Cancer chemotherapy

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cancer chemotherapy
cell life cycle
basic subclass
alkylating agent
anti metabolite
alkaloids
antibiotics

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  • 2 functional phase and 2 preparatory phasecheckpoints
  • During this phase DNA are separated for synthesis or transcryption
  • They block DNA synthesis
  • short
  • They r cytotoxic damaging the cell in entire the cell cycle
  • Cross-linking prevents DNA from being separated for synthesis or transcription
  • Folic acid antagonist: binds to dihydrofolatereductase preventing nucleoside productionPurine are required for DNA and RNA synthesis
  • Trastuzumab: HER2 rec, breast cancerBevacizumab: VEGF, preventing angiogenesis of tumor
  • Toxic to GIT: nausea, vomitting, stomatitisAlopeciaNot all drugs used in cancer cause bone marrow suppression, nausea, vomitting, hair loss.
  • Cancer chemotherapy

    1. 1. Cancer Chemotherapy
    2. 2. Basic Drug Subclass• Alkylating Agents• Antimetabolites• Plant Alkaloids• Antibiotics• Hormones• Biologic Response Modifiers
    3. 3. G2 MS Cell Life Cycle Many cancer chemotherapy agents are described by how they affect the cell G1 cycle
    4. 4. G2 MS Cell Life Cycle The M phase is Mitosis which is cellular division G1
    5. 5. G2 MS Cell Life Cycle Drugs that block mitosis are: G1 M Phase CCS (cell cycle specific) Antimitotic
    6. 6. G2 MS Cell Life Cycle The G1 phase is the First Growth G1 Phase
    7. 7. G2 MS Cell Life Cycle The S phase is the DNA Synthesis G1 Phase
    8. 8. G2 MS Cell Life Cycle Drugs that block DNA synthesis are G1 S Phase CCS (cell cycle specific)
    9. 9. G2 MS Cell Life Cycle The G2 phase is the Second G1 Growth Phase
    10. 10. G2 MS Cell Life Cycle Drugs that block growth after DNA G1 synthesis are: G2 Phase CCS
    11. 11. Many drugs are : G2 Cell Cycle Non M Specific CCNS Meaning they areS CCNS cytotoxic during the entire cell cycle G1
    12. 12. Basic Drug Subclass• Alkylating Agents• Antimetabolites• Plant Alkaloids• Antibiotics• Hormones• Biologic Response Modifiers
    13. 13. Alkylating Agents• The first alkylating agents were derived from nitrogen mustards• Nitrogens mustards were used in WW1 as chemical warfare agents (mustard gas) causing blistering of the skin (vesicants)
    14. 14. Alkylating Agents• Later found to be very effective in treating cancer• The alkylating agents form reactive molecular species that alkylate nucleophilic groups on DNA bases, particularly the N-7 position of guanine• The alkylating agents cross-link DNA during all phases of the cell cycle, resulting in disruption of DNA function, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis• CCNS that damage DNA
    15. 15. Alkylating Agents G2 CCNS M Meaning they areS CCNS cytotoxic during the entire cell cycle G1
    16. 16. Alkylating Agents• Nitrogen Mustards – Chlorambucil – Cyclophosphamide• Platinum analogs – Cisplatin – Carboplatin• Others – Busulfan – Procarbazine
    17. 17. Basic Drug Subclass• Alkylating Agents• Antimetabolites• Plant Alkaloids• Antibiotics• Hormones• Biologic Response Modifiers
    18. 18. Antimetabolites S Cell Cycle• Folic Acid antagonist – Methotrexate (MTX)• Purine Antagonist Antimetabolites interfere – Mercaptopurine (6-MP) with DNA and RNA production• Pyramidine Antagonist S Phase CCS meaning they – Florouracil (5-FU) stop the DNA synthesis – Capecitabine (Xeloda) • 5-FU prodrug
    19. 19. Basic Drug Subclass• Alkylating Agents• Antimetabolites• Plant Alkaloids• Antibiotics• Hormones• Biologic Response Modifiers
    20. 20. Plant Alkaloids MMitotic Inhibitors Cell Cycle• Interfere with microtubules – Taxane. Eg: • Paclitaxel, Docetaxel• Binds to tubulin – Vinca Alkaloids • Vinblastine, Vincristine
    21. 21. Plant AlkaloidTopoisomerase Inhibitors• Camptothecins S Cell Cycle• Epipodophyllotoxin
    22. 22. Basic Drug Subclass• Alkylating Agents• Antimetabolites• Plant Alkaloids• Antibiotics• Hormones• Biologic Response Modifiers
    23. 23. Antibiotics• Anthracycline – Not only block DNA synthesis, but damage DNA during all phase of the cell cycle – Too toxic to use for bacterial infections • Daunorubicin • Idarubicin • Epirubicin • Mitoxantrone (analog) CCNS Cytotxic during the entire cell cycle
    24. 24. Antiboitics• Bleomycin – Not only interfere with DNA synthesis and damage – Especially active during G2 phase G2 Cell Cycle
    25. 25. Basic Drug Subclass• Alkylating Agents• Antimetabolites• Plant Alkaloids• Antibiotics• Hormones• Biologic Response Modifiers
    26. 26. Hormones• Glucorticoids – Prednisone use in combination with other agents in treatment of leukimias and lymphomas• Estrogen Antagonist – Tamoxifen, estrogen rec modulator used to treat breast cancer• Androgen Antagonist – Flutamide, used to treat prostate carcinoma
    27. 27. Hormones• GnRH analogs – Used to treat prostate carcinoma • Leuprolide • Goserelin• Aromatase Inhibitors – Inhibits estrogen formation – Used to treat breast carcinomas • Anastrozole (ANAS) • Letrozole (LTZ)
    28. 28. Basic Drug Subclass• Alkylating Agents• Antimetabolites• Plant Alkaloids• Antibiotics• Hormones• Biologic Response Modifiers
    29. 29. Biologic Response Modifiers• Interferons – Interfere DNA & RNA synthesis – Effective againts certain leukemias and lymphomas• Monoclonal Antibodies – Trastuzumab – Bevacizumab – Rituximab
    30. 30. Side Effects of Chemotherapy• Bone marrow suppression• Impaired wound healing• Hair follicle damage• GI epithelium damage• May be carcinogenic

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