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MCommerce

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MCommerce

  1. 1. MOBILE COMMERCE (M-COMMERCE): A FUTURE DRIVER OF BUSINESS GROWTH IN NIGERIA SUBMITTED BY: LAYADE, ADEDAMOLA A. MATRIC NO: 159354 IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF MASTERS OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS, UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN SEPTEMBER 2012
  2. 2. 2 | P a g e TABLE OF CONTENT 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background 1.2 Problem of the research 1.3 Purpose of the study and research questions 1.4 Objective of the research 1.5 Justification of the research 1.6 Overview of the research 2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2.1 Business vs. Commerce & Electronic vs. Mobile Components of M- Commerce 2.2 Mobile Devices 2.3 Mobile Intelligence 2.4 E-Commerce 2.5 M-Commerce 2.6 M-Commerce History and Current Statistics 2.7 Features of M-Commerce 2.8 M-Commerce services & applications 2.9 Mobile Telecommunication in Nigeria 3. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 3.1 Motivations for M-Commerce Transformation 3.2 Challenges for M-Commerce Transformation 3.3 Benefits of M-Commerce 4. METHODOLOGY 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Research Design
  3. 3. 3 | P a g e 4.3 Re-Statement of Research Questions 4.4 Data Collection Instruments 4.5 Method of Data Analysis 5. DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 5.1 Key Statistical Highlights: ITU Data Release 2012 5.2 Case Study: Oracle‘s Survey 5.3 Case Study: Business Opportunities of technology Convergence 5.4 Global Internet and Mobile Trend Analysis 5.5 Global Mobile Advertising Market 5.6 Social Networking Accelerating Growth Of Mobile 5.7 Growth of Nigeria Economy With Specific Focus on Telecommunications Sector 5.8 Impact Analysis of How Mobile Services Are Transforming Economic and Social Services in Nigeria 6. SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION 6.1 Summary 6.2 Recommendations 6.3 Conclusion REFERENCES
  4. 4. 4 | P a g e LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Top 40 Countries with active mobile subscription Table 2: M-Commerce Application Table 3: Quarterly Summary of Telecoms Subscribers in Nigeria (March ‘11 – Dec ‘11) Table 4: Annual Subscriber Data (2011 -2007) Table 5: 2.3Billion Global Internet Users – 8% Growth Driven By Emerging Markets Table 6: 1.1B Global Mobile 3G Subscribers, 37% Growth, Q4 – at Only 18% of Mobile Subscribers Table 7: Gross Domestic Product at Current Basic Prices (N' Million) Table 8: Annual Subscriber Data (2011-2001) LIST OF FIGURES Fig 1: The Mobile Internet is the 5th major technology cycle of the last half century Figure 2: Top 40 Countries with active mobile subscription against estimated population Figure 3: Mobile Intelligence expands information opportunities Figure 4: Mobile Intelligence expands personal query relevance Figure 5: percentage of subscribers by major operators Figure 6: Annual Subscriber Data (2011 -2007)
  5. 5. 5 | P a g e Figure 7: The user experience, mobile programs, and the e-commerce platform were the top three priorities for 2012. Figure 8: Facebook is the clear winner for areas of new investment, followed by mobile Web and other social programs Figure 9: Rapidly Growing Mobile Internet Usage Surpassed More Highly Monetized Desktop Internet Usage Figure 10: What Desktop Computers Have Evolved To Figure 11: Computing growth drivers over time 1960 -2020E Figure 12: Relative efficacy of Mobile vs. Other Advertising Media Figure 13: Different Types of Platforms = Facebook + Apple + Google Figure 14: Emerging Types of Social Networks Figure 15: Average Time Spent on Various Mobile Functions Figure 16: Top 7 Social media Sites in Nigeria Figure 17: Nigeria Sectoral Contribution to GDP (2010-2011) Figure18: Growth Rates of Key Sectors in the Nigerian economy, 2010-2011 Figure 19: Evolution of Mobile Subscription in Nigeria Figure 20: Expansion of Mobile Service across Africa
  6. 6. 6 | P a g e ABSTRACT This research work shall focus on highlighting the potential impact as well as the qualitative and quantitative benefits of M-Commerce to business growth in Nigeria. This study is mainly a descriptive one, therefore the method of analysis of the data will be explanatory and complemented with the use of research instruments, diagrams and where applicable simple statistical tools like graph and charts. Case studies will also be sighted as well as trend analysis. The method of analysis will enable us have a concise view of how m-commerce will drive business growth in Nigeria. Technology experts predict that by 2020 mobile wireless communications are very likely to be available to anyone anywhere on the globe at extremely low cost (Pew Internet & American Life Project, 2006b). Currently in Nigeria we have over 120million mobile subscribers (GSM & CDMA) with 96million active users in a country with an estimated population of over 158million it is safe to conclude that mobile technology has reached a remarkable amount of the population in just 10years of its introduction to Nigeria. Meanwhile, the non-oil sectors of the economy remained vibrant with the telecommunication sector which recorded a growth rate of 34.76% in 2011. Other sectors including wholesale and retail, building and construction, hotel and restaurants and real estate posted double digit growth rates in 2011 with 11.33%, 12.26%, 12.09%, and 10.41% respectively. Between 2006 and 2010, these sectors have grown at a real average rate of 13.44 %, 12.58 %, 12.53 % and 11.38% respectively. The crude oil and natural gas sectors recorded a decline of 0.57%, significantly down from 5.25 % in 2010. The increase of the flexibility and power of wireless technology has ultimately been a motivating factor to the growth of M-Commerce. In the current Business organizations, mobile commerce or M-Commerce has been introduced in finance, service, retail, telecommunication and information technology services. In these sectors, M-Commerce is not only being widely accepted but also it is being more used as a popular way of business/ commerce. In this paper we try to provide an overview of the fundamentals about m- commerce and e commerce.
  7. 7. 7 | P a g e Mobile Commerce is on a growth track. It is gaining increasing acceptance amongst various sections of the society. This growth can be traced back to technological and demographical developments that have influenced important aspects of the socio-cultural behaviour in today‘s world. The need for mobility seems to be a primary driving force behind M-Commerce applications such as Mobile Banking, Mobile Entertainment and Mobile Marketing.
  8. 8. 8 | P a g e CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Gone are the days of being chained to an office desk. Advances in high-speed wireless network technologies and the proliferation of mobile computing and storage devices are allowing today‘s workers to enjoy newfound freedoms. Wireless mobile technologies can provide workers the ability to freely share and access information anywhere, anytime. This translates into higher worker productivity and efficiency and the ability to more cost- effectively provide products and services to customers. In 2008, imports of data enabled phones exceeded that of non-data enabled phones in many African markets. In 2009, the undersea cables hit East and Southern Africa in a big way. In 2010, mobile operators became serious about data availability and cost packaging for everyday Africans. 2011 is expected to bring a new type of data-enabled mobile user in Africa, and brings the mobile web to center stage. On the technology front, Africans can accelerate development by skipping less efficient technologies and moving directly to more advanced ones. The telecommunications sector continues to attract a flurry of public and private investment. Stiff competition in Africa‘s broadband market sparked by undersea cables has started forcing down telecommunication prices in the region, with mobile phone service providers announcing significant reductions in Internet service prices. Operators such as MTN are looking to expanding Africa operations by launching app stores. MTN operates in 21 countries across the Middle East and Africa and has seen a huge growth in data usage on its networks. Christian de Faria, MTN Group‘s Senior Vice- President for Commercial and Innovation, says increased online activity drives operators to respond to customer trends.
  9. 9. 9 | P a g e ―The time when operators could dictate what they offered to customers is over,‖ says de Faria. Operators need to go into partnerships with content providers to offer services such as cloud computing, solutions for small and medium enterprises and to provide rich content in terms of music, gaming, entertainment and news. It is no longer about selling airtime, but bundling airtime with products and services. These can range from app stores and music to value-added services like m-learning and m-health. A good example of business information services extending their reach from print media to mobile is directory services. Yellow Pages search brings the ability to find products or services in consumers‘ neighbourhoods by any of hundreds of categories, from attorneys to garden services to huts. Targeted businesses can then be contacted telephonically or via SMS, and also navigated to. 1.2 Problem of the Research The purpose of the study is understand characteristics of potential m-commerce users and examine the factors that influence the intention to use m-commerce as well as to show that M-Commerce can potentially drive business growth through improved marketing, advertising and sales using mobile devices. Can Mobile Commerce aid economic growth? This is the major problem this study will take a critical look at. 1.3 Purpose of the Study and Research Questions The purpose of the study is understand characteristics of potential m-commerce users and examine the factors that influence the intention to use m-commerce as well as to show that M-Commerce can potentially drive business growth in Nigeria.
  10. 10. 10 | P a g e The study would be guided by the following research questions: What are the particular issues in m-commerce, opportunities and challenges? What gaps are emerging between research and practice? What are some examples of successful applications? How will m-commerce aid economic growth? What does the future hold for m-commerce? 1.4 Objective of the Research This research work shall focus on analysing the potential qualitative and quantitative benefits of M-Commerce to business growth in Nigeria. 1.5 Justification of the Research Technology experts predict that by 2020 mobile wireless communications are very likely to be available to anyone anywhere on the globe at extremely low cost (Pew Internet & American Life Project, 2006b). Currently in Nigeria, we have over one hundred and twenty million mobile subscribers (GSM & CDMA according to Nigeria Communications Commission annual subscriber data) in a country with an estimated population of over one sixty million it is safe to conclude that mobile technology has reached a remarkable proportion of the population in just 10years of its introduction to Nigeria. The remarkable growth rate and spread of mobile technology is a strong reason why mobile commerce should be considered in Nigeria. Most mobile users are individuals. Handheld devices are personalised and unlikely to be shared with others. Potential mobile
  11. 11. 11 | P a g e commerce customers are also likely to be consumers this therefore means most mobile phone subscribers are potential m-commerce customers. This study is hereby significant because it will analyse the potentials of M-Commerce and how it will drive economic growth in Nigeria. 1.6 Overview of the Research It is acknowledged that the Internet is playing an important role in our daily lives. The Internet has become a vehicle for services rather than just a static repository of information. Airline booking and hotel booking are examples of these services. Besides the new role of the Internet, we are witnessing rapid progress in wireless and handheld technologies. Telecom companies are offering new opportunities to users over mobile devices like cellular phones and Personal Digital Assistants (PDA), reading emails and sending Short Code Message (SMS) messages between cellular phones are becoming natural. Surfing the Web (thanks to the Wireless Application Protocol WAP) is further evidence of the wireless technology development. We are convinced that the next stage (if we are not already in it) for telecom companies in partnership with businesses is to allow users to buy and sell without being connected to any wired network. Mobile commerce (m-commerce) is the new trend and is expected to drive the future development of e-commerce. Being able to buy and sell goods/services over mobile devices is an important step towards achieving an anywhere, anytime paradigm. Location and time will no longer constrain people from completing their transactions. Suppose that a person would like to buy a gift for her son‘s birthday while she is on a bus. Instead of postponing the errand, she can use her mobile phone to search for the perfect gift. Her search can be narrowed by such criteria as the maximum price she is willing to pay, the desired delivery time, and the age of her
  12. 12. 12 | P a g e son. It would be even more interesting if this person could outsource the entire transaction to intelligent mobile application that could act on her behalf. Software agents are among the components that will have an important role to play in the worldwide spread of m- commerce. Today, the scope of M-Commerce encompasses almost every walk of life. Mobile services are reported from the fields of content, entertainment, travel, banking and marketing. These therefore shows that a research into M-Commerce will further show how important it is in the economy and how it can boost economic growth.
