Architecture form, space and order 1st ed.

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Architecture form, space and order 1st ed.

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  5. 5. V fir< C !:? iio0trdftd ! i.Clnnal?l ! 1 omrar:,Y ietj !Ork · C/lnClnn;3bJ ~ Chlca~o. Md~rae· D~[ia~;Van Nostrand Relt1no!td CotYlpany !nternatlonal · fvlel bourne ~) 1:)7£1 vy van N()Str,an.d R.elnhold Con1pany : : ~ .ll~rJry at COI1~retS~ .J Cat.alo~ ..; Card NLJm~er i 70 -18045 .15BN: 0 ..44- Z - 2113 3. 4 - 715D;! 0 -442 - 21035 ..6 p~k. I " . ,> (.•A II r! ~ h+- re5e.rved.; j-Jo part tJ0 ~ I ! 1.l- I 01 th I~ worK , I cavere?1 I f .f?)I ~I vr1e.cOfyrlghl hereon m::ay ~e reproduued or ueeJ In ;any form or~y any rt1ean~, - t3rar~ >(,/ eleclrorll?/ or mechanlc.aL IncluJ!n~photocopying" record Intj, r:aplngl or Inftrrnat.lon 0tora~e andreirleVdl ~vstetrlS ~ vvd:hovt I t7erml~Slon gf, t,h,~ vu01 iSher. / I states ~f Americaf{)~l i l?y V.tH1 No~tr.an,J Kelnhold Company"~ DWISloft 0+ l,ltton Educ.:3.tlonal ft)bll~J1!r101 Inc,136 Vve~t ~Oth Street, Nevv ~r~k, N,(, U,o,A.16 15 14 15 12 II 10 ~ B 7 ~ 5 Ir ~. : . .L.l~r~rl of Con~ ~"e0S Ct3t 21 03 r1~ InChl!1~1 Francl? ~KJ) 1~43- A reM d;e.cture ~ ftrml-5race & Or~e-r1 Bli1llo(~ r.arMy; lnc::ludes IrlJex. 1. ,A,rcnltectvrB -- Compo5Itl<)r1/ rrarortlOf1, etC.2, Srace (frchd::ecr.lJre) I; Tjtle.,r~f 2760, C4~ 720 J. I re- )8045 0-442 - 21534- - 7 0-442- 5-5
  6. 6. I WI-5~ cO a~knowl~.dg e. the follt?wU1~ r~orlt; t-dr -b~elr V~liJ~~I~ Ct1r1trl ~Uilt?r1f; bo ihl!J wot"k ~ ftrr~t WiI-st:?n, wnose lV1slgrd::s IV1W t.he COWlvYU~JC~tltJn of Je?t~Y1 rrlt1Glrles hc!lfeJ cl~rlfy -b~e argarl- It~-bIOY1 af tV1~ ty1~terl :aI, A~ wh(J-S~ heir m:.aJe. d;~ rL1~llc~tIOY1 ras?I~I~; J~mes Tlce wha-se krtl?wle.dg~ l ~V1d uV1Je.r~t.ar0)Y1~. A ~rcv, Itectur~1 ~1~ttJ"1y :aV1J t~eor/ -str~VJ~f;0eY1~J t~~ JevelopmeVlt df tn-t7 ~budy; Norm:an Cn1w~, WVlo-se J",~et1ce ~r1J eki] I IVI the- te.ac;,~H1~ df 3rcv){i;~tu~ ~Vc()vrjl~eJ me to rlJrs!)~ t~ I~ re~e.archj Roger ?~~rwoajJ W0t1S~ re~e.arc,V1 1Y1-td fu-e.. orgaY1l- -z.atloY1~1 frlnclfI~~ tJf f11"rn fostered t~e- Jev~It?fmer1-t of th~ ck~rbe..r OVI orJe~/V1~ rrln~lr!eG) l7~Yllel Ft"le.dm~V1/ ft?r MI~ e)JtlVlg of 1;V1e fl(1~1 C£1FY aY1d eVltVJVSI:d?m fcJr t~e rrtje0tj t?1~V1e Turt1~r _ar1.d P~df H~mf1 +.91"" th~lr ~t7?16taY)ce I rl rc1seartViiY1j· " W1~ter/:21 t/r the IIlvsir~tlt?n~;, ~V1~ l.arry H~~~, Sevllor f-tJitdr ~t VaVlNt15t~~YLd RblV1Viold, ft1r hl~ ra·beYlce, w~d-t- pW.ad~IV1~ t~e.. t1t1.a I 0 lJ t ~dl11 e. FIV1~IIYI I Al1~11 -t.o dedlc~te t~l? vc;dk 1;0 h1j wlf~1 [7e~rAI +~r lA.JIt~OUt: ~er UV1vv~verU1~ 0urrorl:: 2V1d er1covr.a~e.merd::j ~~pecl;1l~ durYlg t~e dlf·hclJlt ·bme~ of f;t1& ~cJoks rro.Jv~-t1 on/ It woulJ t1~ver h.ave b?e~V1 tul ~ r~~IIteJ,
