HISTORY Kurt Lewin • Gatekeeping was identified by him in 1943. He found that rejections could be classified in two ways: 1)Rejecting based on not being worthy of being reported 2)Rejecting based on duplicate of other reports on the same thing. German-American psychologist David Manning White • In 1950 gatekeeping was officially applied to news. He looked at the factors an editor takes into consideration when deciding which news will make the paper and which news will not.
• In 1955 Sociologist Warren Breed shifted the focusfrom the individual to institutional level. Ideological level Extramedia level Organization level l e ve es l ro utin e dia M Individual level
TYPES OF GATEKEEPING In Newspaper • Reporters • Editors • Owners • Government • Pressure Groups
TYPES OF GATEKEEPING In Film • Producer • Censor Board • Director
TYPES OF GATEKEEPING In Newspaper In Film • If reporter is not allowed • Script is too large. to enter because time is over. • Budget . • Lack of space for editor for publishing of news
FUNCTIONS of gatekeeping • To limit the information The boundary of a specific area Restrict in quantity Extent or access
FUNCTIONS of gatekeeping • To expand the information Extend in one or more directions Exaggerate or make bigger Add details
FUNCTIONS of gatekeeping• To reinterpret the information Different viewpoints Assign a new or different meaning to New angles
FUNCTIONS of gatekeeping • Setting Agenda Individual objectives A temporally organized plan for matters to be attended to A list of matters to be taken up
DISINTERMEDIATION “is the removal of negotiator” or "cutting out the middleman". Instead of going through traditional distribution channels, which had some type of intermediate (such as a distributor, wholesaler, broker, or agent), companies may now deal with every customer directly, for example via the Internet.
Gatekeeping to Gatewatching • Contrasted Nature • News hole and Space • Interactivity • Focus • Transparency • Publishing speed • Online research skills
Mythmaking and Effects on Older Media Myth “the way in which a culture conceptualizes and understands the world through a chain of related concepts”. • Redundant • Concept of Naturalized • Support authority of the current social order • Justifies positions • Is it innovation?
Effects on Older Media • Afraid • Setting agenda • Shake up any story