  13. 13. 13 | P a g e CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2.1 Business vs. Commerce & Electronic vs. Mobile In order to understand the convergence of E-Commerce and M-Commerce, it is imperative to understand the conceptual background of these and other related terms e.g. Electronic Business (E-Business) and Mobile Business (M-Business). It is therefore useful to establish working definitions of the terms ―commerce‖ and ―business‖ for they seem to have transcended their dictionary meanings and acquired new significance since the advent of the Internet economy. We further differentiate between the terms ―electronic‖ and ―mobile‖, so as to clarify the respective concepts by showing their similarities and highlighting their differences. ―Business‖ vs. ―Commerce‖ The term ―commerce‖, in this paper, refers to selling and purchasing of goods and services in both business- and consumer segments and to activities directly related to such transactions. Examples of such activities are marketing measures and after-sales services. The related activities are included so as to take into account that not each and every transfer of ownership or rights to use a good or service may necessarily trigger a monetary transaction. The term ―business‖, in this paper, refers to all activities undertaken by a firm in order to produce and sell goods and services. These activities are, thus, not exclusively of ―commercial‖ nature and include other processes such as procurement, production, customer relationship management (CRM) and human resources management (HRM). The term ―commerce‖ is hence seen as an integral subset of the broader term ―business‖. In accordance with this approach M-Commerce is regarded as an integral subset of M- Business [Buse, 2002; UNCTAD, 2004]. E-Commerce is correspondingly seen as an integral subset of E-Business.
  14. 14. 14 | P a g e ―Electronic‖ vs. ―Mobile‖ Aspects The adjective ―electronic‖, used within the specific contexts of ―E-Business‖ or ―E Commerce‖, signifies an ―anytime access‖ to business processes. The access to computer networks is in this case stationary. The services are therefore not completely independent of the current geographic location of the user [Hohenberg and Rufera, 2004]. The adjective ―mobile‖, used within the specific contexts of ―M-Commerce‖ or ―M Business‖, signifies an ―anytime and anywhere access‖ to business processes. The access takes place using mobile communication networks, making availability of these services independent of the geographic location of the user [Hohenberg and Rufera, 2004]. At this point it would be also helpful to differentiate between the terms ―mobile‖ and ―wireless‖. As opposed to the term ―mobile‖ that signifies an ―anytime and anywhere‖ access to computer-mediated networks, ―wireless‖ is just a method of communication between electronic devices, e.g. with the help of infrared interfaces. Whereas a mobile device is per se wireless, not every wireless device may be suitable for feasible mobile applications [Anckar and D‘Incau, 2002]. For example, Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) with a limited range of maximum 300 meters cannot support feasible mobile applications. 2.2 Mobile Devices M-Commerce is not just about using mobile phones as end user devices. The following list gives an overview of different kinds of mobile devices:  Mobile phone  Blackberry  Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)  Smart phones (E.g. IPhone)  Laptop
  15. 15. 15 | P a g e  Tablet PC‘s (Apple I Pad, Blackberry Playbook, Samsung Galaxy Tab etc.) Each mobile device has certain characteristics that influence its usability, such as  Size and colour of display  Input device, availability of keyboard or mouse  Memory and Central Processing Unit (CPU) processing power  Network connectivity, bandwidth capacity  Supported operating systems (e.g. Microsoft Pocket PC, Blackberry Operating System, Android, Palm Operating System, Symbian)  Availability of internal smart card reader (e.g. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card, memory card) Depending on these factors, the services that the end user can receive differs considerably. Moreover, depending on the network technology used for transmission, the bandwidth capacity varies and influences the kind of services that the end user is able to receive. Lately all these devices have the ability to connect to the internet either through a Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card by connecting to a 3G network or through WIFI. The internet connectivity and mobility is a very integral part of Mobile Commerce. Therefore any device that is mobile, has internet connectivity can be used as a hardware resource for Mobile Commerce. Figure 1: The Mobile Internet Is the 5th Major Technology Cycle of the Last Half Century Source: Micro Strategy – The New Era of Mobile Intelligence, 2010
  16. 16. 16 | P a g e Since the 1960s, there have been four major cycles of computing: mainframes, mini computing, personal computing, and desktop computing. Mobile computing, the 5th technology cycle, is predicted to have a far greater impact and adoption than any of the previous cycles. Today‘s mobile computing is best epitomized by use of the Internet on smartphone devices, including the Apple iPhone, Google Nexus One, and Research in Motion (RIM) BlackBerry. Smartphones are exploding in popularity and technical capabilities. The adoption rate of smartphones is far outpacing previously observed adoption rates of Internet or desktop-based technologies. The reasons are simple: these mobile devices provide constant connectivity and are convenient to carry, extremely powerful, and easy and fun to use. Unique capabilities aside, the number of people that can carry a smartphone is significantly greater than the number of people that take a laptop with them when away from the office. Mobile computing will further expand its footprint with the arrival and adoption of mobile tablet devices. Static, at-your-desk computing using a mouse and a keyboard is quickly becoming out-dated. Almost everything about today‘s computers, for the majority of daily tasks, is obsolete. The future is mobile computing on light-weight, connected devices that use a Natural User Interface (NUI) and deliver information and applications in the palm of your hand. The table below shows the ranking of the top 40 countries in terms of the number of active mobile phones in those countries. Nigeria ranks 10th in this regard but mobile phone penetration compared to population are still pretty low at 60% compared to other countries in the top 40. Despite this fact 60% and a very rapid growth rate of mobile phone penetration which will be further explained below is an indication that Nigeria does have huge potential for mobile commerce. Rank County Number of Mobile Phones Estimated Population % of Population 1. China 1,010,000,000 1,342,783,832 75.22 2. India 919,170,000 1,204,510,031 76.31 3. United States 327,577,529 316,070,001 103.64 4. Brazil 250,800,000 205,667,329 121.94
  17. 17. 17 | P a g e 5. Indonesia 250,100,000 182,469,001 137.06 6. Russia 224,260,000 138,119,425 162.37 7. Japan 121,246,700 126,214,115 96.06 8. Pakistan 114,610,000 182,469,001 62.81 9. Germany 107,000,000 82,187,224 130.19 10.Nigeria 95,886,714 158,033,962 60.67 11.Mexico 88,797,186 114,912,233 77.27 12.Italy 88,580,000 58,000,537 152.72 13.Bangladesh 86,550,000 161,959,717 53.44 14.Philippines 86,000,000 103,640,111 82.98 15.United kingdom 75,750,000 61,617,658 122.94 16.Vietnam 73,300,000 91,482,308 80.12 17.Egypt 71,460,000 83,593,737 85.48 18.Thailand 69,000,000 67,177,529 102.71 19.Iran 68,000,000 68,259,841 99.62 20.Turkey 66,000,000 79,720,789 82.79 21.France 58,730,000 64,716,341 90.75 22.Ukraine 54,377,000 44,869,414 121.19 23.South Korea 52,510,000 48,881,354 107.42 24.Spain 50,890,000 40,588,080 125.38 25.Argentina 50,409,800 42,177,224 119.52 26.Poland 47,153,200 38,426,384 122.71 27.Colombia 46,147,937 45,217,098 102.06 28.Saudi Arabia 46,000,000 30,198,724 152.32 29.South Africa 42,300,000 49,061,478 86.22 30.Algeria 33,000,000 35,377,819 93.28 31.Malaysia 30,379,000 27,022,899 112.42 32.Kenya 28,080,000 42,058,462 66.76 33.Venezuela 27,400,000 28,025,873 97.77 34.Peru 27,100,000 30,597,339 88.57 35.Morocco 27,050,000 32,289,992 83.77
  18. 18. 18 | P a g e 36.Canada 25,543,862 22,112,446 115.52 37.Taiwan 24,412,000 23,118,746 105.59 38.Romania 22,800,000 22,112,446 103.11 39.Australia 21,260,000 22,004,050 96.62 40.Netherlands 20,000,000 16,910,055 118.27 Table 1: Top 40 Countries with active mobile subscription Source: Wikipedia, 2012 2.3 Mobile Intelligence Mobile Business Intelligence (Mobile BI or Mobile Intelligence) refers to the distribution of business data to mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Business intelligence (BI) refers to computer-based techniques used in spotting, digging-out, and analysing business data, such as sales revenue by products and/or departments or associated costs and incomes. Although the concept of mobile computing has been prevalent for over a decade, Mobile BI has shown a momentum/growth only very recently. This change has been partly encouraged by a change from the ‗wired world‘ to a wireless world with the advantage of smartphones which has led to a new era of mobile computing, especially in the field of BI Mobile Intelligence is 400 times more powerful than Desktop Internet Intelligence/ Business Intelligence. The revolutionary impact of Mobile Intelligence is evidenced by three major drivers. Driver Number 1: Mobile Intelligence Expands the User Population Mobile devices will significantly surpass the impact and number of desktop Internet devices. The range and number of mobile devices is showing explosive growth and the boundaries between these devices is blurring. Mobile computing devices now range from smartphones and NUI-infused tablets to handheld game consoles and fully functional in- car computers. For all their differences, these mobile device types harmonize across themes of connectivity, mobility, and information delivery.
