Workshop Goals• Learn how alcohol and drug use influences HIV and STD risks• Increase knowledge of adolescent risk behaviors• Examine attitudes and beliefs about adolescent drug use and HIV/AIDS• Increase knowledge of effective programs that reduce adolescent sexual risks• Identify important messages about sexuality• Identify strategies for teaching negotiation and refusal skills
Workshop Objectives• Describe how widespread HIV and other STIs are and consequences• Describe the modes of transmission of HIV and other STIs and some prevention strategies• Identify populations of youth at high risk of becoming infected with HIV and other STIs• Discuss the implementation of health education strategies using prevention messages that are likely to be effective in reaching adolescents• Demonstrate essential skills for health behavior change related to prevention and guide student practice of these skills
Workshop Objectives• Describe strategies for involving parents, families and others in student learning of prevention education• Implement standards-based prevention education curricula and student assessment• Address community concerns and challenges related to HIV prevention education• Teach HIV/STI prevention to students of various cultural backgrounds, abilities, and language skills, using interactive teaching methods for prevention education, such as role-plays or cooperative groups
Introductions• Facilitator(s)• Staff• Participants – Name – Grade/Level – School Affiliation
Working Agreement• Maintain confidentiality • Avoid making assumptions• Respect each other’s point of about other members of the view; recognize that we all group have some biases • Share responsibility for what• Speak for yourself—use ―I‖ gets learned today language; take some risks to be • Ask any questions--there are no honest dumb questions• Be nonjudgmental; no put- • Share the time; participate as downs; be constructive while much as possible giving each other feedback • ELMO (Enough, lets move on)• Listen with an open mind • Use discretion with self-• Recognize that some conflict disclosure can be helpful and that we • Have fun should not always avoid it • The Vegas Rule (What happens• Pass if you feel uncomfortable in Vegas . . .)
Round Discussion Topics1. Any experience you have had dealing with substance abuse and/or HIV2. Messages your parents gave you about using alcohol and drugs3. The incidence of alcohol and drug use among teens in your school and community when you were in middle/high school
Good NewsIn recent years therehas been much more rigorous evaluation of pregnancyprevention and HIVprevention programs.
Outcome Thoseevaluations have had mixed results.
Effective Risk Reduction Programs• Are Curriculum-Based Sex and STD/HIV Education Programs with proven positive results (see handout for specific programs).• Other programs (mother-adolescent programs, clinic protocols and one on one programs, community programs with multiple components, service learning, and multi-component programs) were also found to be effective.
Program Efficacy• These programs are effective in: – Delaying the onset of sexual intercourse – Helping sexually active teens to be more aware• Note: – Youth who had initiated intercourse did not then choose abstinence. – Thus, strong abstinence messages are best directed to those who have not yet initiated sexual intercourse.
Qualities of Effective Programs1. Focused on at least one of three 5. Included multiple instructionally health goals: the prevention of sound activities to change each of HIV, the prevention of other the targeted risk and protective STDs, the prevention of factors. unintended pregnancy. 6. Employed instructionally sound2. Focused narrowly on the teaching methods that actively specific types of behavior that involved the participants, that cause or prevent HIV, other helped participants personalize STDs, or pregnancy and gave the information, and that were clear messages about them. designed to change specific risk3. Focused on specific sexual and protective factors. psychosocial factors that affect 7. Employed activities, instructional the specified types of behavior methods, and behavioral and changed some of those messages that were appropriate to factors. the adolescents’4. Created a safe environment. culture, developmental age, and sexual experience. 8. Covered topics in a logical sequence.
ActivityADOLESCENT SUBSTANCEUSE AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR
Yellow Alerts• I feel attracted to the person.• I imagine touching or kissing the person.• I have daydreams or fantasies about sexual activity with the person.• I dress in special clothes to look attractive to the person.• I think about or plan ways to be alone with the person.• I feel like I’m in love.• I feel really good and tingly when we hug, touch or kiss.• My partner touches me a lot.• My partner talks about or asks to be alone with me.
• My partner and I are alone together in a private place.• We’re drinking or doing drugs together.• We’re playing sexually suggestive music and dancing a lot together to slow songs.• My partner tells me he or she wants to have sexual intercourse with me.• We’re touching and kissing a lot.• We’re touching each other more and more in different ways.• We’re kissing and touching; things are going fast and I get uncomfortable but don’t know how to stop it.
Discussion Questions• What did you think of the video clip? – What were your general reactions?• What thoughts or feelings did you have as you watched? – What message(s) do you most remember? – What came through as most important?• What are the lessons to be learned from the video and our discussion of the video? – How do you plan those lessons or insights in your own teaching? – Would you feel comfortable showing this video at your school?
Understanding Abstinence• Can they have a beer?• Can they hug?• Can they French kiss?• Can they get sexually aroused?• Can they rub against their partner’s body with clothes on?• Can they masturbate?• Can they experience pleasurable feelings, and perhaps, reach orgasm? (For example: through fantasy or masturbation)• Can they touch a partner in sexual ways that both people agree on as long as it excludes sexual intercourse of any kind (oral, anal, or vaginal)?
Discussion Questions• What are characteristics of students who maintain abstinence?• How do you think teens, in general, feel about abstinence as an option?• Why do you think abstinence gets such a bad rap from some teens?• How do you define ―virginity‖? How is virginity different from abstinence?• What messages do teenagers need to receive if we want to encourage them to make the thoughtful decision to abstain from sexual intercourse?• How does substance abuse affect abstinence behaviors and beliefs?
Abstinence Messages for Youth• Teenagers are usually not mature • People need to respect the limits set enough for a sexual relationship by their partners. that includes intercourse. • There are many ways to show love• Abstinence from sexual and romantic feelings in a intercourse is the best method to relationship and not have prevent pregnancy and STI/HIV. intercourse.• Abstinence is a thoughtful choice • Many families and religions believe reflecting personal values. that sexual intercourse should only• Abstinence from sexual occur in marriage. intercourse is a behavior that • Abstinence is not virginity. people can practice at any age. • Youth who wish to remain• Following through on the choice abstinent can receive support from to abstain requires skills. associating with like-minded• Teenagers and adults who date peers, parents, and other trusted need to discuss sexual limits with adults. their dating partner
Discussion Questions• What role does the media play?• How does it influence teens’ perceptions of risky behaviors?• Do you know what they are watching?• What social networks are they on?
ActivityNEGOTIATION AND REFUSALSKILLS DEVELOPMENT
Procedures• The following procedures will help effective teaching of negotiation and refusal skills in the classroom: – Describe the skill and provide examples of its use. – Demonstrate the skill for students to observe. – Provide structured practice with feedback. – Encourage application of the skill outside the classroom to promote mastery and transfer. – Follow-up with opportunities for review and practice.
Nonverbal RefusalsHands Off: Use hands in “get off of me”Soldier: Sit or stand stifflyFirm Voice: Strong, business-likeSerious Expression I mean itGestures: Hand and arm movementsFight Back: Use strength to push away
Verbal Refusals• Use the word ―NO‖• Back up ―NO‖ with strong nonverbal ―NO‖• Repeat message as often as necessary• Suggest an alternative action or compromise• There is no good substitute