  7. 7. Thlt? I<£> ;;l ~uJ>, of the ~r-b ?f ;#rcf111;e",1:.Uf&,lt I~ a rYldrf7h"I":JI(/~1 -siu.Jy A the- B5t?&n-b,;;! derne.rt-bs of ,h;1rm :an,J,. .3f~C& &In,J tnt/G, 6 rlnclrle" G tn:;at; c.?rrtt"dl 1;.hBIr r" t?f~~nIZR-!;ll7n WI tlvr i?udi; 6nvlt"tlnmen1;, ihe0>& eleme>t1U of form ",nd ""r.iilc;e. are.- the, trlbIC~lme~t15 of .a~h,t;&c-iur&1 Whd& utd,-t;arl~n conc;ernG 0+ fvnc11ICJr1 and U!?e. clilnhe rela-blvely -s111r~hve.:l, :<In,J. ?ymbtlllC- Jt1.J;e.rfrebtl!7r1~ can va? tr..:1m :r3~e-to ;a~e/ theee ~rll11;.ar) elc::.ment,~ <.1t t-orm ~nd o?f.pc-e catrlrrl~& the- +lme,I,,~~ ~nj tunJ.t>mei1bl voc&l~lJl.;;try 17+ -bne an;h,1::e.c:i;lJr;;l1 de$~rle:r,. Th,i? G-tIJ.Jy e:mfn,a<7Iz.e::;, ihe. de-met)c ~ tdrm ;<i:; +he.- rr1m:H1 td(}1 ~ t~& dt%ljner. It Serve~ -b~ l~y ovt ~nd vl~tf?~lfy tpranalysi? and J,~c;US6t1n baGt~ f&rl11~ ~nJ c?rj~n- 1Z~tlc?n~, t?.r ?F~C& anJ th61r <3erierlC ~r.3n~ft7rrnt1-bitJn~ 111 ;a tlfoJCJglcpl m ~t1n~r, rt: f~ uitlrn;;i~eIJ -bh& ~rovln(:;e of. the. Ir1.dIVldtJ~t de~jn8r ~o Ge.I~c;t, teG-b, and mJ3l1lful;at& ,,+ • .. .... tf • • t.nene e.I ernents JI1to Goher6rlC I me~n In~full an.:! u-$eful Qr0;:li1lZ;;..r:: Ion? oGr~ oe, G~r1)o-b ure, ~n.J eno!t?GurC}, A i;;af"ge. rdr·h>ln A -tnl? Wtlrk 1~ dewteJ to me.ge ma:Je~ -:?r;:ln ·bmCl ?nd itr1;~eo?, c;:.rd~ (/1) itur...al bounJ~n ~!7, The. Jvxi: :<Ift?sri::!.?n h<7tor,.:::a! ,;-tyle~ m~j arre..ar -t;., ~~ r:1F -abrlJft at tlmeG, btK/ 10 IntendeJ ~ -fdr.5~ bhe rte~dor -be? /&oK tt1r liken 8?7e<; amdl1j -::; m mg I)" on Ii ke- tor tr1 ~ i; 1t111<;3, Un) e r,"A;;:ln.J IYlg -1;11866 tG, rnII III r,j~ I C>~ a tnt? t15 the WI.::le-- ce. r,H1g¢", ~ h,.;.ior,c.a! eXtltT!FieG GndlIlJ l1e1f vI~n7 th~r d,rteremc.e.s, The ;.ar~h!te~.purJ>f ex~rnfL~G u?eJ In -b~I7 ~dt1k ~re, t1t vtJ!}r~e" rvi exhs V?t,IV&,rldr ar& ihey neceS?,;mly the ar;,c-hetYre~ t?r the C4,l1oe tS dr r rrlncll~ dSCtJ~~6J. The- wtJe rpt1~e; of eX~mrle!? I-G ~e~b~er~i~. ft16lr 0efeG{,It?t1 I~ ~~e:, dn t3frrtJrr,:?tene% :;;lr-1d ol~nby anJ <s>el"v8 <S>lmr1j ~cJ "Iv,~-tra-be The~e ,Je41t7 tr;ln~c;.&V1J tvnd.arnertb! IAe;lS, their hwborlO;llIc.?,,1;8.xf, av0 el1~tJr"a~6 ~Fe~uI.Gl1;I.?n: H.w r111111-b they I?e <?eJec-bed, t;eotu(tll f!"tll?lem-::; f ml? iyre k :r3n::Jlyz::e.J, :;;lVld retlfFIte-.J .J;o :;;l wl.::ler r;.lnge. 17-t- :<lrc.JlI ~rrrO~c;.H ~hplJtj ~er onQ ~ei-be;r lJnJer~tpnJ the ;ar-o~lhevblJre ?net exrenenc:e~, the?; ~n~hl-be:o-b ur6 one, t=-ncovf1ters In II-bera-btJr~ and me .ar~hltecture C1ne n1:aglne$ ", Whti6 t1e~l~nln~. ,r
  8. 8. Alth.?Vjh rre"7eYlt.e.J In V.<llIt1~ d8gree-s at umrle)CI-t.y, .j;.h~ clerncn-ts- Jlr1J ft"InC-1re? ,arC JI~c;:u%eJ ;a" dl?vre+e!y as fd*I~Ie.... lhl-G ~t0k I-G merely a ?t-:I1rinn~ Ft?mt. Re~Ju~ ",re- e1oturtl~ed ~o U~e the.. b?t?k freely durr1,9 -b~e de~l~n rrdCee_.7~ and ta t;tk~ t1Vbe. of ~Jdi-b It1H~1 ~)(~tr1rle5 rec;;tfled WI-bYHt1 tI1e. cdlllte)<t .,f their" In; fVI.JII~le)(Ferl>5nc,65. A"3> -bhb 6~-.. , . I11tm/;s ;3t1d rnnv1plef>. ~eOdl1"le more tatn1Ir;ar, new cOlt1ectldYl!i; r8bh:Ul~hrO:;I :;iltlJ level6 erf t116311111g rrt2sy be- e~A;:;l~116h6J, The sui1?t;lnc& aVId ty1~l1ner .rl rreS7eJnf,;;iI1:;"n "3>eeK6 cb;w,;..y IVlOrv1t1r to enot1Vr:?ge -bh~ uYlJ<r~iJit1JH1~ t?.f- the ;art tJf ~~c.~I- ieo1:;ure.1 the e.lernen1::,;; A t-.m·Yl Jiilld ~r~t"el ... rJJ .t11,~ or; eo!"1 .,,f- »vr ~!lII1::: environ ment, i1~ I···~· .. I" .1.1. ~. , j-_ f . 7
