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Biodiesel Production 2007-2008

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Biodiesel Production 2007-2008

  1. 1. Biodiesel Feed Stock, Production Technology
  2. 2. BIODIESEL CONCEPT <ul><ul><li>Diesel (Petroleum derived) Oil When Substituted Partly or Wholly by a Liquid Fuel Derived from Renewable Resource Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rudolf Diesel First Demonstrated in 1900 that Renewable Resource Material like Groundnut (Peanut) oil as a Fuel in Diesel Engine in Place of Petroleum Diesel Without any Problem. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Biodiesel <ul><ul><li>The present Concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion of Oils/Fats to Alkyl Esters of Monohydric Alcohols to overcome Problems of High Viscosity, High Boiling Point and Reactivity make </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel is Now Defined Exclusively as the ‘Monoalkyl’ Esters of the Long Chain Fatty Acids Derived from the Oils/Fats of Vegetable and Animal Origins that Fulfill almost all the Requirements of Petroleum-Derived Diesels . </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. BIODIESEL FEEDSTOCK <ul><li>(A) Oils & Fats of Plant And Animal Origins </li></ul><ul><li>(B) Refinery byproducts like </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Fatty Acid Distillates (FADs) (Palm FADs). </li></ul><ul><li>(2)Acid Oils (Soyabean, Rice bran, Coconut, Mustard). </li></ul><ul><li>(C) Used Oils Like Frying Oils. </li></ul>
  5. 5. CPO MILLING
  6. 6. TRADITIONAL COCONUT OIL PRODUCTION
  7. 7. TRADITIONAL COCONUT OIL PRODUCTION
  8. 8. separations Triglyceride
  9. 9. LABORATORY SCALE PRODUCTION
  10. 10. <ul><li>ESTERIFICATION </li></ul>Alcohol + Acid  Ester + Water The reaction of fatty acid with an alcohol produces ester and water. The esters can be separated from the water because they have low solubility in it . Esters can be produced under conditions of low or high temperature and the crude product is distilled, bleached and deodorised as appropriate before a pure ester is produced.
  11. 11. <ul><li>Chemical catalyst process </li></ul><ul><li>Biocatalyst process </li></ul>CATALYST
  12. 12. One Step Process with a Base Catalyst like Sodium Hydroxide or Potassium Hydroxide or their Alkoxides when the Oils/Fats are Refined (RBD). Two-Step Process on oils Containing FREE FATTY ACIDS (I) Esterification with Conc. H 2 SO 4, H 3 PO 4 (ii) Transesterification with a base catalyst NaOH, KOH or High Pressure Esterification and Alcoholysis for straight way conversion to Biodiesel.   Chemical Catalyst Process
  13. 13. One-Step Biocatalyst Process for Biodiesel Production <ul><ul><li>Simultaneous Esterification And Transesterification (Alcoholysis) of Triglyceride Oils. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Esterification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R.COOH + MeOH R.COOMe + H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. CH 2 OCOR CH2OH Lipase CHOCOR + 3MeOH 3 R.COOMe + CHOH   CH 2 OCOR CH2OH TRANSESTERIFICATION Lipase Candida Cylindraceae, Candida Rugosa, Candida Antartica & Lipase 3A (1,3-specific lipase)
  15. 15. A. Single Stage or Direct Transesterification (Alcoholysis) Process.   Refined or Neutral Oil (< 1.5% F.F.A.)‏ + Alcohol (Methanol) 1.6-2 Times Chemic al Process For Biodiesel Production