  19. 19. 19 | P a g e Figure 2: Mobile Intelligence will expand the user population Source: Micro Strategy – The New Era of Mobile Intelligence, 2010 Driver Number 2: Mobile Intelligence Expands Information Opportunities As mobile computing becomes pervasive in both personal and professional lives, people are discovering more and more opportunities to make complete use of these powerful devices. From the moment they wake, they can use applications that not only enhance their personal lives but also make them more productive and effective at work. The ability to access information at any time in any location, easily in the palm of your hand, allows immediate decision-making. A typical retail store manager may spend only a few hours working at a desk. With Mobile Intelligence, the manager can process decisions and analyse the latest information at any hour or location.
  20. 20. 20 | P a g e Figure 3: Mobile Intelligence expands information opportunities Source: Micro Strategy – The New Era of Mobile Intelligence, 2010 Driver Number 3: Mobile Intelligence Expands Personal Query Relevance Today‘s mobile computing devices are revolutionizing how information is deposited into applications. Using a keyboard and a mouse is now out-dated. A natural user interface allows users to point at what they want, touch where they want to go, and move the device to indicate how they want to explore the information. Mobile computing devices respond to how users move their fingers and arms, and understand their location, the direction they are moving, and how fast. Mobile devices use these natural actions as inputs. Touch screens dynamically change into convenient input controls to meet the user‘s needs, such as a keyboard, a calculator, a map, and a data visualization control. As a result, the user‘s inputs are faster and cover a greater range of options, all while being more intuitive. Why enter a house number, street name, city, and zip code when the device can locate the user automatically? Query speed and query relevance are further enhanced with other rich capabilities such as visual inputs via a camera or audio inputs via a microphone. Technology is playing catch-
  21. 21. 21 | P a g e up and already converts images into data inputs from barcodes, fingertips, fonts, and facial recognition. The on-going impact of the evolution in device inputs and natural interfaces is to make applications faster, easier, and more natural to use, leading to greater usage and a higher user adoption rate. Figure 4: Mobile Intelligence expands personal query relevance Source: Micro Strategy – The New Era of Mobile Intelligence, 2010 The Impact of Mobile Intelligence will be greater than what is currently imaginable as shown in figure 4 above. In the new era of Mobile Intelligence, businesses that presently do not exist may evolve into industry leaders. Applications that are moderately valuable with the desktop Internet may be billion dollar applications when fully applied to the mobile Internet. The next YouTube or Facebook hasn‘t been invented yet, but will be designed as a mobile application. Organizations that stay with today‘s desktop-based information distribution models may become obsolete, outpaced by those organizations that choose to thrive on the mobile Internet. Organizations that embrace Mobile
  22. 22. 22 | P a g e Intelligence will become leaner, faster, smarter decision-making machines resulting in more business, more revenue, and greater competitive advantage. 2.4 E-Commerce The Internet and Web technologies have tremendously changed the way of doing business in general, and commerce in particular. Users have more opportunities to be informed about the current trend of the market before making any decision. Users are continuously browsing the Internet as well as being overwhelmed with information from different online sources (for example, www.forbes.com, www.ft.com ) In addition, there is no longer any need to go to a library to purchase one‘s favourite sports magazine. Several Web sites exist that allow users to submit online orders. This way of doing business constitutes a part of what is commonly known as e-commerce). Web shopping is only a small part of the whole e-commerce picture that covers several types of businesses that range from customer-based retail sites like www.amazon.com (business-to-consumer), to auction and music sites like www.ebay.com , and to business exchanges trading goods/services between corporations (business-to-business). E-commerce is seen as a general term for any type of business, or commercial transaction that involves the transfer of information across the Internet. E-commerce as part of the whole e-business evolution has been the object of major changes. First, businesses started the digitalization of their data to make it available online. This data included the business‘s profile and catalogues. Initially, businesses did not attempt to adapt their business processes (that is, the know-how). Later, businesses decided to undertake the reengineering of their processes due to the pressure to remain competitive. The traditional way of satisfying users‘ needs could no longer cope with the challenges presented by the new context with its complex features: profitability, competition, alliances, and market volatility. Adjusting the business‘s know- how to the context, therefore, became critical.
  23. 23. 23 | P a g e The third stage consisted of offering online forms to capture users‘ needs efficiently and accurately. There was no longer the need to send faxes or call vendors to get orders completed. To conclude any purchase transaction, financial partners were invited to join the shopper-vendor relationship. Ensuring the security of the payment process and the exchange of private information was and still is a major concern. The next stage in the e-business evolution was the offering of personalized services. The purpose of personalized services is to include the profiles of users in terms of preferences and interests when working to fulfil their needs. Now, the trend of e-business is towards joint ventures where business processes are merged. A simple definition of E-Commerce describes it as: ―[...] the buying and selling of products and services over the Web‖ [Kalakota and Robinson, 2002]. However, there are several definitions of Ecommerce in circulation emphasising its different aspects. Prevailing definitions may be divided into two primary categories. The first category works with a narrow, restrictive definition, requiring the whole transaction to take place in electronic form and having a monetary character. For example, the German Federal Statistical Office is reported to use the following definition: ―Transactions are regarded as E-Commerce, when the offer as well as purchase or the actual availment of a product or service is carried out in electronic form using a computer-mediated network against monetary payment‖ [Fischer, 2003]. This definition, however, seems to be too restrictive as it does not recognize the fact that just some parts of a transaction might also be carried out electronically without having to process all the steps of a value-chain in that form. Further, the emphasis on the monetary character ignores the commercial nature of marketing measures (e.g. transactions carried out with the intention of selling a product or service) and after-sales services (e.g. transactions carried out in continuation of a preceding monetary transaction). The second category works with a broader definition of E-Commerce, as can be seen in the definition used by the US Bureau of the Census, which defines E-Commerce as, ―[...] any transaction completed over a computer-mediated network that involves the transfer of
  24. 24. 24 | P a g e ownership or rights to use goods or services. […] Completed transactions may have a zero price (e.g., a free software download)‖ [Mesenbourg, 2001]. Also according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), it is the method used to place or receive an order, not the mode of payment or the channel of the delivery that determines whether a transaction is considered as an E-Commerce transaction [OECD, 2002]. The primary criteria for E-Commerce, thus, are:  The least partially electronic form of a transaction, and  The transfer of ownership or rights to use a good or service whether against monetary payment or otherwise. 2.5 M-Commerce It is acknowledged that the Internet is playing an important role in our daily life. The Internet has become a vehicle for services rather than just a static repository of information. Airline booking and hotel booking are examples of these services. Besides the new role of the Internet, we are witnessing rapid progress in wireless and handheld technologies. Telecom companies are offering new opportunities to users over mobile devices like cellular phones and personal digital assistants. Reading emails and sending SMS messages between cellular phones are becoming natural. Surfing the Web thanks to the Wireless Application Protocol is further evidence of the wireless technology development. We are convinced that the next stage (if we are not already in it) for telecom companies in partnership with businesses is to allow users to buy and sell without being connected to any wired network. Mobile commerce (m-commerce) is the new trend and is expected to drive the future development of e-commerce. Being able to buy and sell goods/services over mobile devices is an important step towards achieving an anywhere, anytime paradigm. Location and time will no longer constrain people from completing their transactions. Suppose that a person would like to buy a gift for her son‘s birthday while she is on a bus. Instead of postponing the errand, she can use her mobile phone to search for the perfect gift. Her search can be narrowed by such criteria as the maximum
  25. 25. 25 | P a g e price she is willing to pay, the desired delivery time, and the age of her son. It would be even more interesting if this person could outsource the entire transaction to intelligent components that could act on her behalf. Software agents are among the components that will have an important role to play in the worldwide spread of m-commerce. An e-commerce value-chain represents a set of business processes that implement interactions between online shoppers and e-commerce systems. Song and Whang suggested a value chain of eight processes: attract, interact, customize, transact, pay, deliver, service, and personalize. M-Commerce is a by-product of the technology convergence of Information Technology (IT) with the telecommunication technologies (TCT), which is jointly referred to as Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). M-Commerce may be thus regarded as an extension of Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce) to wireless mediums. This convergence, however, enables some unique, location-based services, hitherto not possible in E-Commerce. These innovative services are made possible by the convergence of these two technologies. Many different definitions of mobile commerce exist in the literature, but these usually refer to e-commerce activities via mobile devices such as mobile phones and PDA. Mobility and reachability are two main characteristics of m-commerce. Compared with traditional e-commerce, transactions are generally conducted through personal computers (PCs) and laptops. M-commerce applications provide the potential with more freedom for organizations and users to perform various commerce-related tasks without the limitation of time and location (available anytime from anywhere). Mobile phone users are increasingly accepting phones as multipurpose devices, which can be used to send text messages, take pictures, surf the web, download ring-tones, and play games (Smith, 2005). Some marketers are starting to see the mobile phone as a potential marketing medium and consequently are seeking ways to tap into this burgeoning opportunity. For example, Samsung and Nokia will provide digital video broadcast
  26. 26. 26 | P a g e handheld (DVB-H) by mobile phones which can deliver up to 50 TV channels (Colleen, 2007). Mobile commerce is viewed as the next generation e-commerce. It refers to any transactions, either direct or indirect, via mobile devices, such as phones or personal digital assistants (PDAs). The most significant features of mobile technology are mobility and portability. The ability to access services ubiquitously, on the move, and through wireless networks and various devices. Adopting mobile technology may create two kinds of impacts on business operations. The first is to facilitate communication among employee, customer and supplier. Through the enhancement of communicating efficiency and information timeliness, mobile technology can increase organizational productivity and profitability. The second is to re-vitalize business processes through changing data access patterns. For example, insurance agents are able to use mobile technology to provide timely services. ―M-Commerce is any transaction, involving the transfer of ownership or rights to use goods and services, which is initiated and/or completed by using mobile access to computer-mediated networks with the help of an electronic device.‖ (Rajnish Tiwari, Stephan Buse and Cornelius Herstatt, 2010) As shown above, M-Commerce is closely related to E-Commerce, since the services offered in both variations are handled electronically by computer-mediated networks and accessible via telecommunication networks. The only difference in the procedure to E- Commerce is that in M-Commerce the telecommunication networks are accessed through mobile electronic devices. There exist two different paradigms about the relationship of M- Commerce to E-Commerce. The first paradigm classifies M-Commerce simply as an extension of E-Commerce; the second paradigm regards M-Commerce as an independent business field and consequently as an alternative mechanism to E-Commerce. That both of these approaches are principally right and hence, individually, too one-sided, can be derived from the following facts:
  27. 27. 27 | P a g e a. Many of the services offered by M-Commerce may as well be availed using the ―immobile‖ (stationary) Internet, e.g. purchasing entrance ticket to a football match. b. M-Commerce opens new business opportunities by enabling innovative, location- based services (LBS) that the ―immobile‖ Internet cannot offer. For instance the location of the nearest Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) in real time can only be provided by determining the current geographic position of the user. 2.6 M-Commerce History and Current Statistics It might be wise to start off with a little background on M-Commerce and follow the trail of technology and significant moments of M-Commerce growth. Mobile commerce was introduced back in 1997 when Coca Cola installed the first two mobile phone enabled vending machines in Finland. They were able to send mobile payments to the vending machines via SMS text messages. It was in the same year and country that an M- Commerce based banking service was introduced as well. The first M-Commerce internet platform was launched in 1999 by a Japanese company called I-mode. I-Mode would be similar to T-Mobile‘s web2go browsing interface which allows users the ability to browse the net, view email, download games and access other services. In the U.S. ―unlimited‖ cell phone plans were none existent among major carriers few years ago while in the European markets it has been the norm and in some cases are the law. While Japan and Europe rolled out 3G in 2001, the U.S. didn‘t introduce 3G until 2003 and in Nigeria 2007. Below is a list of M-Commerce and mobile related statistics:  China has the world‘s largest mobile market with more than 750 million subscribers
  28. 28. 28 | P a g e  50 million iPhones have been sold as of April 8, 2010  In 2013, the number of mobile phone users in the US is predicted to reach 255 million, representing 80% of the population  Brazil was the BRIC country with the lowest number of mobile phone subscribers with only 174 million in 2009  Purchasing ―Train or Plane Tickets‖ (30%) was the most popular M-Commerce application in France in 2009  6 out of the top 10 selling iPhone apps are related to shopping  Japan‘s M-Commerce exceeded $10 billion in 2009, compared to $1.2 billion in the US 2.7 Features of M-Commerce M-Commerce is characterised by some unique features that equip it with certain advantages against conventional forms of commercial transactions, including E-Commerce [Müller-Veerse, 2000; Buse, 2002]: 1. Ubiquity: Ubiquity means that the user can avail services and carry out transactions largely independent of his current geographic location (―anywhere‖ features). This feature can be useful in many situations, e.g. to cross-check prices while standing in a supermarket or while one the move. 2. Immediacy: Closely related to the feature of ubiquity is the possibility of real-time availability of services (―anytime‖ feature). This feature is particularly attractive for services that are time-critical and demand a fast reaction, e.g. stock market information for a broker. Additionally, the consumer can buy goods and services, as and when he feels the need. The immediacy of transaction helps to capture consumers at the moment of intention so that sales are not lost in the discrepancy between the point of intention and that of the actual purchase.
  29. 29. 29 | P a g e 3. Localisation: Positioning technologies, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), allow companies to offer goods and services to the user specific to his current location. Location based services can be, thus, offered to meet consumers‘ needs and wishes for localised content and services. 4. Instant connectivity: Ever since the introduction of the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) mobile devices are constantly ―online‖, i.e. in touch with the network (―always-on‖ feature). This feature brings convenience to the user, as time-consuming dial-up or boot processes are not necessary. 5. Pro-active functionality: M-Commerce opens, by the virtue of its ability to be immediate, local and personal, new avenues for push-marketing, such as content- and product offers. Services like ―Opt-in advertising" can be offered, so that a user may choose the products, services and companies, which he wants to be kept informed about. The Short Message Service (SMS) can be used to send brief text messages to consumers informing them of relevant local offerings that best suit their needs. This feature ensures that the ―right‖ (relevant) information can be provided to the user at the ―right‖ place, at the ―right‖ time. The user too does not have to fear missing some potentially crucial information or getting it too late. 6. Simple authentication procedure: Mobile telecommunication devices function with an electronic chip called Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). The SIM is registered with the network operator and the owner is thus unambiguously identifiable. The clear identification of the user in combination with an individual Personal Identification Number (PIN) makes any further time-consuming, complicated and potentially inefficient authentication process redundant.
  30. 30. 30 | P a g e 2.8 M-Commerce Services & Applications M-Commerce Applications Application Examples Of Offered Services Mobile Banking  Mobile Accounting  Mobile Brokerage  Mobile Financial Information Mobile Entertainment  Mobile Gaming  SMS Competition and Voting  Download of Caller Tune  Download of Music and Ring Tones  Download of Videos and Digital Images  Location-based Entertainment Services Mobile Information Services  Current Affairs (Financial, Sport and other News)  Travel Information  Tracking Services (Persons and Objects)  Mobile Search Engines and Directories  Mobile Office Mobile Marketing  Mobile Couponing  Direct (context-sensitive) Marketing  Organisation of Mobile Events  Mobile Newsletters Mobile Shopping  Mobile Purchasing of Goods and Services Mobile Ticketing  Public Transport  Sport- and Cultural Events  Air & Rail-Traffic  Mobile Parking Telematics Services  Remote Diagnosis and Maintenance of Vehicles  Navigation Services  Vehicle Tracking and Theft Protection  Emergency Services Table 2: M-Commerce Application
  31. 31. 31 | P a g e Mobile Banking: This application makes it possible to complete bank-related transactions, e.g. checking account status, transferring money and selling stocks, via mobile devices, independent of the current user location. Mobile Entertainment: This application contains services that provide the user digital data with entertainment value on mobile devices, e.g. ring-tones, music and videos, on the one hand. On the other hand it opens an array of interactive services, e.g. betting, gaming, dating and chatting. Mobile Information Services: This term refers to mobile services that provide subscribers with content of informational character. Examples of such services are news updates of any nature (finance, politics, sport etc.), travel information, access to search engines and Mobile Office (e-mails, appointments etc.). Mobile Marketing: This term refers to services based on mobile communication technologies that provide firms with new, innovative instruments, e.g. to increase sale, win and retain customers, improve after-sales services, build and sustain a positive and modern image/brand and carry market research. Mobile devices serve thereby as simple and relatively inexpensive channels of interaction. Mobile Shopping: This application bundles services that allow for mobile processing of transactions involving purchase of goods of daily use. The user can purchase (mostly standardised) products by choosing them from a catalogue accessible from a mobile device. Mobile Ticketing: All services that must be paid for, before a lawful utilisation can take place, are suitable for Mobile Ticketing, e.g. travelling in public transport, entry to a cultural event or cinema. This application ensures that the user can purchase a right to utilisation/entry (ticket) via a mobile device, replacing the conventional paper ticket. The ticket is sent in digital form to the mobile device. Telematics Services: Telematics is an artificial term that refers to innovative technologies that link telecommunication technologies with informatics. The transport segment has been
  32. 32. 32 | P a g e the primary area of this application, which is also known as Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The main services are navigation systems, remote diagnosis as well as access to other mobile applications such as Mobile Entertainment, Mobile Content/Office, Mobile Banking and Mobile Shopping. 2.9 Mobile Telecommunication in Nigeria The Nigerian mobile market has boomed in the past eight years, supported by a successful liberalization program as well as positive political and economic environment. The first set of GSM licenses was issued in 2001. At present, there are five (5) active Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) operators (MTN, Zain, Glo, Mtel and new entrant Etisalat) as well as a multitude of smaller Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) operators. The liberalization of Nigeria‘s telecommunications industry started in the early 1990s and accelerated in 2000, after the election of a democratic government. Since then there has been an influx of foreign direct investment, especially in the mobile services segment. Growth in the fixed segment has been sluggish due to inadequate infrastructure and investment, prompting a significant fixed‐mobile substitution effect and turning mobile technology into the dominant means of communication in Nigeria. In order to stimulate growth in the fixed sector, the government initially stepped in; inviting bids to privatize the fixed incumbent, Nitel, but the sale of the incumbent has not been completed so far. Given its size and rate of growth, Nigeria is one of the most attractive markets in the Africa. In 2008, the country became the biggest mobile market in Africa in terms of subscriptions, which in 2008 exceeded 63m, surpassing South Africa, and reached 73m in 2009. However, given the country‘s lower purchasing power, Nigeria still lags South Africa as the second largest African market in terms of mobile service revenue, generating $6.6bn in 2009
  33. 33. 33 | P a g e Table 3: Quarterly Summary of Telecoms Subscribers in Nigeria (March ’11 – Dec ’11) Source: Nigeria Communications Commission, Annual Subscriber Data, 2012 Figure 8: percentage of subscribers by major operators Source: Nigeria Communications Commission, Annual Subscriber Data, 2012 MTN 46% GLO 22% AIRTEL 20% M-TEL 0% ETISALAT 12% Chart Title
  34. 34. 34 | P a g e Table 4: Annual Subscriber Data (2011 -2007) Source: Nigeria Communications Commission, 2012 Figure 8: Annual Subscriber Data (2011 -2007) Source: Nigeria Communications Commission, Annual Subscriber Data, 2012 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 FIXED WIRELESS 1,579,6 1,307,6 1,418,9 1,418,9 719,406 CDMA 384,315 6,052,5 7,565,4 7,565,4 4,601,0 GSM 40,011, 56,935, 65,533, 81,195, 90,566, 0 20,000,000 40,000,000 60,000,000 80,000,000 100,000,000 120,000,000 ACTIVESUBSCRIBERS YEARS FIXED WIRELESS CDMA GSM
  35. 35. 35 | P a g e CHAPTER 3 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 3.1 Motivations for E-Commerce Transformation Even in its nascent stage, mobile commerce can enhance business efficiency by distributing information to the workforce remotely, and offering new channels on which to interact with customers. The distinction of M-Commerce from E-Commerce is based on the value proposition attributes of ubiquity, convenience, localization and personalization. When these attributes are combined, the potential to improve the business value becomes enormous. For the Internet value-adding activities such as search, evaluation, problem- solving, and transaction, mobile technology also enhances the value by making them more convenient and efficient. In addition, a mobile service framework enables whole new levels of customer care, as well as new business opportunities. Consequently, mobile business will be the main driving force for the next phase of electronic commerce growth because the rapid adoption of the mobile telecommunication systems has created a market opportunity of several hundred million consumers worldwide. I. Clarkein 2001 presented the following reasons why mobile technology is beneficial for businesses:  e-commerce applications that succeed on the desktop Personal Computer (PC) will not necessarily meet with a similar accomplishment in a wireless commerce;  industries that are time sensitive, such as financial services and travel, are likely to benefit from mobile commerce;  the convenience of it offers tremendous opportunities to expand a client-base by eliminating some of the customers‘ labour of life's activities;  vendors can deliver promotions based on the user's location, and real time discounting may become the ‗killer application,