  9. 9. I)I·"U.....:.lLl~)Jj("1.1 .(~.~.(. A !J - 10 IB 5.FOIlL1I & SP.AC]~ .fOl N1- _. __ ", .. _.. ~_ __ _ , __, 20 fo~tr1 5FA6E= THE UNITY OF OrFO~;ITE5 & _.~..· !!O Li ~.~ _ E _._" _ " __ _. " .. , ., , 24 FO~~A DEFINING 5FrACE._ ~ ~ 114 L!~~E TO FLAt··~E_ _ _ _ .. 30 PEFINING SfACE WITH HORIZONTAL ELEMENTS 115 :. ..: rLA ~J E _.. __.,.. _ _, .. _ _. ~ _ _.__.. _ _._~. 34· THE BASE FLANE _ , rl( VOLUME .. ~ «.~ _...•... • . ". __ . __ . _. __ • __ 44 E~E~ATcD ·fLANES~.~ , _~I Ie, DEFRE55ED FLANES _ ., - * __ ._ 1?42. FOflll [)Efl THE QVeKHEP.D FLl~J~E.. - _ N I N·S 0.fA.CE tVITH VERTICPL ELE~lENTS , 120 ISG VISUAL FFOPOfTION5 OF ••••• , •••• _" •••••• , •••• J 5() VEf(,TICAL LI~lEA.K~ ELEtv1ENT5 _.. _ 138 t.S~Hp~FE:>. «~ • ~ ~« « • __ ••••••••••••• , ••••••••••••• _ •••• _ « • + • • • • • •• •• ~)2 SINGl-E VERTICAL FLAJ~E _ l~ FRltv1f~Y 5H;fE5 4, ••••••••••••• 4 ~ _ .••••••••• _ •• 0 •••••• _ •••• ~4 L~ SHArED FLAJ~E~}_ " " __ i?O FLATONIC SOLI D? , , _.. _.. " So rP-RjL.LEL FL/;,iE5 .. , _ _"" .. l?0 REGULAR & IfZRr:GULAr.~ Fo~rv15_ _ <p2 lJSHAfeD FLANES __ l~2 TRANSFO~MAT10N Of FOK~vL __ (;,4 . CLOSURE · 1~8 , . 1 "".1·,:. D!tv1ENSIONAL TRAN5FORtv1r~TiON {PC? 6<UAlITIES OF AKCH rTECTUfiL SFr.t.CE 175 ~. : . . .SUBT~/ACTIVE FORiVlf).«. , (;8 DE&REE ()F CL05Uf<.E " " 178 . ", ...... .ADDITIVE fORMS _.._.. __ 72 LiGHT .. - > •• _ •• _ •••• •• _ ••••• o ••••• _ ••• _._._ ••••••••••• :00 Cc.NT~.Af.,!ZED " _ __ 74 __ ~._. __ _ __ ._ _ __ . """" .. If.?.t1 t,t NEAR_·._ .. -.- - - 7~ OPEN1NG::> It...! SF;ACE·DEFINING ELE~AENTt:;.~_.~ .... 186 RADIA L.- . - _ , 80 vV !TH i I~ FLA ~~ S E «_ •••••• _ ••• __ •••••• « ••••• ~ •• lo(b CLU5TERED~ , , " flc AT COr::.~~ER.S _ «_ _, _ _ ~ j08 6K.!D_ , .. B(~ BeTr/f-et~ FLA,NE::-J ~._. .. «" .. _ , ~. _. _ _ « ~ 19O fOf::MAL COL.L! 51 (?NS OF GEO~~1ETRY .. :. __ . - 08 .ARTICULATiON OF FORM .. ~4 EDGE5 & CORNER5 ·... q/r;; SU KFA·CES_ -- " « •• --
  10. 10. ORGA~4IZATIONS OF FOIr~1 & SFACE _~.__ [~i4 . FrzorOf(.TION . __,_, _ _. ,.,_ .. ~2g2 SFAT1AL r<~LAT!ON5HlfS _ ~_ ~.. ff(O FORT f ON ING SYS·TEM5 _ _ .. :.2(30~. • _a 5ftACE VVlTHIN AI SfACe , _.;~~ GOlDEN SECT!O~~ , 300 fNTEKLOCKINe t?FACES~ ~ _ _,.,. !et> THE O~DEK5 _ _.. , _ " ._ _.. " 30cP ADJACENT SPACES _~.,_._ _200 f~NA ISSA NeE TH EO~.l E5 _ " . __ _ . 6FA6ES ~IN~,ED BY A COMM?)~~5F.ACc .. __.202 THE ~10DULOFZ _ _ , . . _ 91~ SFA1-!AL OfGANZATON5~ _.. _.. __ _204 THE cKEN _ " _ _ 620 CENTRALIZEr) ORGAHIZ(ATIONS ..... _. .. 2% ANTH!0FOtv10RFHIC ffZufDF,TIONNG_ _-- .324 t.,INEAfZ OKGAt-.,lIZATION6 · _._.. _ 214- SCALE -~ _ _._.~ 320 f(ADIAL Or<&Al-{IZAT!Ot~5 _. -. --""~"" CLU0TEtt::D OfGANfZATIONS GRID O~AN1ZATION5*._ _._ _ . 2g0 7. PIIINeIl~J~]~S ORDE~l NS FRJ NCI FLES _" " 332 !l.(1IU.CITI.JA~TI()N PXl"::?, 5Yt-v1 METfY ~ ~ _ _ -_ " _ . CIRCULAT1CJti eLEtv1ENTS __ ,__, __" .. : 247 HIER/RCHY .. _ _._ _. _ >._ ..•• , _ ..• " _ .•.••. 350 THe BUilDING AFF~:OACH - -- _.... _~240 DATUl-/l _ _.. _ _ _.. , _._ _ 35E ButL.[JING ENTKANCES - .. - _.__ ~.~es~ .. tzHYlH}{i & f(EfET!T:ON .. _.. _ _ , __- _ -. CONFIGUr~TION Cif THE FATH .. _ -_ _.. ~270 T~ANSFOR~·ItATlON _.. _.... - .. -._ - _.. -., .. - ., .. .. _ fATH SFACE f5._ _.__ _ _._282 . OF THE CIKCULATlOl~ SPACE ._... 28& (~()NCI.AIJSI ()N 88t; 11IllI.JI() (;ll.f.llil Y INJlEX
