for Following activity – EF for the current activity. Notes by Adil Aslam 44
  45. 45.  Total Float • TF refers to maxim flexibility or margin available for delaying an activity. • It would be difference between EF and LF of the same Node. • Total Float=LF-EF • Total Float=LS-ES Notes by Adil Aslam 45 Type of Float/Slack
  46. 46.  Interfering Float • It is difference b/w total float and free float. Notes by Adil Aslam 46 Type of Float/Slack
  47. 47. Example Notes by Adil Aslam 47
  48. 48. Zero and One method • Zero Method assumption: • All starts and ends are at the end of a time period. • One Method assumption: • All starts are at the beginning of a time period, and all finishes are at the end of a time period. Notes by Adil Aslam 48
  49. 49. Example: Frank’s Fine Floats Notes by Adil Aslam 49 Immediate Completion Activity Description Predecessors Time (days) A Initial Paperwork --- 3 B Build Body A 3 C Build Frame A 2 D Finish Body B 3 E Finish Frame C 7 F Final Paperwork B,C 3 G Mount Body to Frame D,E 6 H Install Skirt on Frame C 2
  50. 50. Project Network Notes by Adil Aslam 50 Start Finish B 3 D 3 A 3 C 2 G 6F 3 H 2 E 7 Activity Name Completion Time
  51. 51. Using Zero Method Notes by Adil Aslam 51
  52. 52. Earliest Start and Finish Times • Step 1: Make a forward pass through the network as follows: For each activity i beginning at the Start node, compute: • Earliest Start Time = the maximum of the earliest finish times of all activities immediately preceding activity i. (This is 0 for an activity with no predecessors.) • Earliest Finish Time = (Earliest Start Time) + (Time to complete activity i ). • The project completion time is the maximum of the Earliest Finish Times at the Finish node. • Start from start node then A then B,C and so on,, Notes by Adil Aslam 52
  53. 53. Point To Note (Decision Point) Note : in Activity “F” Which Previous EF valve is Put , Because there are Two Values one from Activity B and other is from Activity C is comes toward to F. See Below : Activity B has EF=6 and Activity C has EF=5 So, Big EF is Put in Activity F that is 6. Notes by Adil Aslam 53 Start 3 6B 3 0 3A 3 3 5C 2 6 9F 3
  54. 54. Earliest Start and Finish Times Notes by Adil Aslam 54 Start Finish 3 6B 3 6 9D 3 0 3A 3 3 5C 2 12 18G 66 9F 3 5 7H 2 5 12E 7 EF=ES+D EF=0+3=3 ES Duration (D) Previous EF So here which Previous EF is Mention. Answer is the big number is Put here (12) not 9 EF=ES+D EF=5+7=12 Forward Path
  55. 55. Latest Start and Finish Times • Step 2: Make a backwards pass through the network as follows: Move sequentially backwards from the Finish node to the Start node. At a given node, j, consider all activities ending at node j. For each of these activities, i, compute: • Latest Finish Time = the minimum of the latest start times beginning at node j. (For node N, this is the project completion time.) • Latest Start Time = (Latest Finish Time) - (Time to complete activity i ). • Start in Backward path from node finish and then node G,H then so on… Notes by Adil Aslam 55
  56. 56. Note (Decision Point) • In Backward Path at a decision point Like below you can see on Activity C which Latest Start (LS) value is Put . • So there are three LS values Activity F has LS=15, Activity E has LS=5 and Activity H has LS=16. • So we Select the smallest value of LS which is 5 so Put in C as a LF Notes by Adil Aslam 56 Start 0 3 0 3 A 3 3 5 3 5 C 2 6 9 15 18 F 3 5 7 16 18 H 2 5 12 5 12 E 7
  57. 57. Latest Start and Finish Times Notes by Adil Aslam 57 Start Finish 3 6 6 9 B 3 6 9 9 12 D 3 0 3 0 3 A 3 3 5 3 5 C 2 12 18 12 18 G 66 9 15 18 F 3 5 7 16 18 H 2 5 12 5 12 E 7 Backward Path Here LF=EF Here LF=EFLS=LF-D=18-2=16 So here Which value is put because two LS are Reached on “C” one is E and other one is H so small value is put here (5) not 16
  58. 58. Determining the Critical Path • Step 3: Calculate the slack time for each activity by: Slack = (Latest Start) - (Earliest Start), or = (Latest Finish) - (Earliest Finish). Notes by Adil Aslam 58
  59. 59. Activity Slack Time Notes by Adil Aslam 59 • Activity Slack Time Activity ES EF LS LF Slack A 0 3 0 3 0 (crit.) B 3 6 6 9 3 C 3 5 3 5 0 (crit.) D 6 9 9 12 3 E 5 12 5 12 0 (crit.) F 6 9 15 18 9 G 12 18 12 18 0 (crit.) H 5 7 16 18 11
  60. 60. Determining the Critical Path • A critical path is a path of activities, from the Start node to the Finish node, with 0 slack times. • Critical Path: • The project completion time equals the maximum of the activities’ earliest finish times. • Project Completion Time: Notes by Adil Aslam 60 A – C – E - G 24 days
  61. 61. Critical Path Notes by Adil Aslam 61 Start Finish 3 6 6 9 B 3 6 9 9 12 D 3 0 3 0 3 A 3 3 5 3 5 C 2 12 18 12 18 G 66 9 15 18 F 3 5 7 16 18 H 2 5 12 5 12 E 7
  62. 62. Notes by Adil Aslam 62 Another Example
  63. 63. Notes by Adil Aslam 63 Draw a Network
  64. 64. One Method • Early Start (ES) = 1. • EF = ES + D – 1 for the forward pass. Notes by Adil Aslam 64
  65. 65. Notes by Adil Aslam 65 EF=ES+D-1 EF=1+6-1=6 LS=LF-D+1 LS=6-4+1=3 S=LF –EF OR S=LS-ES S=6-3=3 Last time activity is completed in 16 Time(Duration) Using One Method
  66. 66. Critical Path • Activity C,A and R have Slack Zero. Check in Previous Network Diagram. • So Critical Path is : Start - C – A - R – End • Completion time of Project is : 16 because Last Activity completion time is 16. Notes by Adil Aslam 66
  67. 67. Zero Method • Based on the same network diagram, the earliest the activity can begin is at the end of week zero. Therefore, Early Start (ES) = 0. • EF = ES + D for the forward pass. Notes by Adil Aslam 67
  68. 68. Using Zero Method Notes by Adil Aslam 68 EF=ES+D EF=0+6=6 LS=LF-D LS=6-4=2 S=LF=EF S=6-3=3 ES=Previous EF
  69. 69. Advantages and Disadvantages • Advantages of CPM • Helpful for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling projects • The activities and their outcomes can be shown as a network • CMP determines the project duration, which minimized the sum of direct and indirect costs • Evaluates which activities can run parallel to each other • Displays dependencies to help scheduling • Disadvantages • CPM's can be complicated, and complexity increases for larger projects • Does not handle the scheduling of personnel or the allocation of resources • The critical path is not always clear and needs to be calculated carefully • Estimating activity completion times can be difficult Notes by Adil Aslam 69
  70. 70. Notes by Adil Aslam 70

×