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Using Active Learning to Enhance
Classroom Objectives
THE INFORMATION
LABORATORY
Adam Beauchamp
Howard-Tilton
Memorial Lib...
“I AM HOPING TO GET THEM
TO THINK ABOUT
USING ARCHIVAL MATERIALS.”
Sociological Abstracts (database):
7,003 abstracts include “content analysis”
Teaching Sociology (journal):
30 abstrac...
CONTENT ANALYSIS
IN TEACHING SOCIOLOGY
Eisen, Daniel B. 2012. "Developing a Critical Lens: Using
Photography to Teach Soci...
My Experience
Students ask for help to
find primary sources…,
but don‟t always know
how to use what they
find.
History – p...
 Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) (Vygotsky)
 Experts v. Novices with primary sources (Wineburg)
 Scaffolding (Bruner...
ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT (ZPD)
Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934)
 Distance between what can be done
independently, and what ca...
 Experts & Novices
 Students read for basic comprehension, acquire facts
 Experts employ more critical reading of texts...
 Relationship between expert and novice in the
process of acquiring new skills
 Expert creates “reduction in degrees of ...
SCAFFOLDING
Modeling
Class Discussion
Group Exercise
Exam
The Information Lab
(at the library)
 Modeling
 Do students engage during in-class lecture?
 Do students demonstrate understanding of the readings
(textbook...
FEEDBACK
“I think it went really well ... I really think students „get it‟
when they do something hands-on, and the wide r...
For situations involving primary sources:
 Make sure students know how to use before you ask
them to find.
 Highlighting...
Adam Beauchamp
Research & Instruction Librarian
(Social Sciences)
Howard-Tilton Memorial Library
Tulane University
abeauch...
WORKS CITED
Krippendorf, Klaus. 2010. “Content Analysis.” Pp. 234-39 in Encyclopedia of Research
Design, edited by Neil J....
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The information laboratory

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Presentation at the NOLA ILC Forum 2013 about a successful collaboration with a sociology professor using library materials to enhance and reinforce a lesson on content analysis research methods. The session included a homework assignment to refresh past skills, discussion of scholarly uses of content analysis in the published literature, and a hands-on experience applying content analysis to selected "analog" (i.e. print) information sources at the library. This approach could be adapted to a range of information literacy learning objectives, especially those involving the use of primary source materials in libraries and archives.

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The information laboratory

  1. 1. Using Active Learning to Enhance Classroom Objectives THE INFORMATION LABORATORY Adam Beauchamp Howard-Tilton Memorial Library Tulane University NOLA Information Literacy Forum 2013
  2. 2. “I AM HOPING TO GET THEM TO THINK ABOUT USING ARCHIVAL MATERIALS.”
  3. 3. Sociological Abstracts (database): 7,003 abstracts include “content analysis” Teaching Sociology (journal): 30 abstracts include “content analysis” WHAT DOES SHE MEAN, ARCHIVAL? “Content analysis is a research technique for making replicable and valid inferences from texts (or other meaningful matter) to the context of their use” (Krippendorff 2010:234).
  4. 4. CONTENT ANALYSIS IN TEACHING SOCIOLOGY Eisen, Daniel B. 2012. "Developing a Critical Lens: Using Photography to Teach Sociology and Create Critical Thinkers." Teaching Sociology 40(4):349-359. Finley, Laura L. 2004. "Using Content Analysis Projects in the Introduction to Criminal Justice Classroom." Teaching Sociology 32(1):129-137. Messinger, Adam M. 2012. "Teaching Content Analysis through Harry Potter." Teaching Sociology 40(4):360-367. Rushing, Beth and Idee Winfield. 1999. "Learning about Sampling and Measurement by Doing Content Analysis of Personal Advertisements." Teaching Sociology 27(2):159-166.
  5. 5. My Experience Students ask for help to find primary sources…, but don‟t always know how to use what they find. History – primary sources Int‟l Dev. – data sets ACRL Standards Need Access Evaluate Use Be ethical This order better suited to secondary sources. WHAT DO I KNOW ABOUT THIS? The “content” in content analysis = primary source materials
  6. 6.  Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) (Vygotsky)  Experts v. Novices with primary sources (Wineburg)  Scaffolding (Bruner) PEDAGOGY
  7. 7. ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT (ZPD) Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934)  Distance between what can be done independently, and what can be done with guidance  Concept development (scientific knowledge) is first on the social level, and second on the individual level
  8. 8.  Experts & Novices  Students read for basic comprehension, acquire facts  Experts employ more critical reading of texts  Author, Audience, Context, Subtext READING PRIMARY SOURCES Sam Wineburg Stanford University
  9. 9.  Relationship between expert and novice in the process of acquiring new skills  Expert creates “reduction in degrees of freedom”  Break down into steps  Focus on one task/concept at a time  Sequence of active learning methods SCAFFOLDING Jerome S. Bruner (1915 -)
  10. 10. SCAFFOLDING Modeling Class Discussion Group Exercise Exam The Information Lab (at the library)
  11. 11.  Modeling  Do students engage during in-class lecture?  Do students demonstrate understanding of the readings (textbook, assigned article, and independently discovered article)?  Class Discussion  Did students find studies that use content analysis?  Can students identify types of content, relevant sociological questions, and evaluate the success of the study?  Group Exercise  Did groups come up with viable research designs using content analysis methodology on their sample “texts”?  Could groups answer questions about their proposals? ASSESSMENT
  12. 12. FEEDBACK “I think it went really well ... I really think students „get it‟ when they do something hands-on, and the wide range of materials you picked was fun and creative.” Post-session, 3/6/2013 “Based on their exam performance and in-class discussion following the content analysis exercise, this group of students definitely understood what it took for them to use these data for research. It has inspired me to do more hands-on exercises in class on other topics in the future.” End of semester, 5/8/2013
  13. 13. For situations involving primary sources:  Make sure students know how to use before you ask them to find.  Highlighting unique and interesting collections is secondary to teaching students how to use them.  Restrict degrees of freedom. Less is more for the novice researcher, so limiting # of decisions/tasks can help focus on the important ones.  Think about ways to apply this to other disciplines in both class instruction and one-on-one research help. TAKE AWAYS
  14. 14. Adam Beauchamp Research & Instruction Librarian (Social Sciences) Howard-Tilton Memorial Library Tulane University abeaucha@tulane.edu http://libguides.tulane.edu/soci3030
  15. 15. WORKS CITED Krippendorf, Klaus. 2010. “Content Analysis.” Pp. 234-39 in Encyclopedia of Research Design, edited by Neil J. Salkind. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. Vygotsky, Lev. 1978. Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Winburg, Sam. 2001. Historical Thinking and Other Unnatural Acts. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. Wood, David, Jerome S. Bruner, and Gail Ross. 1976. “The Role of Tutoring in Problem Solving.” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 17(1):89-100.

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