  11. 11. lA, rch d;ccture l~ norrrl~lIy conceived (JesI1neJ) and realJ zed (built) Ir1 reSr0l"lSe to JI1 eXi6iin~ . set of Ctln,dd;(OrIS, These condrf;Ions rnal be fur1e~ func-tlonal In nature-I" or -theyr(l;ay retle~t, In varying deejreesl 0(?CI~t eCOt1&nlIC; polrclcal, even Whl(-n~fC~ or 6ymk1&lfc Inte.ntlan-s~ In :any c.a~el rb 16 30sumed tn~t tHe eXltSt 1f11 0Ct df CtlrlJ,tlt1tl? - the frobrlettl- I~ fe~£; tM~n 6a-b.:Sfactory, .ansd that .a neV-i ?et af c.ond Itlor1~ - a ~autlon - ~(oud I?e de~lrable, The a~t of cre;atlng arc-vllt ec/ture th~Yl, j IS· &3 rrob/~rr1- ~olvlng or Jesl~n frocee~t Tne fir:;+- rhase tlt any de!>lql1 Frt7cess)3 -!:lo1~ rectlgnli::lon of &> problem.<3i,v c"nd,bon :litnd -the decl7lOi1 to find a &Olutiorl to it. I/esign 13, -;al?tlve :3111 ;;a willful z.v1:., 2l UI"fO:7eFu! r cnde;avor. The de·s~r!er mU01; flr~lt .. (do!-;Lrne~1i tl1~ e)(l~t.fng c.onJltlOt1S of ;3 rr"o~rem, ~eflne It~ oontext., and collect relcAIant d to ass n-n IIatetl, Tnl~) I~ t~e crltlc)1 rh~~-6 .1f the .Je~11n rroce-$o, SIYlce the" ·2 utlon 1& lt1e"xorJb~ reJateJ -Co How :3 rrtJblem IS pC!r"celved JetlneJ1 :and articulated/ l fiet Heln, the noted D;3nlt?h fa!~t .anJ?CletrCI~~ puts rt tMIS rV;Jy~ IlArt l~ ~41lvlt1~ rroblel11~ tn~t Cant10t ~e teJrtTH) I ed l1c;tOr-e they H2ive ~een solvet~L The 0h.arr11 of the; qlJe.~tlor1 Ie fart of the aYl:;:wet--1, it prefl1ure solutions to pioblem-s t~~y ~.re ct>nfrol1tt!d Desl~ner? Inevlta~1ly wlin. Th~ Jer+h vac;.a~lJLarl will :affect ~d~h th~lr rerceptltf1 c?f 3 rar11C! C1f -thelt1 Jesl1v1 prc?blem arid t~e 0hape ~f d;~ ?OIUt.IOMI ThiS vaok car1ceV1tratee. orl ar~iGU?3t;ln~ e.lements tJr the 7 des~t1 vocabvla;~11 :and fre~~vrts a Wide .array 1f rQ?~;"ble solvtlOY1? 1;0 :arc~t1tectur;f rro1?Ie trle-, They ;tl~e 1V1tenJeJ ~o eVHAlc-h one~ desI1Vl v;~C9tJUr art t~1r6ug~1 eXFioratlc.1n, tStUdy, 2lyld -arrllc3tlo n. As 13r1 :art, ;archd;e;.vtvr.e IS tYlt1re tn2iVl 0(3tl~fyY1g the pUj-1ely functlonal re1Ulr~met1t6 of :3 budjltl~ rrogrtH"l1. FJttd ~m?Ylt;i111 ike r~1y~lc;.a( m~vllfe0t~tICJ~16 of arc.hlteciure accotrlt11otLate hurrlan ac..tlvlt.y. H~WeV8r, the arrat1~eIt1eYlt and Or1;3t1IZatlon of tY1e elerr1C;r1tb of fdrrY1 and sracc:. will det>~rl11tt1e.. ~aw architect-lire m!1Vtt: rrOrY7ote eVlJeavorre/ el161t respc1n~e~) ~Vld cortlitlVt1L:;ace. trL~anJn~, Tr1e,0e eleme,rd:G of f&?rtrl a~lJ ?F~ce are. pre,?erlted, ther~ftre, nit aS ert.d6 .lv1 themselve?, ~ut ~!; me,Jns to s~lve .a problem In reef0rlse t.o C~¥1Jltltn~ of ", tvrlvtlOtl/ rV(f0:.:;,e, :and context - tl1~t I?, ~rGh t-Ce..c-turally.fa
