Arf world of-emotions


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Arf world of-emotions

  1. 1. ARF - World of Emotions the visual system - the low-level attention has processed World of Emotions - the logo. Attention, Involvement and 2. Why measure attention? Motivation Even if we are not aware of it - visual attention is always active in processing the world around us. Many of Authors: these processes are automated and subconscious. There Jakob de Lemos, Christian Valla are two levels of attention - low-level attention and iMotions - Emotion Technology A/S selective attention. Low-level attention is automated and subconscious, scans the whole visual field and spots the March 2008 eye catchers - the visual elements that grab attention. Selective attention moves like a spotlight from one areaAbstract of the visual field to another, analyzing the elements in Traditional marketing measurement methods have more detail. Selective attention moves according to someshown inadequate. A new method is needed to measure attentional values being calculated from partly theadvertising impact on buying behavior. Emotion Tool® stimulus itself and partly by what is in our mind,measures subconscious emotions that are critical for including emotions. Emotions participate in guiding andattention and buying behavior. The method uses eye qualifying visual attention.tracking data in a new way that makes it possible tomeasure the immediate unconscious and uncontrollable We pay little attention to the many logos and brands weemotional responses before they are cognitively are exposed to every day and consider them of littleperceived, interpreted, and biased by our mind. importance to us. We believe that these exposures do not influence us considerably. Researchers at Duke University have found that brief, subliminal exposures1. Introduction - Logos and brands (under the threshold of consciousness) to a well known When reading a magazine, some ads immediately grab logo, have a much deeper impact than previouslyour attention to be explored, and others are being believed. Apple has consistently through 25 yearsignored. Some ads are able to hold our attention until we associated the Apple logo with traits like creativity,"get it," and this gives us an experience, with a certain originality and intelligent solutions. The research at Dukeemotional content. Certain visual elements grab attention University showed that subliminal exposures to the Applewhile others hold and direct attention. Certain ads we logo actually influenced the respondents to become moreremember well, others are quickly forgotten. In both creative and original in a following problem solving taskcases the ad has made a more or less powerful impact on - and thus mirroring directly the brand traits (Tanyathe viewer. Chartrand & Gavan Fitzsimons, 2008). This study shows that subconscious processing of a logo (and obviously People living in a city are exposed to e.g. Coca-Cola also brands and ads) is not only processed and stored, butlogos several times a day. Even if we have no recall or also have a direct impact on behavior. In other words;conscious memory of having seen these logos, if asked, what we are exposed to has a subconscious impact thatthey have been processed by our visual processing influence behavior directly. Even a short glimpse of asystem - more specifically by the low-level attention. logo or an ad can directly influence behavior, such asThis is the part of attention that is automatic, involuntary buying decision.and subconscious. When we experience an ad, we react to it with our Although we have no recall of it if asked, the conscious, cognitive level and our subconscious,information has been processed and has made an impact - emotional level. The stimulus itself, as well as what is inin this case increased the brand awareness of Coca-Cola. our mind influence the experience. These elementsIf being tested for recall, the results would be negative, determine how the ad will affect our behavior – thebut if tested for recognition - the result would be positive buying decision(David Penn, 2007). The automated subconscious part of© iMotions - Emotion Technology A/S . Denmark, India, USA . . CONFIDENTIAL Redistribution is not permitted without written permission from iMotions. “iMotions’ trademarks” are registered trademarks of iMotions - Emotion Technology A/S in the US and EU. 1/6
  2. 2. ARF - World of Emotions A study showed that people in a gambling card game long before conscious thought. The subconscious,showed physiological arousal when picking up from the emotional system could qualify decision-making.card decks that where “bad” and rigged to create loss.This information changed their behavior to pick more Advertisements and images influence us even when wecards from the rigged “good” card decks. If asked if they are not aware of them, and have no recall of them. Brandcould see no system in the game, but their subconscious awareness recognition is more relevant than recall.had a knowledge about which card decks where “bad”. Recognition is to a high degree based on subconsciousThe subconscious information (in this case a negative material such as emotions (Penn, 2007).emotion) resulted in changed behavior (decision-making)that was positive for their outcome. Consciously the Cognitiverespondents were not aware of this and could not report Visual Processingit. The respondents, by their subconscious, emotional Conscioussystem, became aware of the dangers and changed