  36. 36. 36 | P a g e  Personalized information and transaction feeds (such as past behavior, situation, profile), via mobile devices, offer the greatest potential for the customization 3.2 Challenges for M-Business Transformation Currently, however, mobile technology encounters limitations. For example, high costs, slow speed, difficulties in typing text using a phone keypad, cumbersome navigation, and unreliable service are the top five dissatisfactions for mobile users. Handheld devices still have restricted capabilities that hinder the design of straightforward communication protocols and prevent the management of data or services in an easy way. Limitations of mobile devices involve restricted processing capabilities and storage space, increased power consumption, limited display capabilities, variable bandwidth availability, sudden disconnections. Clarke also discusses the problems in terms of uniform standards, ease of operation, security for transactions, minimum screen size, display type and bandwidth, billing services, and relatively impoverished web sites. The lack of practical applications is another problem. On the business side, the challenges for developing m-commerce include different terminals, multi-transaction services, flexible location, flexible service and configurations, users‘ experience and enterprise integration. Additionally, it may be difficult for decision makers to choose the most suitable business model. Managers also face the risk of wasting company resources chasing a changing technological environment, consumer alienation, and erosion of e-commerce market share. Although many of these limitations are being eliminated or improved, nonetheless they need to be taken into account in m-business planning. The improvement in technology constantly seeks to eliminate or atleast reduce these challenges. You can get cheaper smartphones that will serve similar function as the expensive one but without the slickness and durability of the more expensive ones, the point is it can still be used to an M-Commerce device. Also the security is rapidly improving with companies like VISA partnering with mobile phone companies like
  37. 37. 37 | P a g e Blackberry to improve on payment security and ease on mobile devices. Introduction of 3G and even 4G have drastically improved the bandwidth and speed of the internet on mobile devices. 3.3 Benefits of M-Commerce Mobile technology is no doubt one of the most explosive developments ever to have taken place in the world. It offers enormous advantages—added convenience, greater personal security and the ability to take advantage of ‗dead‘ time to do business on the move. In an increasingly time-pressured business and personal environment, the ability to work in what was previously ‗dead‘ time is more important both for productivity and work-life balance. For some, work is no longer just somewhere to go to, but something they do, wherever they are. In the world‘s poorest and richest countries alike, mobile technology is touching heights these days and the small device is offering a lot to the users other than making and receiving calls. With a new platform of smartphones in the market, this technology is giving a tough time to the other fields of advertising and marketing. The wider connection a business can make to their target markets, the higher possible sales they can have. With this, maximizing benefits from the current technology like mobile devices is a big step that industries need to establish. In connection, the development of Mobile Commerce or M-Commerce gives an opportunity to many businesses to offer flexibility for their customers to have access to their business from devices such as mobile phones. M-Commerce is the term for making business transactions using mobile devices. There are already several existing M-Commerce applications and services nowadays that have been very helpful to us. Some are mobile banking, location maps, and variety of news, mobile shopping, ticketing and mobile file sharing. Mobiles are being used more and more on daily basis and it‘s more than just making and receiving a call. Mobile companies are coming up with new features for their smart phones, which offer consumers ease, flexibility and security at the same time.
  38. 38. 38 | P a g e Below are some of these advantages:  Convenience  Flexibility  Easy of Connectivity  Personalisation  Time Efficient Convenience: It is a true convenience to do much from a handy device via M-Commerce. With wherever you are, in just a few clicks on your mobile device, you can already do shopping, banking and download media files. Flexible Accessibility: User can be accessible via mobile phones and at the same time be accessible online too through logging on to various mobile messengers like Yahoo and Gtalk and other networking platforms. On the other hand, user may also choose not to be accessible by shutting down his mobile device, which at times can be a good thing. Easy Connectivity: As long as the network signal is available, mobile devices can connect and do commerce transactions, mobile to mobile and even mobile to other devices. No need for modem or WI-FI connectivity set up. Personalization: Each mobile device is usually dedicated to a specific user, it is personal. You can do whatever you want to your mobile device, modify the wallpaper, change view settings or modify contact information as you send emails or e-payments. Time Efficient: Doing M-Commerce transactions do not require the user to plug anything like personal computer or wait for the laptop to load. Just hit the on button of your mobile device and you are ready to go. Despite the small screen, having something in your pocket that can do so much via M-
  39. 39. 39 | P a g e Commerce is really an amazing technology and a great help. E-Commerce businesses are also making applications for mobile phones which allow users to browse their online products and make payments with couple of buttons. Mobile technology – offering benefits to all kinds of business No matter what kind of job you do, mobile technology can help to make you more productive and responsive:  The lawyer can access and update documents quickly, regardless of where work takes them;  The travelling salesman can update his sales figures for the weekly report while on the road;  The home-based worker can access the company network to find data for a credentials document;  The building site manager can download blueprints;  The market researcher can update statistics on the corporate network from wherever they are;  The recruitment consultant can swot up on a company before meeting a candidate;  The council worker can report an urgent piece of information back to colleagues in the office, without needing to travel back there.
  40. 40. 40 | P a g e CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY 4.1 Introduction In the theoretical part of the research, key concepts were explained and the framework for analysis was set. This research project is primarily a descriptive study that will involve the collection of data mainly from secondary sources (e.g. Nigeria Communications Commission, Pyramid etc.). The aim of the study is to give significant insight into the subject of study – M-Commerce in order to arrive at a reasonable conclusion and understanding that it is a major driver for business growth in Nigeria. 4.2 Research Design This has to do with how the research paper has been designed. This research paper has hence been divided into six (6) chapters. Chapter one is general introduction of the research study and it involves looking at the historical background of the study, problem of the research, the purpose why the research is being carried out, objective of carrying out the research, the justification and the general overview of the research. Chapter two is the theoretical framework and it looked at various components of the research from the following perspective:  business vs. commerce & electronic vs. mobile components of m-commerce  mobile devices  mobile intelligence
  41. 41. 41 | P a g e  e-commerce  m-commerce  m-commerce history and current statistics  features of m-commerce  m-commerce services & applications  mobile telecommunication in Nigeria Chapter three outlines the conceptual framework of the research with emphasis on motivations for m-commerce transformation, challenges of m-commerce transformation and the benefits of m-commerce Chapter four shows the methodology adopted in carrying out the research, it starts with an introduction, research design, re-statement of research questions, data collection instruments and finally method of data analysis. Chapter five shows data presentation and analysis Chapter six contains summary of the whole research work, conclusion and recommendations. 4.3 Re-Statement Of Research Questions  What are the particular issues in m-commerce, opportunities and challenges?  What gaps are emerging between research and practice?  What are some examples of successful applications?  How will m-commerce aid economic growth?  What does the future hold for m-commerce?
  42. 42. 42 | P a g e 4.4 Data Collection Instruments The main sources of data for this project are documents and publications that constitute secondary instruments. Most of the data will be sourced from Nigeria Communications Commission NCC and also reference will be made to findings from Pyramid Research publication – Impact of Mobile Services in Nigeria. 4.5 Method Of Data Analysis This study is mainly a descriptive one, therefore the method of analysis of the data will be explanatory and complemented with the use of research instruments, diagrams and where applicable simple statistical tools like graph and charts. Case studies will also be sighted as well as trend analysis. The method of analysis will enable us have a concise view of how m-commerce will drive business growth in Nigeria.
  43. 43. 43 | P a g e CHAPTER 5 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS ’We hope to rewire the way people spread and consume information…We think a more open and connected world will help create a stronger economy with more authentic businesses that build better products and services’ Mark Zuckerberg, Founder / CEO, Facebook Letter to Potential Shareholders, May 2012 5.1 Key Statistical Highlights: ITU Data Release 2012 Internet:  The percentage of individuals using the Internet continues to grow worldwide and by end 2011 2.3 billion people were online.  In developing countries, the number of Internet users doubled between 2007 and 2011, but only a quarter of inhabitants in the developing world were online by end 2011.  The percentage of individuals using the Internet in the developed world reached the 70% landmark by end 2011. In Iceland, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden more than 90% of the population are online.  By end 2011, 70% of the total households in developed countries had Internet, whereas only 20% of households in developing countries had Internet access. Some outstanding exceptions include Lebanon and Malaysia with 62% and 61% of households with Internet respectively.  Total international Internet bandwidth increased seven‐fold over the last five years reaching 76‘000 Giga Bit/s by end 2011. This equates to 34‘000 bit/s per Internet user worldwide.
  44. 44. 44 | P a g e  Major differences in Internet bandwidth per Internet user persist between regions: on average, a user in Europe enjoys 25 times as much international Internet capacity as a user in Africa. Mobile cellular:  Total mobile‐cellular subscriptions reached almost 6 billion by end 2011, corresponding to a global penetration of 86%.  Growth was driven by developing countries, which accounted for more than 80% of the 660 million new mobile‐cellular subscriptions added in 2011.  In 2011, 142 million mobile‐cellular subscriptions were added in India, twice as many as in the whole Africa, and more than in the Arab States, CIS and Europe together.  By end 2011, there were 105 countries with more mobile‐cellular subscriptions than inhabitants, including African countries such as Botswana, Gabon, Namibia, Seychelles and South Africa.  Countries where mobile‐cellular penetration increased the most in 2011 include Brazil, Costa Rica, Kazakhstan, Lao P.D.R. and Mali. Mobile broadband:  By end 2011, there were more than 1 billion mobile‐broadband subscriptions worldwide.  Mobile broadband has become the single most dynamic ICT service reaching a 40% annual subscription growth in 2011.  Although developing countries are catching up in terms of 3G coverage, huge disparities remain between mobile‐broadband penetration in the developing (8%) and the developed world (51%).  In Africa there are less than 5 mobile‐broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, whereas all other regions have penetration levels above 10%.