  12. 12. ! rle 2n;;d tJ~y m.a>( be rriaJe. tl1j3t t)nc; mu&-t knt?w can ~e +ortY1eJ ~V1d :a vac abul ary d eve!.tiped j one ut1~c~r~,t ,an.d ~ynt3X befCire 0ey1 tenc ee C,ZH1 ~ can<?trucied, one mu-st under-s,t2Vld the. ~rlnC-I~1 es f / COr{1PO~5!"tlan I l l1efore e0spy~ navel~/ ~r1J t~1~ like ~~Yl ~e wntten. Once c:,Ie.merJce tire uVlder:;,tooJ one:- I ean wn~e t rOl~r1af1tly I· or Vlitn !! r~ rVlrc:e, cail !! J:. i21r reace tJr ItiCh:e. f..,O 1. l- Or) trw i a or -s~e.a 1<. i vvd;h IVlslght ar1.d mean In~. ...i . 1-b ~hjuiJ H1eYe.fcire; f , t~rm ~~·1.d <space j rt1anlFtJiabed 6.1 n c ertf;/ 2Yld rc".a I ze th e I yt j 11}lplicatlof19 Ir1 the Imremen- On th~ t"t11 ( OVl/lYij r ragt:;~ i0 pn ,~V,e(VleW ~F elerYl;erTt5, ! • ;a rhy~,cal 0Jork tPf arch IteutUre. nJe0;,e. c.on6td;uerlt-Sc~n al W7JlY reaJ!ly arrar-e?~t while be rYl?i)/ be nlcire o~0cure our s,ensef;, Sorr1e ,11,13,)/ ~,otrllnate vvhde OtVter6 rl;ay a seCc7Y1 J0ry itle w~ .a bUlldlt1g~>on0 arllz at!on, C:;;tim~ and meanlt1j 0/~1de c1tk er-s m~y -serve as qya! It! ere or ((lOd ;fl~r-7 5(:5 !yYl In )311 ct3-?es j t~e fdl !jY/IM.Ij hJYlever; drid ?ye;b~V}1S shovlJ 2m.! tr1vtv~IIy rell1ftlrC1f10 ttl forM van iVte~r.ate.d whole. Archi-!:eC~!)rai el ements ~VlJ ~y~tert/1SJ aS fartf; trlake . Yl61ble tkc; relat ,. , avLj the ~u!lJIY1~ -aG j w~olet ~Vhen their re!;abon6hlrs, ;are ~erte!VeJ 21S BiV1t1Uljlr J n:3turC- tif the yV}1J/0 t~e~ a C:OVi - 3M (Wder t~.at J0( end l)t~1 n~ -J1;an11·· t • • I II
  13. 13. lUt (J urn: (JrlUIW.J ]~J.l]~~Il~,,-rrl~; ///~~"" / ~ •.•• •. / - orVj:arllZationa! ~.aiternl rela!IOn6nlP5 Be h :erarchy- 1U(~I-IITBjt111UIU~ Of 1 / .6r~i;.l: ~e·hnd;:~t1 &. Im;3:}e - :I~Ie.f; , / ; form l eD;31e s. l p roportl on 5urface/ 7nape, eJt?,es, ~ openln~?; il~ht, Vier", f~cus, t.,;.acou?b~!7 • arrr-oach ~ entry 11(),rl~lf]~Nrl l r~ • F~th configuratIon & access SI~fJl~ •rl!lilU,/ / - sequet10e t- or 6r;aces II. , " . . ~, ", ·struc.ture- & encosur8 ",tACH i ElED r>r/ THE • enVlrOf1n"] ental comfort - health, Safety, tv welfare. edurt:lbdl"t:! • U0er requItA,ements,_, ·Ietllal (estrawd::s;, • ec~norr1;c f:actor~) I / It I • soc i tJ i// CUI· ur"_aJ r -r2ctOrS I • nl0torlca! Vr-eced el1ts i -site 8< envIron tY)ent • c im-are: -5un/ Wind, tet11perature, rrcc: plt,C3t~on • 1eo~r.aphJ: .., _I I / sods, topo~raphY1 ! ,," I ve?3etatlon ~ l wate.r ·Sen?ot"Y: ~craracter I. ! or " LlI Lne race, VletiS" 50un~:t12
  14. 14. ··. & () IIIM)).171}".~S . ~iJ -ro 1,11 & Sl~(~]~ °ENCL06URE ·TEC,H N()LOG( ·,AFrRO;CH ~ t7~f;~KTU~E -ENTRY &, EGrc.E55 9MOVEhi1ENT TH ~,OU THE O~DER: Of SFPCE5 ·FUNCTIONli~6 Or; & -QUALll"IES - til (A,GE:S • C(Jt"llrrcnen:?)lon of the ort3ete.;l ,Jr •f;TTErJ{5 dis arcJered reI :atla~10nl a rYiO ntj 001GN5 SF/~CE ·SYME)OL5 snd retStJondlVlt1 I . v to -rh?y 6"v(}ke,
  15. 15. " /: t , ~,t- • 1 /~ ". ~ ~. ~ • a of U?lumn? qrl~ 0uf17ortlYlj horr:zot1t;a eJm~ ant.1 ?Lab?, . i· .-" 1-1 ~ _ ,. J .n. ~~.. (AMONG A BUILD! NGS ELEtv1ENTS A~lD SYSTeMS
  16. 16. .. , . , anJ !Ink, 1;Vie v,artov-:; ~nd I, heIgh t en? I I.. tne.. Vlew~rG / of r&rms Insf2ce ~r1d A pure eXterlor }tJrh1 wrap:? .arOVYld tHe: or1raVl1Z;3"bon of ftJrlYlG al1cJ 6r ace5. A 0~H"jeV terrace. J7trl ~ute? 5ut1ltght -t;o lhe :3rtvnJ IPI -~,-. , "j ~, .