  16. 16. Theoretical Amount Base Catalyst 50 0 C-70 0 C KOH OR NaOH 4-6 Hr.   0.3-1.5% or NaOMe 0.5% or Less ALKYL ESTER PRODUCT Necessary Post-Treatment   BIODIESEL (95% yield of 97% purity)‏      
  17. 17. 1 st STAGE ESTERIFICATION PROCESS Acid Catalyst + Alcohol (1.6-2 Times (Conc. H 2 SO 4 the Th. Amount) 0.1-1% on F.F.A 100 0 -120 0 C/10-12 hrs. Basis Or 60 0 C/4-5 hrs.Or 35 0 C/2 hrs.1-2 hrs. Ester Phase Glycerol Phase B. TWO-STAGE (COMBINED ESTERIFICATION AND TRANSESTERIFICATION) PROCESS .
  18. 18. 2 nd STAGE TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS ESTER PHASE Base Reflux Or at 60 0 C Catalyst For 0.5-6hrs. Alkyl Ester Phase Glycerol Phase Purification Acidified Final Ester Biodiesel Glycerol Phase Acidic Esters Purification  
  19. 19. AUTOCATALYTIC ESTERIFICATION PROCESS Acidic Oils (>5% FFA) Or Acid Oils (>50% FFA)‏ Esterifying Agent 180 0 C-220 0 C Like Glycerol 2-6 Torr, (Theoretical Or 6-12 hrs 20-60% Excess Over theoretical Neutral Oil Transesterification Process Methyl Ester Glycerol Purification (Recycled in the Esterification)‏ Biodiesel
  20. 20.   Oil + Methanol (1:42 )‏ 300-500 0 C 300 Atmospheres Times 3-4 minutes Methyl Esters (98% Conversion)‏ TRANSESTERIFICATION WITH SUPERCRITICAL METHANOL FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION
  21. 21. Biodiesel By Blending of Vegetable Oil With Short Chain Alcohol and an Amphiphilic Compound Vegetable Oil 1-ALKANOL Methanol Or Ethanol   Stable Solution (Liquid)‏ (With Viscosity Sufficiently low for use as Diesel Fuel)‏    
  22. 22. Linolenic Acid < 12% Methanol Content < 0.02% Monoglycerides > 1.0 Diglycerides > 0.25 Triglycerides > 0.25 Free Glycerol < 0.02 Total Glycerol < 0.38 Alkali Metals < 5 ppm Alkali Earth Metals < 5 ppm Phosphorus Content < 10 ppm BIODIESEL STANDARDS
  23. 23. FEEDSTOCK <ul><li>MINYAK NABATI KW 1 (FFA <5%)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>MINYAKNABATI KW 2 (FFA > 5%, <20%)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>MINYAK NABATI KW 3 (FFA>20, <70%)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>PFAD (FFA >70%)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Esterifikasi </li></ul><ul><li>Transesterifikasi </li></ul>PROSES KIMIA
  24. 24. Teknologi proses <ul><li>Process conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low temperature + Catalyst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low temperature + Enzyme </li></ul></ul>150 o C > 100 – 130 o C 50 – 80 o C + Catalyst 30 – 50 o C + Enzyme METHANOL FEEDSTOCK GLYCEROL / WATER BIODIESEL
  25. 25. Examples (Batch Reaction)‏       Oil FFA(%) Yield of Methyl Ester(%)‏ Crude Palm Oil 4.5 96 Crude Palm Stearin 3.8 98 Rapeseed 3.2 95 Sunflower 3.5 94 Coconut 1.5 98 Palm Kernel 3.2 98 Soya bean 1.3 95 Corn 9.6 96 Tallow 3.9 93    
  26. 26. FUEL CHARACTERISTICS OF METHYL ESTERS OF VARIOUS VEGETABLE OILS CHARACTERISTICS TESTED METHYL DENSITY VISCOSITY CETANE HEATING ESTER 15 0 C 40 0 C NUMBER VALUE PALM OIL 0.872-0.877 4.3-4.5 64.3-70 32.4 MJ/L COCONUT 0.872 2.7 62.7 30.8 MJ/L
  27. 27. METHYL DENSITY VISCOSITY CETANE HEATING ESTER 15 0 C 40 0 C NUMBER VALUE RAPESEED (LEAR) 0.882 4.2 51.0-59.7 32.8MJ/L SUNFLOWER 0.885 4.0 61.2 32.8MJ/L SOYABEAN 0.880 4.0 45.7-56 32.7MJ/L TYPICAL DIESEL 0.830-0.840 2.0-3.5 51.0 35.5MJ/L FUEL

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