  45. 45. 45 | P a g e  By end 2011, there were more mobile‐broadband subscriptions than inhabitants in the Republic of Korea and Singapore. In Japan and Sweden, active mobile‐ broadband penetration surpassed 90% by end 2011.  In 2011, 144 million mobile‐broadband subscriptions were added in the BRICS (Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa), accounting for 45% of the world‘s total subscriptions added in 2011. 5.2 Case Study: Oracle’s Survey A 2011 survey of e-commerce professionals in consumer-facing industries shows that online retailers are overcoming these challenges by focusing on their customers, building Websites around them, investing heavily in the customer experience, and promising new areas for engaging shoppers and growing the company‘s base. Initiatives such as mobile that were a blip on the radar in previous years have taken center stage (and are commanding budget dollars). This compounds a key frustration online retailer‘s face: the integration of multiple technologies, few of which were built for today‘s evolved use cases. Online organizations are stretched thin to balance back-end challenges while sprinting to deliver engaging, consistent user experiences that capture more mind share and wallet share—the key investment area for 2012. In November 2011, Endeca (acquired by Oracle in February 2012) conducted the Trends for 2012 in Business to Consumer (B2C) Commerce survey to help businesses gain actionable insight into the evolving nature of e-commerce. The survey captures business results from the last calendar year and provides visibility into areas of investment in 2011. Responses were gathered from 221 e-commerce professionals from leading retail, travel, and consumer manufacturing organizations. Among the respondents, 53% identified themselves as business-oriented professionals, 37% indicated a technical role, and the remainder had an executive or C-level role. Of those surveyed—representing primarily
  46. 46. 46 | P a g e companies among the top 500 internet retailers—most were from apparel, travel and hospitality, consumer electronics, general merchandisers, and specialty brands. Mobile Was the Game Changer It Was Predicted to Be Delivering on analyst predictions, 2011 was indeed The Year of Mobile. Not only did mobile sales increase dramatically, with US$6.7 billion in 2011 m-commerce sales, but mobile also proved itself as an incredibly valuable tool for accelerating online and in-store purchases on the customer‘s terms. Mobile has also served as a catalyst for cross-channel integration. With consumers using mobile Websites and apps in tandem with other touch points, 41% of the respondents from online organizations plan to invest more resources on the front end of mobile user experiences and integrate mobile with their back-end technology. The success of mobile has not only encouraged organizations to continue investing in it in 2012 but has also led them to ratchet it up by hiring more employees with mobile skills and building on existing programs to find new ways to engage connected consumers. To Hedge Against the Weak Economy, Organizations Balanced New Acquisition and Retention Strategies with Investment in Experience To combat the lingering economic weakness, online retailers focused equally on three areas: growing market share, cultivating their customer bases with loyalty programs, and investing in the user experience. Customer acquisition centered on search strategies and social programs, whereas loyalty programs relied heavily on e-mail marketing and mobile loyalty programs to drive more-frequent, higher-value transactions. Protecting margin and experimenting with new social programs rounded out the top five areas online organizations focused on to protect against economic woes. Organizations Have Invested More in Customer-Centric and Customer-Facing Technologies, with Mobile and Analytics Leading the Pack When asked to select all areas of investment over the last 18 months, mobile (68%), Website analytics (68%), e-mail marketing (53%), and social programs (47%) topped the list, followed by user reviews (broken out separately from social programs, at 45%).
  47. 47. 47 | P a g e Capturing lower percentages were internal-facing technologies, including content management systems (41%) and e-commerce platforms (36%). Investment in User Experience Remains a Top Priority; Mobile and Commerce Platforms Get Equal Priority When asked to identify the top three areas for investment in 2012, the respondents indicated that continued investment in the customer experience was the top priority, followed by mobile and commerce platforms. • User experience seen as the largest opportunity to drive additional revenue. Answering the demand for tailored user experiences, 44% of the respondents representing online retailers reported that optimizing the user experience across touch points is their top priority for 2012. • Planned investment in mobile equals’ e-commerce platforms. Mobile and commerce platforms came in second and third, respectively, for planned areas of investment in 2012, with 42% of the respondents choosing spending on mobile programs and 41% indicating budget for a commerce platform. Mobile has become a key element of doing online business, gaining as much attention as must-haves such as the commerce platform. • Social climbs the list as a top investment area. The survey respondents listed social fourth on the list, with 35% citing a planned social investment in 2012. As online organizations aim to build experiences around consumers, they know that social elements are a necessity to further engage the millions of socially active consumers and meet their expectations. Survey respondents regard social programs as both a customer acquisition and retention tool.
  48. 48. 48 | P a g e Figure 7: The user experience, mobile programs, and the e-commerce platform were the top three priorities for 2012. Source: Oracle, 2011 For New Areas of Investment, Facebook Ranks #1, Followed by Mobile and Other Social Programs Broken out from ―other social programs,‖ Facebook takes the top spot for emerging areas to invest in, with 57% of the respondents indicating a planned investment in the social networking giant. Behind Facebook, the mobile Web (47%), other social programs (such as Twitter or forums, with 43%), and mobile apps (43%) rank among the top emerging initiatives.
  49. 49. 49 | P a g e Figure 8: Facebook is the clear winner for areas of new investment, followed by mobile Web and other social programs Source: Oracle. 2011 Emerging Initiatives for 2012 • Retailers flip mobile priorities—mobile Web over apps in 2012. Flip-flopping from last year‘s survey results, investing in a mobile-optimized Website ranked as a higher priority than mobile apps. Last year 38% of retailers reported mobile apps as a top investment, with 31% choosing mobile Web. In the current survey, 46 % said they will invest in mobile Web and 42% will invest funds in apps. Although apps will continue to be created for engaging interfaces and features, retailers are now focusing on the greater volume of browser-based traffic by providing consistent experiences integrated with the other digital touch points that mobile directly supports. • Social programs remain a top priority. Beyond Facebook, 43% of retailers are continuing to answer the demand for social programs such as enhanced user reviews and communities. Although social programs are a must-have in today‘s user experiences, one- third of the respondents still reported difficulty in determining social program ROI.
  50. 50. 50 | P a g e • Personalization, A/B testing, and tablet devices round out the emerging initiatives list. Personalization has been broadly defined, but with relevance at the core of a great user experience, personalization remains a consistent focus, with 34% of the respondents investing in new personalization initiatives in 2012. Among the respondents, 31% of respondents reported A/B testing as a new area of investment with the promise of promoting proven content and products to consumers. Tablet devices made a first appearance on this year‘s survey, with 31% saying they plan to invest in the emerging touch point, ranging from in-store deployments for kiosks and associates to consumer- facing apps and experiences that engage big-spender tablet users. • Determining emerging programs’ ROI is a challenge. Consumers are demanding social programs and multichannel features that retailers must deliver to remain competitive, but 30% said determining the measurable value of new programs is difficult. Retailers are defining new metrics to measure success going forward, including new- customer acquisition, volume of user-generated content, and time spent on a Website. Conclusion Online retailers are on the cusp of a totally new way of doing business. They have a unique opportunity to capture consumer mind share and wallet share if they can deliver consistent experiences and enable unique multichannel commerce behaviors before their competitors do. Success will rely on honing efforts to address user-centric customer experiences, narrowing the focus to the most-valuable programs, and electing the right technology strategy that will enable internal teams to deliver optimized experiences scalably. Areas to watch are the emergence of real-time retail analytics, social-enabled commerce, the continued success of mobile, and tools that will enable retailers to scale always-targeted experiences that target merchandising more effectively. As needs surpass what existing technology can support, solutions will collapse into a unified control panel where consistent, optimized cross-channel experiences can be created, managed, and monitored centrally.
  51. 51. 51 | P a g e 5.3 Case Study: Business Opportunities of Technology Convergence This section describes how the technology convergence may be utilized to find new business opportunities. Following is a case study of Sevenval AG, a firm providing innovative (browser-based) solutions for E-Business and M-Business. Its product ―Sevenval FIT Mobile‖ which converts web based applications into mobile solutions is reportedly in use at Deutsche Postbank AG and several others. The following data are based on information provided by Sevenval AG as well as own research. Cologne-based software firm Sevenval AG, with its 40-members team, provides an innovative middleware solution for Mobile Business. Its product ―Sevenval FIT Mobile‖ (FIT = Filtering Integration Technology) converts ―an existing internet presence into an application for mobile devices‖. The main advantage of such a solution is that the customer does not need to undertake any technical modifications on existing software. According to information provided by Sevenval, existing web sites can be thus converted into suitable formats for mobile devices within a few ―man days‖. The idea behind FIT Mobile is as simple as it is ingenious. On receiving a request from a mobile device the FIT middleware interprets the request, retrieves the data including complex processes and security mechanisms from the existing internet applications and transforms it into a suitable mobile format. ―Processes, graphics and images are thereby automatically adapted to the respective capabilities of the display and browser in use.‖ FIT Mobile can work with all popular mark-up languages, mobile formats and web technologies, e.g. HTML or WML. It recognises the mobile device and automatically renders the content in an optimised format. For this purpose, Sevenval maintains and regularly updates, as per its own statement, a database containing technical specifications of over 7000 mobile phone models from across the world. This feature of the Sevenval solution circumvents the otherwise seriously impairing issue of finding suitable mobile phones. This ensures that the mobile banking software does not have to be updated each time a new mobile phone model comes out; an entry of technical specifications in the database would suffice.