  17. 17. ·f· .. Ilh
  18. 18. , , .I , ,, ~, ~ { r ~ _J~ ~ ~ ~""
  19. 19. Th!$ charter rreeerrbs the fnn1~ry I -telemc/nt-8 0; r t iorm ~ t/ I InC fl;ane-, pOln I f;and vtlume, Sb:Jrtinq with bhe pOint~? -bMe.- frlrrle -:Jene;~1;or of .:;1/1 rtlt"rrl,e~&h 6!ement I~ rresenbe-J Hi tht/drder of It6> ~rtJvvth rrdtrl the- Falntlflr-?i as p conce.Pt1)~ f eJetn e.n~ then i;a~ 3 vl~uaf element In the !i~uabularyof aruhiiecttJr~!de~lgn, k • b~!r1·0 .j v/!i;h n1~ t:?onrt i m~)VC;e I .e , + j J..!_e • l/rt I! nS"~ ! 1. ,../ In tH6 ·~lYeS "-" r!0c., to . b&)y (£hrc;u" ener?1le-G ../ rvnlvn m r)V& the rC/i.1t ~ra .- j. ;.,I.al i fhUL i....
  20. 20. A rot NT agtne. rrlmc- gener;ator ~ • ft1rm, Ind Ic~t~5 ~ ft1t7ltft?n In ~F3cbl A fOlnt extenJed ~ect1t11e~ .3 LI NE Wfth prore;rf;I~-S tJr; T IJN1£ • ten~hh , t t t . . • t1lr~ctlt1n t ; I, • pd~t,on I t I 1 • I ........ A fln6 e;X:1;enJd ~eoVmeG a PLANE. with prVfertlee of ~ lILllN]~ • L~n~th & wIdth • 6h~re/ • Gurf.ac~ • arleni.attdt1 ·FO~ltlan A fane extended b?ecom~~ :3 VOL.UME WitH rrorertle~ t1t~ ,r()I.lJ1IJTI • 1~l1gth, w,d-b~, & Jerth • ftlrm / c;rac.e • ~urt2tce- • orlen.r;;a1::10n • fo~rb,"n" i--r
  21. 21. • A pOint m~rks a POS!tldn In srace, ,CG1nc~f~!Jally, It h;?~ no I~n~t.h, Wldt.h, elr, depth, ;;3nJ l?/ thcrcfare., $>t.atIG Jlr(;.ctl~nl~?~, I and ceYltrallzeJ, A!> th~ prime c!el11ci11:: in the vocah>ul;ary .?f ft?rm, :;l p?ltrt c;aM eerve //" /"" ", 1;0 m~rk~ the two enJ~ af a fine. .: . -, .... ). ihe In-ber0eotltJn of two lineS the mectln~ of llnc.o ;at the C&rner A ;3 fL~ne or vtlumt> ............. , tHe center t?f ~ fl~!JI Although ~ penni 17 concBftu:;ally wrt.hc1vt- ehap~ or ftrm, rb ~e1In~ t~ m~ke lt~ rre~ence, felt- r-vhen . rr~ced wlthiM ~ VISlltll fieLd, A~ the center of It£7 enV!rdnrn6nt, ;J rtH1t I~ ~t?~Je and ~t re-st dr~:;anl~lng l • 0urn1und ln~ e.1ement~ about ,tserf and dt?t111r13t,n<J ,tsf!eLJ, When the Pt?lnt I~ mtJveJ tff- C6t11;e;G nlJwev~r, rt.~ field ~ecome? more- • t3~1r~0erl!e anJ ~e81n5 1;0 Dtmrcte f&r visual StUrrempcy, A vl~val te.n5ldn 1~7cre-ated ~ctw~cn th~ rt7lni ~nJ l-bs f!6ldll,_20
  22. 22. ._ _._ _ _ _._---y i • j tA rt.?ln-t h~e> rttdlrnenSIt?h. 10 Vl~f~fv.l112rk ~ f?OStltlt1h in S~Zice tr / I I . . 1on the 1rollnJ rl~n-6/ 21 r~lnt mV6t ~e rr~JecteJ. tnto:3 v~rbc?Hlinear eie.11er1t slJCha~ ~ ot1!umn/ d~~h£?kl t1r iOWd~ It 6Mtn,fd ~e !1t1tt~th~i "J UJlutt1r1~r &len1ent I~ 0ee.n In rl~Y JHi ~ r~Jnt :jnJ th6retore".ret;:lIt1t;> -the. vI0v;a! oharaui~rl?·bc£? of a nt, r"t Obher> FtUrt- generate-d.+ort11:, thJ3t 8h;are t he pOlrrt~ vl~u;31 ot1;.1raC;i~rl?tlc5 are ~ ~<4~ o f~I/;O-:·. .~, ~. l~. ~ ~:P 6~e~K .: ~ ij TeMPL.e~ erlOAU~<Je; c. ?oo ~;C.I ..>fi~~~ ~~ ... i) @ . . 01 .• i
  23. 23. ,<.~--------~----~. .------------------~. T~/O pr.1lnt0 ~e00rl J I irl& ~ha·t oannev!,s them, Altnc7v~1) the pG?lnts g !ve thts line finite Ien8th, iHe Ilnt~t~n al~o ~e oont6!)ere) ;J ?e:Jment: I1t ~n Inti nl tel, !c7H~6r ;:a XI?,~ • • ---- -------------------------4 , "" 1 I Two rolrts c.an also vlsv;ally 0V_gge:st ~n ~XIS rerre,Y1JIc.ul~r f -" 1!t < , I I 1;0 the line they d cciocrlbe.;3t1) ~b?,I}f; which Utel ~r& I 0ymvne-trlcil!, fBc;av~c- f;hl5> .3XIS may be Inflrll-tc In •t I •I lengthl it c,n be, 1110dtrl& C;;JSe5 more J&m I nRn-t t.h;;Hl 1 I I I the de0(;rlt?ed line.... ~ .._~~--,-,._---_._- ..... I ,~_._.~-_._-----.- I ; I I I In btth ca~es/ hdwevc~ the de~vrlbed lIne :?f1d the . ~ I I t I / I , I t I / ForpunJ,col ~r ~XIS ~re vlSv)ir more; darr1!n ;ant ih;an I I I the [ntl~lte rlum~er of liMBS thJt m~y f;i<oS thy(}u~h J 1: Lh e I 19c?It1vf;. t- I ..i-> , t ! I ... / et)611 11 t- /r1,dIVldu;t, 1"- f ,../ I J ,,~-,----__,!-------." i ~ I J I J I I I , I f I t I I , I I I , I I j . I I ~ 22