Selective Attention, Language,decision-making behavior accordingly, long before they Thoughts, Recall, Associations.became consciously aware of this (Bechara et al.,1994). BUYING DECISION Cognitive Consciously Language, Emotional Visual Level felt experience Thoughts etc. Processing feelings Subconscious Bodily Reactions, Behavioral aspect, Attitudes Buying Experienced expressions, body Decisions postures and gestures Habits decision Feelings, Involvement, Motivation, Desire. Involuntary Emotional Level Unconsciously bodily reactions Fig 2. Shows the cognitive and emotional factors involved in visual processing preceding a buying decision. Fig 1. Shows the cognitive and emotional involvement in the processing of visual information preceding a buying decision. It is found that emotions guide and qualify decision- making (Damasio, 1994). These are subconscious3. Why measure emotions? processes that cannot be accessed by respondents. Self Marketing and advertisement research have mostly report or recall measures are therefore not helpfulused self-report or recall as measurement methods. Recall measurement methods. We cannot ask people aboutis the conscious memory of an ad reported by the emotions and the subconscious material simply becauserespondent. The problem with these methods is that they they have no conscious access to it. All that we can askonly tap into the conscious part of cognition. These about is the feeling and the associations the ad produces.methods do not measure subconscious material, such as Feelings are the part of emotions that have becomeemotions. These measurement methods have their origin conscious. The problem with this level is that it is indirectin older cognitive psychology. It was believed that an and influenced by thought (cognition). At this levelimage would trigger thoughts in the respondent that associations, experience, group dynamics, psychologicalwould evoke some emotions that again trigger action. content, experienced demands and defense mechanisms, such as rationalizing and intellectualization, influence Brain research during the last decade has shown that and disturb the reporting, thus making it very difficult toemotions precede conscious thinking and decision- analyze the results.making. Neuroscience has shown that when a respondentsees an image, emotions are triggered. Emotions Within the relative new field of neuromarketing, theinfluence and guide visual attention and behavior methods currently given most attention for measuring(Damasio, 1994). Thoughts then rationalize and emotions are: fMRI, EEG and GSR. Neuromarketing issystematize the experience and the behavior. growing rapidly because of the possible consequences of the above mentioned research has on marketing and In the above mentioned study, it was shown that the advertisement research.emotional system could collect and use vital information© iMotions - Emotion Technology A/S . Denmark, India, USA . . CONFIDENTIAL Redistribution is not permitted without written permission from iMotions. “iMotions’ trademarks” are registered trademarks of iMotions - Emotion Technology A/S in the US and EU. 2/6
  3. 3. ARF - World of Emotions Much of the research within marketing and (Hugdahl, 2001). This measurement is used in lie-advertisement research, executed by focus groups and detectors (polygraph), and is shown to be one of the bestsurveys, might be of little value as it is not conscious, physiological measurement methods for measuringcognitive processing underlying brand awareness, emotional responses. GSR is widely used in emotionpreferences and buying-decisions, but in fact emotions research. GSR has shown to be efficient for measuringand subconscious processes. These levels are only strong emotions like fear. The problem with GSR is thataccessible by measuring the changes in the brain and it is not sensitive enough to measure weaker or morebody that are happening when emotions occur. subtle emotions. Those are what we mostly encounter when exposed to advertisements. Another problem with This "new" paradigm from modern brain research is in GSR is that the measurement is very sensitive to otherline with analytical psychology that argues that most of processes in the body. Thus the measurement situationour thinking, emotions and behavior are based on the needs to be strictly controlled. That is fine forsubconscious processes, and that our conscious thought experiments in a laboratory, but for testing in morecan only account for about 10%. natural environment it becomes difficult to separate other disturbing factors and to control the data collecting. New measurement methods are needed to access the Furthermore the interpretation of the results requiressubconscious level of information. trained staff.4. Accessing emotions and other 5. How do we gain access to emotions in a subconscious information more convenient way? fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imagery) is As mentioned above, much of earlier emotion researchdetailed brain scanning, that takes high quality images of and methods have failed due to the difficulty ofthe brain, as a chemical substance induced into the addressing the subconscious nature of emotions in abloodstream of the brain can be identified and show brain convenient and precise way. This results in measuringactivity. The problem with this method is that it is only the cognitive visual processing and only getting aexpensive and demands a highly trained staff. It is also low resolution image of the Emotional Visual Processing.not suitable to measure phenomena like emotions and New signal processing technology mixed withconsciousness as these are non-local, parallel processes in neuroscience and eye tracking allow us to look beyondmultiple brain parts (Penn, 2007). Another serious these barriers. The non-intrusive technology that isproblem with the method is that the scanning takes a long sensitive enough to read the processes on thetime. The processes we are trying to measure are subconscious level and at the same time give us morehappening in milliseconds, while the brain scanning takes insight on the conscious level, is now available.several seconds. 