  52. 52. 52 | P a g e This solution seems to be gaining fast popularity. Sevenval can meanwhile boast of several top references in various sectors. Prominent references in the field of Mobile Banking include Postbank, comdirect bank, Norisbank and VR-Networld. 5.4 Global Internet and Mobile Trend Analysis Mobile is clearly becoming a new way people shop… [eBay has] nearly tripled mobile GMV (gross merchandise value) year-over-year to nearly $2 billion, with strong holiday shopping momentum in Q4. In 2011, we expect Mobile GMV to double to $4 billion. John Donahoe, President & CEO, eBay CQ4:10 Earnings Call Table 5: 2.3Billion Global Internet Users – 8% Growth Driven By Emerging Markets Source: United Nations/ International Telecommunications Union, Internet World Stats, 2011 For mobile phones to effectively drive M-Commerce, it relies heavily on internet connectivity. Transactions on are completely and are executed over the internet so internet penetration and growth is very critical. Table 5 above shows that Nigeria ranks 5th
  53. 53. 53 | P a g e worldwide in terms of the number of internet users added between 2008 -2011, this is above the USA which is 8th within the same time frame. Although Nigeria‘s population penetration is just 28%, this is still impressive within a short time and indicates a huge potential for growth. Table 6: 1.1B Global Mobile 3G Subscribers, 37% Growth, Q4 – at Only 18% of Mobile Subscribers Source: Kleiner Perkins Caufield Byers (KPCB), Internet Trends D10 Conference, 2012 Table 6 above shows global 3G subscription. This is equally important as 3G offers high speed internet. The growth of 3G subscriptions in Nigeria is 51%, although this is small compared to countries like China, India, Brazil Egypt and Vietnam we still rank no1 in terms of 3G growth in Africa. In 2011 according to KPCB‘s research shown in Table 6 above, Nigeria had 6million 3G subscription in 2011. Let me also add that the current Blackberry Internet Subscription in Nigeria is currently 2.4million in addition to the 3G this is impressive considering when it was introduced to Nigeria.
  54. 54. 54 | P a g e Figure 9: Rapidly Growing Mobile Internet Usage Surpassed More Highly Monetized Desktop Internet Usage Source: Stat Counter, 2012 The year 2011 witnessed a great shift from desktop computing to mobile computing. Although a lot of people have desktop computers in their homes and offices, the still prepare to go to the internet using their mobile devices. Figure 11 shows that more and more people use their tablets, mobile phones and other mobile devices to connect to the internet in Nigeria. This is because mobile internet is relatively affordable and most importantly it‘s easier and cheaper to acquire a mobile phone than to buy a computer dedicated for internet connectivity. A N2500 brand new nokia phone will allow you connect to the internet and service providers have various data bundles that are affordable for different categories of people.
  55. 55. 55 | P a g e Figure 10: What Desktop Computers Have Evolved To Source: Corbis, 2012 Although we have the more expensive mobile device like the tablets (Ipad, galaxy tab etc.), it is still a preferred choice for internet connectivity by many because of its mobility Figure 11: Computing growth drivers over time 1960 -2020E Source: ITU, Mark Lipacis Morgan Stanley Report, 2011
  56. 56. 56 | P a g e 5.5 Global Mobile Advertising Market Mobile is clearly becoming a new way people shop… [eBay has] nearly tripled mobile GMV (gross merchandise value) year-over-year to nearly $2 billion, with strong holiday shopping momentum in Q4. In 2011, we expect Mobile GMV to double to $4 billion. John Donahoe, President & CEO, eBay CQ4:10 Earnings Call Figure 12: Relative efficacy of Mobile vs. Other Advertising Media Source: Chetan Sharma, 2011 Figure 12 shows that mobile advetising is graudally becoming the number choose for brands. This is because it is more effective than other media and the fact that it cuts across a huge demographic and is not limited by location makes it very effective. All that is require is basic mobile internet connectivity. A lot of mobile phone manufacturers now make it standard for phones to be a ble to browse the internet just as much as the phone can do its primary function which is to make a phone call.
  57. 57. 57 | P a g e 5.6 Social Networking Accelerating Growth of Mobile John Doerr of KPCB coined SOLOMO (Social Local Mobile). This describes the way social media has helped shape and accelerate growth of mobile global and we shall see later in this chapter Nigeria. Figure 13: Different Types of Platforms = Facebook + Apple + Google Source: ComScore Company Data, 2010 Figure 14: Emerging Types of Social Networks Source: Groupon, Twitter Zynga Company Information, 2011 Figure 13 and 14 takes a look at establish platform and emerging platforms from the social networking angle that serves various purposes from information sharing to pure social,
  58. 58. 58 | P a g e gaming etc. The amazing thing about these social media platform is that to the owners it‘s a huge investment that rakes in billions of dollars, to the various vendors that use it for advertising, product launch and sale, it‘s very effective and finally to the end user it‘s engaging, easy, fun and now seen as a way of life. Figure 15: Average Time Spent on Various Mobile Functions Source: AppsFire, 2011 Nigeria currently ranks 31st in the world in terms of Facebook subscription with 5,184,720 members as of July 2012. The user penetration is 3.41% currently but Nigeria ranks highest globally with 81.2% for Facebook mobile penetration. In terms of advertising on Facebook, Nigeria ranks 5th globally with Cost Per Click (CPC) of $0.91 and Cost Per Mille (CPM) of $0.17. Russia, Japan, United State and Australia are ahead of Nigeria in that order. Meanwhile South Africa also made the top 10 list coming 10th globally and 2nd in Africa. From the African perspective, Nigeria has the highest number of users in Africa followed by South Africa which ranks 32nd globally. Algeria, Israel, Tunisia, Kenya, Ghana, Senegal, Ethiopia, Libya, Tanzania and Cameroun all make the top 100 globally in that order.
  59. 59. 59 | P a g e What this means is that the potentials that social media has to accelerate growth can also be used to accelerate the use of commerce using the same media and leveraging on the mobile web exposure it exposes users to. Figure 16: Top 7 Social media Sites in Nigeria Source: Stats Counter, 2012 5.7 Growth of the Nigeria Economy with Specific Focus on Telecommunications Sector In 2011, the Nigerian economy grew at an estimated real rate of 7.36% (see figure 19). This was slightly lower than the 7.98% recorded in 2010. In 2011 on a quarterly basis, the economy grew by 6.68% in the first quarter, down by 0.64 percentage point‘s year-on- year. In the second quarter, the economy grew by 7.61% down marginally from the 7.71% posted in the corresponding quarter a year earlier. The economy recorded growth rates of 7.30% and 7.68% in the third and fourth quarters of the year respectively, down by 0.66 percentage points and 0.92 percentage points year-on-year.
  60. 60. 60 | P a g e Key economic developments that contributed to the marginal decline in GDP in 2011 include lower agricultural output, the lingering effect of the financial sector reforms (involving mainly the banking sector and the capital market), as well as some significant disruptions witnessed in the oil and gas sector particularly towards the fourth quarter. Despite the marginal decline posted in 2011 however, the growth rate for the year was higher than the five year average recorded over 2005 to 2010 at 6.68%. Figure 17: Nigeria Sectoral Contribution to GDP (2010-2011) Source: National Bureau of Statistics, Review of the Nigerian Economy in 2011 & Economic Outlook for 2012 – 2015, May 2012
  61. 61. 61 | P a g e Table 7: Gross Domestic Product at Current Basic Prices (N' Million) Source: National Bureau of Statistics, Review of the Nigerian Economy in 2011 & Economic Outlook for 2012 – 2015, May 2012 Activity Sector 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 1. Agriculture 4,773,198.38 5,940,236.97 6,757,867.73 7,981,397.32 9,186,306.05 10,273,651.99 (a) Crop Production 4,228,282.24 5,291,619.08 6,024,381.00 7,114,793.96 8,200,921.69 9,159,983.65 (b) Livestock 313,252.32 378,702.61 434,151.66 512,943.55 583,623.47 661,662.21 (c) Forestry 61,785.79 73,461.07 83,812.04 99,022.65 111,071.52 124,283.20 (d) Fishing 169,878.03 196,454.21 215,523.03 254,637.17 290,689.37 327,722.93 2. Industry 6,094,891.34 7,488,743.54 8,085,380.04 9,719,513.85 8,071,070.58 10,440,834.98 (a) Crude Petroleum & Natural Gas 5,664,883.21 6,982,935.44 7,533,042.60 9,097,750.70 7,418,148.91 9,747,355.20 (b) Solid Minerals 17,301.53 27,283.96 31,454.41 36,190.11 40,612.78 45,656.99 Coal Mining 0.28 0.30 0.40 0.52 0.60 0.68 Metal Ores 14.90 22.21 26.94 31.00 34.68 39.10 Quarrying & Other Mining 17,286.35 27,261.45 31,427.07 36,158.59 40,577.51 45,617.21 (c) Manufacturing 412,706.60 478,524.14 520,883.03 585,573.04 612,308.89 647,822.79 Oil Refining 29,037.47 37,457.96 41,355.76 47,582.10 53,958.89 61,268.35 Cement 8,501.84 11,791.64 14,916.86 17,162.68 19,556.59 22,121.45 Other Manufacturing 375,167.29 429,274.54 464,610.41 520,828.27 538,793.41 564,432.99 3. Building & Construction 215,786.12 250,332.27 266,463.99 306,581.64 347,690.73 393,525.92 4. Wholesale & Retail Trade 1,868,251.30 2,741,794.53 3,044,773.87 3,503,181.70 4,082,351.76 4,667,658.38 5. Services 1,620,111.98 2,143,487.42 2,502,832.04 2,785,654.78 3,106,819.54 3,430,111.69 (a) Transport 385,481.61 441,822.30 473,445.36 479,126.69 506,720.97 528,268.57 Road Transport 362,605.26 416,240.26 444,989.96 450,329.84 475,907.25 495,111.55 Rail Transport & Pipelines 6.94 7.53 9.55 9.66 10.22 10.78 Water Transport 982.88 1,061.25 1,170.70 1,184.75 1,248.38 1,357.77 Air Transport 3,282.82 4,023.88 4,567.79 4,622.60 5,243.09 5,805.66 Other Transport Services 18,603.71 20,489.38 22,707.36 22,979.84 24,312.03 25,982.81 (b) Communication 39,513.20 165,524.06 243,551.04 249,883.37 256,003.69 262,617.83 Telecommunications 38,194.00 164,019.87 241,814.89 248,102.08 254,195.37 260,770.98 Post 1,319.20 1,504.19 1,736.15 1,781.29 1,808.32 1,846.85 (c) Utilities 29,387.42 42,614.82 45,778.44 52,670.64 62,148.50 70,543.07 Electricity 27,905.92 40,974.19 43,820.51 50,417.93 59,613.44 67,684.79 Water 1,481.50 1,640.63 1,957.93 2,252.71 2,535.06 2,858.29 (d) Hotel & Restaurant 46,080.04 57,611.87 72,839.43 86,058.68 98,961.71 113,684.94 (e) Finance & Insurance 130,749.45 296,704.89 340,908.11 392,044.34 444,235.90 507,490.24 Financial Institutions 126,528.38 288,381.31 330,822.23 380,445.57 430,991.55 492,259.57 Insurance 4,221.07 8,323.58 10,085.88 11,598.77 13,244.35 15,230.67 (f) Real Estate & Business Services 712,835.26 808,555.17 925,594.42 1,064,433.59 1,213,009.66 1,342,926.91 Real Estate 680,790.75 765,184.66 871,568.00 1,002,303.20 1,142,366.55 1,262,791.74 Business Services 32,044.51 43,370.51 54,026.42 62,130.39 70,643.11 80,135.17 (g) Producers of Govt. Services 148,055.51 168,796.67 193,425.36 223,385.84 255,443.83 292,679.99 Public Administration 115,190.77 131,329.00 151,330.40 174,029.96 197,262.29 224,204.56 Education 26,042.52 29,689.87 33,356.60 39,394.14 47,095.70 56,010.85 Health 6,822.22 7,777.80 8,738.36 9,961.73 11,085.85 12,464.58 (h) Comm., Social & Pers. Services 128,009.49 161,857.64 207,289.88 238,051.64 270,295.27 311,900.14 Private non-Profit Organizations 154.48 158.80 163.59 188.13 211.99 241.29 Other Services 126,112.79 159,545.29 204,451.11 235,118.78 267,194.85 308,642.66 Broadcasting 1,742.22 2,153.55 2,675.18 2,744.74 2,888.43 3,016.18 TOTAL (GDP) 14,572,239.12 18,564,594.73 20,657,317.67 24,296,329.29 24,794,238.66 29,205,782.96 Source: National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)
  62. 62. 62 | P a g e Figure18: Growth Rates of Key Sectors in the Nigerian economy, 2010-2011 Source: National Bureau of Statistics, Review of the Nigerian Economy in 2011 & Economic Outlook for 2012 – 2015, May 2012 The non-oil sectors of the economy remained vibrant with the telecommunication sector which recorded a growth rate of 34.76% in 2011. Other sectors including wholesale and retail, building and construction, hotel and restaurants and real estate posted double digit growth rates in 2011 with 11.33%, 12.26%, 12.09%, and 10.41% respectively. Between 2006 and 2010, these sectors have grown at a real average rate of 13.44 %, 12.58 %, 12.53 % and 11.38% respectively. The crude oil and natural gas sectors recorded a decline of 0.57%, significantly down from 5.25 % in 2010.