  24. 24. Two rillr1t~ ~e-b~"10neJ In 0p;3C~ ~y c..olumr]:ar e[emenh; or centt".allzed l~rms, C2n Aetlne ::In aX!7/ ;an ord erlnPj deVIC8 t~~t h:30 ~een use,J tnrtJv~h(1Ui hl:7tory to or~a;rlZ; ~utfdfn .." JlI1J 6r aces, _.....-_- .-. -_ _ - - --... .. _ .. . .-.- -- - ---_.e .... 4ft ... --._- -- - .. _._ _ _ THE [n ri)rtj tW;1 Ptlrlt;6 !j~n be t;o ~en(J-b~ a ~a~eVV;l I T~e:?e tlAlO rOlnb~ elev»te-J det lne 9 f;71 ~ne/ of C-V1trv ;3nd ~n :;lrrrtJ,ach r~rfenJlc,ular to Ib,ti-r•
  25. 25. .:...... : .....•.......•...•.................... - .•........•.....••.•• ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ . t : •• _ ... 4 •.... A FJr1t ~xtende.J ~t:GtJme~ " lme. CmQc:rttJ~IIYI : ...... -. : ......... .. ~ IH1~ h~~ let1jt;H, ~vt no wldt.h or derth, Wher~JJ~ .. .. .. .. ~ rOU11; I~ ~y n;ature ~i3tl", ~ 1111&, H1 Je~~r,b!t1j ...... .. .. .. ._ -!;he F~1;h at ~ Ftlrd; In rtl17tlln, I~ .Jl.?le G~r vl~v,lIy "r ...... ...... ... ..... .. eXrre~!7H1~ dlr~o·bt1t1, m>,veml"tlt, :iiltJJ ~rpwt.h . .............. . .. ........ ..... .. ........... . ,A, l,ne I~ ~n imrart.3nt "te-m6t1t In the flrrnatlQn ~ .....-. ...~ tlrly vl~vlif oon:;rtrvoilon, It c~n ~~rv~ tt?~ . ..~ -.------.... -....-------------r .... .....- ------- ...... - (j o o • JPI Yil ! In k, t?urrt?rt./ ?vrr~vt1JI or Intersevt oin~r VIt:;VJ eletrlen~6 o ,;...,.;_ _ _ _.__ ._ _ __ .. _I! -._ ..... _- ...._-- -_."".-..,---. ---------:I ..--:--~.-- ....L_
  26. 26. AlthdUjh ;;l 11M cdrlcertlJ;a11y has only one, JIIYlen?L,m,It mlJs>i h~ve S.1me Jetqrec of thl~kn e0S to becL?mevlSll7le, It IS> seen :as oJ;p linc t;lmrr /?ecavse Ij:;~ lenjiMdamlY1~tres It.? wlJtn. The Ghar:act6t~ of :a Iln&/ whe~h~rt;a,v-f:, c;1r Ilm~ ~t7lt1 t1r tenbatlv6; ~raceful ar rat]jeJ, .........................IS- deterrnlneJ ~( aut" rercerh:1t1 uf- Its length/wl.;ltYir~bla, rb? DtPY1tour, -and rbs Je~ree, at Gtfn-t:1 nVlty. nnammUnflHlUlmllHUIilUUlllllUmmmUlUllllUlUllummUmUllJlIf GontlnUt1u<? enc1ugh, the .slmr1e,re-re-bIt.It?t1 of Ilk~ abc8d9jghpyklmndptfrs!UVW5&l1Z( &.!? 1.,1234S b? 890 elet11~nt~or ~lrrldJlr caM 3!St1 be ~J~6n -at£:, a llnt:-. TMlf?type af line hj)~ "J~nJtlcant. text.ur;al 1y~1 rtles~ 1!¢,**~,*,~t¢$*i:~i;* ***************"The orltH1Cation tr J,rec;tldn of a Iln~ can affect It-oSrole In fa VISIJ3t Qal1?truu-tfdn. Whlle:a vert.1o;aI line t2neXrre?J.S> ~ 0t2t;6 &f e4})dd?r1 um with the. tor c;ertb ot 1tjrJ3VltYJ or the hut11;an c-~nJj{;!()n, orm9rk ;a rti~lt:ft7t1 If}space, a harl:tontJI line- v~t1 refreseni st.a1.?drty, the ~rtJunJ rl ~H1e, the Ytdrlz.an, ~r :3 ~tlJy -;41; rest,An a1i 11t16 17 tl jevi ;;lPIPI1 tf"am tl1e- Fer-rend I cularor ht1rIZt1nt~L n l1e "Oe~n -;i? tl V~tbfC;:l! line f~lllnjor " horlzt1nt.~1 Iln~ r . In elt-Mer caE;&/ whet-her It1.07 falllVl8 tt1W~r-.J ;;,3. rc?urt tn v rt,1vnJ rLan& t1r rl~ln~io :a rt?lt1t In the sky, It. I? ~yn.amlc v,svally ~c:bve.In It..s vn~al~nc~J ?tate-.