6. Accessing emotions and attention EEG (Electroencephalography) measures the through analysis of eye propertiesfrequency of the brain waves with electrodes outside onthe scalp. The problem with using this method is that it The emotion and attention measurement systemrequires advanced equipment and trained staff. The Emotion Tool® can measure emotional response andequipment must be mounted on the head of respondents visual attention from humans looking at images, using aand connected to a computer. It is impossible, to set up method that is nonintrusive, reliable and valid.the experimental situation to resemble a relaxed and Encapsulated in Emotion Tool®, advanced statistics,natural environment. image processing and eye tracking, enable marketers to quantify emotions and visual attention, in an easy-to-use GSR (galvanic skin response) measures the and time efficient way.conductivity on the surface of the fingers. Also referredto as the electro-dermal response. The GSR measurement Emotion Tool® quantifies emotions and attention byis closely related to activation of the sympathetic branch analyzing the characteristics eye gaze, eye blink andof the autonomous system. It measures physiological pupil dilation. Our eyes are parts of our brain hangingarousal part of emotions by registering fluctuations in the outside our heads. The eyes are therefore the only part ofrelease of ions from the sweat glands of the skin our outer body, which can give some direct information of brain processes. One well-known parameter is pupil© iMotions - Emotion Technology A/S . Denmark, India, USA . . CONFIDENTIAL Redistribution is not permitted without written permission from iMotions. “iMotions’ trademarks” are registered trademarks of iMotions - Emotion Technology A/S in the US and EU. 3/6
  4. 4. ARF - World of Emotionsdilation as a result of changing light conditions, for the Emotion Tool™brain to most effectively process the outer world. The 9.00reactions of the eyes are in the same way affected byemotional and cognitive visual processing in different Emotional Involvementways. Pupil size is known to be related to emotional 6.75reactions. For example, pupil dilation has been coupledwith activation of the sympathetic nervous system 4.50(Granholm & Steinhauer, 2004; Steinhauer et al., 1983).However, the relationship is complex because pupil sizeis also related to cognitive processing load (Beatty & 2.25Lucero-Wagoner, 2000; Staners et al., 1979) and theamount of light or hue in visual stimulus (Granholm & 0Steinhauer; 2004). Eye blink has also been related to Imagesemotional reactions, for example with defensive reactionslike emotion-modulated eye blink startle (Bradley, et al., Fig 4. Shows typical measurement pattern for Emotion Tool® on1999, Dichter et al., 2002, Ruiz-Padial & Sollers, 2003). images ranging from low to high emotional response.Finally, gaze patterns have been linked to emotionalreactions (Calvo & Lang, 2004). In addition to the higher resolution when measuring emotions, Emotion Tool® also has the advantage that it is Emotion Tool® measures the above-mentioned subtle non intrusive (no equipment needs to be attached to thechanges in the eyes and has shown to be more precise in respondent) and discrete (the measurement tool is buildmeasuring emotions than GSR. Compared to GSR, into a computer screen). This makes the measurementEmotion Tool® measures relatively weak emotional setting more natural, and a more realistic testing scenarioresponses and more subtle emotions. If the emotion is can be created. Another advantage is that the reportingover a certain threshold (the threshold is much lower and analysis is automated.compared to GSR), Emotion Tool® indicates the level ofthe emotional response on a scale reflecting emotional Besides giving insight into the emotional aspect of aninvolvement. The figures below shows a typical ad, Emotion Tool® also gives insight into the visualmeasurement pattern from GSR and Emotion Tool® in processing of the ad mapping out of the visual selectiverespondents viewing images with different emotional attention of the ad. Selective attention function, like acontent ranging from low emotional involvement to high spotlight, moves from one to another. The eye movementemotional involvement. is based on values given to the visual areas in the brain, invoked by the combination of the stimulus characteristics (color, contrast, shape) and what is in the GSR respondents mind (thoughts, emotions, feelings). 10.0 7. Bang & Olufsen caseEmotional Involvement 7.5 When the Danish high-end electronics manufacturer Bang & Olufsen (B&O) had to design their new 5.0 awareness campaign in the US, they used Emotion Tool®. The tool, uncovered the visual attention 2.5 processing and the emotional attention processing on different approaches of their new campaign, to direct the campaign to affect the conscious and subconscious level. 0 Images B&O combined the diagnostics from the eye measurement method with a traditional survey, where Fig 3. Shows typical measurement pattern for GSR on images ranging they measured likeness. The results pointed out the adsfrom low to high emotional response. with the weakest impact both on the attention and emotional side and gave the design a clear indication on© iMotions - Emotion Technology A/S . Denmark, India, USA . . CONFIDENTIAL Redistribution is not permitted without written permission from iMotions. “iMotions’ trademarks” are registered trademarks of iMotions - Emotion Technology A/S in the US and EU. 4/6