  63. 63. 63 | P a g e 5.8 Impact Analysis of How Mobile Services Are Transforming Economic and Social Services in Nigeria Table 8: Annual Subscriber Data (2011-2001) Source: Nigeria Communications Commission, Annual Subscriber Data, 2012 Figure 19: Evolution of Mobile Subscription in Nigeria Source: Nigeria Communications Commission, Annual Subscriber Data, 2012 20 07 20 08 20 09 20 10 20 11 FIXED WIRELESS 1,579, 1,307, 1,418, 1,418, 719,40 CDMA 384,31 6,052, 7,565, 7,565, 4,601, GSM 40,01156,93565,53381,19590,566 0 20,000,000 40,000,000 60,000,000 80,000,000 100,000,000 120,000,000 ACTIVESUBSCRIBERS YEARS FIXED WIRELESS CDMA GSM
  64. 64. 64 | P a g e In US-dollar based revenue terms, the Nigerian mobile services market expanded at one of the fastest rates in Africa for the past decade and is the second largest in the region. Figure 20: Expansion of Mobile Service across Africa Source: Pyramid Research, Impact of Mobile Services in Nigeria, 2010 Currently M-Commerce application is already in full swing in the financial sector. The success of M-PESA in Kenya launched by Safaricom has spread through the rest of the continent. Money Box Africa (www.mobileboxafrica.com ) is also a mobile-phone based money transfer services that allow customers to deposit and withdraw money, transfer money to others, pay bills and make purchases. The company was set‐up to deploy a mobile commerce application to allow users to virtually store and move money, make payments over distance and enable a host of transactions — all with the use of mobile phones. The company aims not only to use mobile technology to deliver its services but also to adopt the same business model that helped mobile operators succeed in low‐income and growth markets. Also MTN Nigeria just introduced mobile money which what the whole concept of Mobile Commerce. Also various companies especially the entertainment and media industry in Nigeria already use the Short Code SMS service which is a value added service provided by the service
  65. 65. 65 | P a g e providers and create revenue not just for the but to marketers and also the business owners. Already companies also engage in mobile advertising and this has proved very effective so far. The purpose of this study is to show the huge potential that can help Nigeria Business grow but leveraging on the opportunities that M-Commerce provides. Nigeria is very ripe to adopt M-Commerce because as we can already see the growth in mobile penetration, internet connectivity and social media creates the necessary platform needed for any investor to engage in M-Commerce in Nigeria. Every sector in Nigeria can benefit from adopting M-Commerce to boost their business, it does not only add to their revenue but also allows them reach out to a huge number of people at a lesser cost than what the other media will cost. The potential of M-Commerce in Nigeria cannot be over emphasized enough as it is evident from the analysis above that this is the future driver of business in Nigeria.
  66. 66. 66 | P a g e CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION 6.1 Summary of Findings This study has helped to show that mobile technology has remarkably grown in Africa and especially Nigeria. Ideal time has never been more productive with the emergence of social media which in itself has transformed into a platform for commerce. Mobility makes it perfect for developing countries and the idea platform to reach out to a large number of people. The explosive growth of the mobile internet and its associated devices has finally helped to realize the idea of consumer convergence, making it imperative for multichannel retailers and other enterprises that sell online to present a unified and consistent view of themselves to customers across a multitude of devices, locations, and activities. In this new world of agile or elastic commerce, the concept of a traditional website or in-store purchasing funnel becomes obsolete as mobile devices bridge the gap between online and offline. All enterprises will have to transform themselves into next-generation multichannel retailers, allowing consumers to interact with their brand, search their catalogue, make a purchase, or track an order or even basic financial transactions and banking. In an increasingly time-pressured business and personal environment, the ability to work in what was previously ‗dead‘ time is more important both for productivity and work-life balance. For some, work is no longer just somewhere to go to, but something they do, wherever they are. In the world‘s poorest and richest countries alike, mobile technology is touching heights these days and the small device is offering a lot to the users other than making and receiving calls. With a new platform of smartphones in the market, this technology is giving a tough time to the other fields of advertising and marketing.
  67. 67. 67 | P a g e Already we know the following facts:  Mobile subscription has surpassed the 6billion mark  Developing countries account for the rapid growth in mobile subscription  Growth in mobile Web penetration is strongest in Asia and Africa, where PC penetration is lower.  Mobile broadband subscription is also growing very fast with over 1billion subscription  Social media plays a very important role in mobile penetrations and mobile commerce  Financial sector have leveraged on the potentials of M-Commerce the most especially in Nigeria. Mobile Commerce is gaining increasing acceptance amongst various sections of the society. This growth can be partly traced back to technological and demographical developments that have been influencing important aspects of the socio-cultural behaviour in today‘s world. The need/wish for mobility seems to be the driving force behind Mobile Commerce in general. Mobile Banking, availment of bank-related financial services via mobile devices, builds a cornerstone of Mobile Commerce.
  68. 68. 68 | P a g e 6.2 RECOMMENDATIONS To succeed with m-commerce, however, it is critical for marketers to understand the characteristics of mobile users and their perceptions of m-commerce. Little is known about what drives consumers to use m-commerce, and how retailers can optimize consumers‘ mobile experiences. We cannot afford to neglect the opportunities the mobile services carry and the most critical of all is mobile commerce. With the increasing growth of mobile subscription and mobile phone penetration in Nigeria and identifying the potential for mobile commerce I hereby have the following recommendations: Government/ Regulators: the government and the regulators should ensure they come up with consumer protection laws as this will boost the confidence of potential consumers in engaging in m-commerce activities. The regulators also need to ensure that the service provider‘s improve on the quality of service as the success of m-commerce actually relies heavily on the quality of voice and data services that the providers make available to the consumers. Service Providers: they have to comply with the rules and regulations in the industry and also ensure that they put their customers first. Telecommunication in a very profitable business but the service providers have over the years imposed huge tariff on their customers in Nigeria. Although this has not really stopped people from using their services as the day to day activities of an average Nigerian rely heavily on a mobile phone but I believe if their tariff becomes cheaper and more affordable we will witness even monumental growth that will surpass that of India, China and they US in so many ways. The service providers should also drive technological innovations by introducing a lot of value added service to allow Nigerians benefit more from the potentials of mobile technology especially through m-commerce.
  69. 69. 69 | P a g e Banking: Mobile Banking can also serve as a source of revenue. Mobile services can be offered on a premium basis. The price, in this case, should be reasonable enough so that customers are willing to pay them but at the same time they should be – from a financial point of view – higher than the costs incurred by the bank. Additional revenues can be generated in two ways:  Offering innovative, premium services to existing customers;  Attracting new customers by offering innovative services whereby new customers contribute to revenue generation not only by utilising mobile services but also by using other conventional distribution channels. Mobile Banking can be also used as an image product to gain strategic advantages. A bank may hope to win or retain a positive image amongst technology-savvy sections of the society and strengthen the brand-reputation of being innovative and visionary. The image of being a technology leader can help the bank win customers looking for modern products and services and at the same time help it retain its own existing base of technology-savvy customers, some of whom otherwise might have switched to other banks while looking for such a product. Further, the bank can profit from an early-mover advantage by actively shaping technological standards that are based on one‘s own strengths. This is, of course, fraught with a substantial risk of incurring financial and image losses if the propagated technology fails to establish. Although all banks in Nigeria now provide SMS alerts and a few banks like UBA and Zenith have introduced mobile money, there is still room for other competitors to play as this will boost the growth of the sector and the economy at large. Entertainment: this industry has benefitted immensely form mobile commerce by introducing short code sms for voting in completion, subscription to entertainment services, paid song download and ringtones. The thing to note is more investment in this sector will drive a significant level of growth in not just the sector but also mobile commerce. Marketing and Advertising: mobile marketing and advertising in a relatively untapped area in Nigeria by Nigerian business. Although companies like Google and Facebook place

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