  27. 27. COl..UMN of MARCUB AU~~IJ)~ or;r;~ISKFI-p-z.ta Colonnp ~ R~tl1v flj3ce de I~ Ct?ncord~: ~n? Vertlc~1 IlnD/1r elem~nt~ SV&~ a~ c"lurnn8, o~~lt~k~, ~t1A iow~re, have ~een used thrt?!J~~(7ut hlG1;,ory to comtr1~morat6 S11nlflc~nt event-e ;and e5t~ bl,t5h F/lrt1cut;4r pt1lnts In 0rJ3CC. Ver~ICp! 11t1epr e!Bm~rlt5 Ct3n also ~e u~cJ to deflt1e. tr.an:7r~rent vQlum~? af 0pac6, In we eXRmfL~ diu?trJ3t~ tt1 wv left, t.he tour rt1ln;3ret t~wers Acfln~ ;a ?raclal flelJ from whIch the. dtJme at H~gi3 Sarh1t1 rl!jC,f7 In 6FI~ndor, i- .
  28. 28. I, :• I ,~. In thes-e thre6 exan1rles/ lInear ele.men-t5 z;lre used tt7 etrre~;s rr1t?vement aCrti8S 6fac~, provIde 6LJrf"r~ f,,~tne "v~rhe.ad r.;:me, ~Yld hrm ~ three-.J/W1en~IPt1~l strudtw.1i tr,;:Hl18 +tr at~~hd:;6c;tur~1 ~rac~, 1,&
  29. 29. A line c~n ~e. .an Imt3~lned r~ther th~n ~ vl~I~I~ clement 111 ~rc;hltec;{/lJrb. An ~)(;ilmrle the- I~ 3)(j~ ;J r~lIlatll1g line-I I I ~t;~~ll~he~ elements 111 -tWt1 p~lnt6 In ~pt3ce, c.~t1 be- ~lrnm6irlc;alfy ~rr~ngeJ pn~ ~l1t1LJb WhlehL_._j, C::JVI~LA ~l,OOf7t<ANOINI tJt f~a~t.J; IW~-l<pa3 II 0 I I L L _ _ _-- _-- ..__ _-_ ·····-·-·---·-~.JD--l _Altnau~n ;arc;hd::ectt)r~1 ~race.. .BX10t0 U1three Jlme.I1~lan?, rb c~n ~e linear In fdrm-to ;accdmmod ate the f;<lth of tYIdV6ment:thYdUjh a b?uddlng &itld IIr1k It? 0ra()~~to one 23natMer. o. f.,.EuJi.d In,:) form~ aL~?o can be. 111111;3 1", r~rbcul~rlywhen bhey COf1~t~t of reFc.t;ltIVe. £7pace~ t1Y~;lnl~J~JtJn,:ry ~ Olrc;.uljjtldM path. At?; If! u~tY.at1!J her~,11t1C;;r t?udJlng f.drm~ M~ve -cne ~bdlt.i tt> enclo,e, .. ~ ~J~rt .exterior ~r»C& ~? WeB;37 to v;lryll1g01t~ v~nJ Iii (orne. , ~ : , ..
  30. 30. At ~ ~m~l1er 0C~e., 11r18&ar1;lvulaie. th~ ed~e? &lnJ 0urfllce8 t?f Ft)ne~ £!l1a vtJlumee. Th6~e lines c;;tl ~e. Jt1H1fifJ In or between ~uddln3 m~terlill~ fr~me~ ;?n1Un~ wlndGiW or dJ#r Of?enln~tSl I J CJr a siruuiur.al grid of collJmn~ and ~e~m~, How th.e.,e,. Ilne~r el~m6ntS ;rfe-ut ~ 0Llrf.ace~ t:ex1;ur8 wdl derC?n~ on th~lyt VI;;Ut}! weight, dlrectttn, ~nJ ~raGln3.... ., t, .: , . 23
  31. 31. : Co"! I III 11II ,I « III _-- III 11111 1 19ft Two rartallel llne~ have the ;al?d!ty to vl~u;:dty debc;rl~e" a r(ane... A tr;at16r~rent sr.a-tt21 membrane C3rt be ~tret.GheJ b1e:twccn them 1 If I,! II 11 io 2vkt10w!ed~e. theIr vl~u~I ret~tltJt1?htr# 1he cld~C!r tf1e!l& JlneB ~tG -0 0· 0, 0" ~ !: ~, 11 I JJ .u .!:J I I ! toe.ach .ot.h~~ the $trdn~t;.r wrlr l?~ tk" 5~n$e A rlan~ ·th~y convey, A t&erlet5 of p3r~1 leI Itne~f thrt?v~h theH~f r~re~ftfven~~~, wrll relnf/rte- our rerccrtJon t?f the rl~t1~ they de$crl~e, Ae the~& I!nc~ exr,cnd t~em5e,.lve.~ ~ltJr1~ the Fr~ne... they deecrl~el ;.. ~h~ Imrfied r1ane l1ecomt!t$ r~;atl ~nd t~6 orl11n~1 vc?tJ~ ~~tw~~n ~he, hne~ ~ect1me- me-rely InierrurtldnG t7f the rJ~n3r ~urFJce., The dl~~r~m 6 dlu~trat~ the. 1:.ranf,ftrrnll .. on of ~ row tJt round b co[umn~ (l,nc0), Ind~I:a1ty t:>ufportlng a portloh af :;l w..af f (p!21ne)/ tnen ~e?,;1m 1111 s."v~re r ple.rS> (f)r-j; of -bile w;11 l;;ll1e), .and ·f-tt1~lly re.mnant., of the ?r~1ti1J31 Cc?lumns occurrlnj ~?> ~ relref ;31111j the £vr.f~cc, at th~ w~If, IlThe tol urnn I~ ;a cert;aln ~1;ren01;.hene4 r~rl:, of .J w:;a(I, c~rr 16d up r erpel1,J IGul :pdy ft.l1rrt the tI7UnJ.at.ldn -be? the tor .. , A rvw dt Ct?fumt1$ to In)eeA n/thJng l?vt. ;a w_all, "Fen ~nJ Jl~oPtrblt1Ued In e~v.t;r.al rlaces, l A~e~rI30

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