4. Methods of Philosophizing
In the previous lesson, you learned about Holistic and Partial
Thinking in Philosophy. Moreover, you were also able to see the
value of Philosophizing in achieving a broad understanding of your
life. In this lesson, you will learn about the various ways of
evaluating our own opinions. Moreover, you will also learn to
distinguish between facts and opinions, and reflect on concrete
experiences in a philosophical way, to come up with sound
5. Have you encountered the following concepts below? Copy the
diagram below and write your answers in your notebook.
6. Methods of Philosophizing
Directions: Read the statements below and imagine that you are
part of the conversation. How will you react to the statements
10. Methods of Philosophizing
Based on the statement and passage above kindly answer
the following questions:
1. What does this story mean?
2. How does this passage from Plato help you turn your
attention toward the right thing (i.e., truth, beauty, justice, and
11. Methods of Philosophizing
Philosophical method (or philosophical methodology) is the
study of how to do Philosophy. A common view among
philosophers is that Philosophy is distinguished by the ways
that philosophers follow in addressing philosophical questions.
There is not just one method that philosophers use to answer
12. Methods of Philosophizing
Truth, in metaphysics and the philosophy of language, is the
property of sentences, assertions, beliefs, thoughts,
propositions that are said, in ordinary discourse, to agree with
the facts or to state what the case is. It is most often used to
mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an
original or standard.
13. Methods of Philosophizing
What is truth and why is important?
Knowledge is the clear awareness and understanding of
something. It is the product of questions that allow for clear
answers provided by facts. It is through knowing that we can
determine what is true.
14. Methods of Philosophizing
Methods of Philosophy Lead to Wisdom and Truth
The methods of philosophy will help in learning the process
of doing philosophy in a systematic way. On the other hand,
philosophizing is to think or express oneself in a philosophical
15. Methods of Philosophizing
Evaluate Truth from Opinions in Different Situations Using the
Methods of Philosophizing
A method of philosophizing is a process of determining the truth
or drawing conclusions from a statement using various philosophical
methods, such as: Socratic, dialectic, scientific, and historical.
16. Methods of Philosophizing
When you evaluate information, it is very important to
distinguish between fact and opinion. How do we know if
something is true? Philosophers emphasize the importance of
belief as a basis for determining truth. It is said that there are
instances when we must unlearn something so that we may
17. Methods of Philosophizing
Application (Performance Task)
Directions: Observe and study the comic strip below and
answer the questions that follow. Write your answers in your
18. Methods of Philosophizing
1. Look at the comic strip. Do you agree with the reasoning of the
person inside the car? Why or why not?
2. If you are the biker, how would you react to the remarks of the
person inside the
19. Methods of Philosophizing
Directions: Complete the statements below. Write your answer in
your answer sheet.
I learned that Truth is _____________________________
I feel that Truth is important because ______________
I commit to uphold the truth by ____________________ 16
20. Methods of Philosophizing
FALLACIES- errors in reasoning or thinking.
-Defects in an argument.
TYPES OF FALLACIES
I. APPEAL TO PITY- Exploiting opponent’s feelings of pity or guilt.
21. Methods of Philosophizing
- Appeal to emotion.
Sir Vince you should give me a passing score because
my mother will be heart-broken if I fail.
22. Methods of Philosophizing
II. APPEAL TO IGNORANCE
- Whatever has not been proven false must be
true and whatever has not been proven true must be
Ghosts do not exist because there is no proof that
23. Methods of Philosophizing
-double meaning; calling two different things by
the the same name.
Cats are wonderful pets, Tigers are considered big
cats, Therefore tigers are wonderful pets.
24. Methods of Philosophizing
-Something is true of the whole from the fact that
it is true of some parts of the whole.
EXAMPLE: Because each member of this class is
outstanding in academics then this class must also be
the best class among Grade 12 classes.
25. Methods of Philosophizing
V. DIVISION- Something that is true of a thing
must be true of all the parts or some of its parts.
Example: The USA is one of the richest countries in
the world. Therefore everyone in the USA must be
rich and live well.
-FABINHS is one of the best schools in Lipa.
Therefore every student at FABINHS is very good.
26. Methods of Philosophizing
VI. AGAINST THE PERSON
-Attempts to link the validity of a statement/ premise
to a characteristic or belief of a person advocating
-An attack agains the person talking.
I don’t believe him because I don’t like his face and he
27. Methods of Philosophizing
VII.APPEAL TO FORCE- Argument with force or
threat as a justification for a conclusion.
Maam AD, you must give me a passing grade or else I
will expose your secrets!
28. Methods of Philosophizing
VIII. APPEAL TO PEOPLE
- Anchors on the majority or popularity.
- I believe because most people believe it.
-Tide ultra is better that surf because many Filipino
-Most Filipinos are Catholics so I chose to be a
29. Methods of Philosophizing
IX. FALSE CAUSE- Since the event followed this
one , the event must have been caused by this one.
-There is smoke, therefore there is fire.
-When I started talking with Sir Ron I started to
have high grades in his subject. Therefore talking
with him means having high grades in his subject.
30. Methods of Philosophizing
X. HASTY GENERALIZATION
- Applies a belief or sepcific experience to a larger
-Kevin’s grandparents do not know how to use a
computer. Kevin thinks that older people must be
- The first person I met in Lipa is very rude. People
from Lipa are rude people. 16
31. Methods of Philosophizing
XI.FALSE DILEMMA- Presenting a limited set of
alternatives when there are others that are worth
considering in the context.
-All essays should be perfect or else it will be
- For me, another person is just iether a friend or a
foe. Nothing else and nothing less. 16
32. Methods of Philosophizing
XII. BEGGING THE QUESTION
-circular reasoning; the premise is just the same as
-It is not necessarily wrong. It is just poorly
-Smoking cigarettes can kill you because cigarettes are
- Water bottles are bad for the environment because they
are bad for nature.
Good day everyone! Today is a great day … to deal with our subject , Trends, Networks and Critical Thinking in the 21st Century
Philosophy is concerned with determining the concept of truth. Truth lies at the heart of any inquiry.
Truth is also sometimes defined in modern contexts as an idea of “truth to self”, or authenticity
You should not report him to the teacher for cheating because he just broke up with his girl friend. He is so down right now.
-Human beings have hands, clocks have hands
Therefore clocks are human beings.
- Many students from FABINHS are outstanding students. Therefore FABINHS is the most Outstanding school in Lipa City
If you don’t clean your room, you will be grounded for three weeks.