  5. 5. ARF - World of Emotionswhat to aim at in their campaign. Besides that the designteam got some quantified facts on the attention andemotional impact where they usually only had their gut-feel and other less objective facts. Below are some results showing the raw outcome ofthe test. From the results, the market researcher whoconducts the study – could easily derive the facts that theB&O design team were interested in. E.g.; In whatdesigns do we have the most emotional impact? Does thesegment react emotionally consistent across age? Doesthe product, functional description and brand gain anyselective attention. Fig 6. Emotion Tool® output with quantified attention and emotion measures By combining the ads with the best possible cognitive visual processing (visual attention) and the best emotional visual processing (emotional involvement) the design team had a clear guide to design the print advertisements for their campaign. 8. Conclusion Earlier views within cognitive psychology and marketing research argued that an image or an ad would create thoughts that influenced our emotions and 5. Emotion Tool® output with quantified attention and emotion behavior. This view has since been turned around bymeasures modern brain science that has found that emotions and subconscious processes precede, guide and qualify behavior and decision-making. Even just a short glimpse of a Coca-Cola logo or an Apple logo triggers emotions in us that directly influence behavior, even if we are not consciously aware of having seen the logo at all. Traditional marketing research still uses self report methods, such as surveys and focus groups as measurement. This is equivalent to loosing your keys inside a dark house, but going outside to look for them, because the street lamp is on. This is because, respondents cannot access their subconscious and their emotions that guides attention and buying-decisions. Marketing and ad research would be better of using a methodology that can tap into the subconscious and© iMotions - Emotion Technology A/S . Denmark, India, USA . . CONFIDENTIAL Redistribution is not permitted without written permission from iMotions. “iMotions’ trademarks” are registered trademarks of iMotions - Emotion Technology A/S in the US and EU. 5/6
  6. 6. ARF - World of Emotionsemotional level of processing as this level precedes and Damasio, A.R. (1994): Descartes Error - Emotion,qualifies buying-decisions. Emotion Tool® offers a Reason, and the Human Brain, G.P. Putnam’s Sons, Newnonintrusive way to measure visual attention and Yorkemotional responses to ads. Granholm, E. & Steinhauer, S.R. (2004): Pupillometric Measures of Cognitive and Emotional Processes, In the example above with the B&O case, a traditional International Journal of Psychophysiology, 52, 1–6approach to this would be to ask people what they Hugdahl, K. (2001): Psychophysiology: The Mind-thought of the commercial and invite people to a focus body Perspective, Harvard University Pressgroup. The results would only be reflecting the aftereffect of the processing, and only reflect a small fraction Penn, D. (2007). Brain Science: In Search of theof what really goes on when the ads are processed. By Emotional Unconscious. In Marketing Researchusing Emotion Tool® the B&O executives could get clear Handbook. ESOMAR. 2007.measurements of visual attention and emotional Ruiz-Padial, L., Sollers, J.J., Vila, J. & Thayer, J.F.responses to the different ads. This information could be (2003): The rhythm of the heart in the blink of an eye:successfully used in the analysis and in the further Emotion-modulated startle magnitude covaries with heartdevelopment of the ad. rate variability, Psychophysiology, 40, 306–313 Staners, R.F., Coulter, M., Sweet, A.W. & Murphy, P. Emotion Tool® gives an advantage to other (1979): The papillary response as an indicator of arousalmeasurements methods as it taps directly into the and cognition, Motivation and Emotion, 3 (4), 319-340subconscious level and emotions, presenting valuable Steinhauer, S. R., Boller, F., Zubin, J. & Pearlman, S.information for advertisement analysis and advertisement (1983): Pupillary dilation to emotional visual stimulidesign. As emotions are critical for attention and revisited, Psychophysiology, 20behavior, in this case buying decision, this information isvital. Tanya Chartrand, Gavan Fitzsimons. (2008): Automatic Effects of Brand Exposure on Motivated Behavior: How Apple Makes You “Think Different”. In Press9. References Beatty, J. & Lucero-Wagoner, B. (2000): The pupillarysystem, in Caccioppo, J., Tassinary, L.G. & Berntson, G.(Eds.): The Handbook of Psychophysiology, CambridgeUniversity Press, Hillsdale, New York. Bechara A, Damasio AR, Damasio H, Anderson SW(1994). "Insensitivity to future consequences followingdamage to human prefrontal cortex", Cognition 50: 7-15. Bradley, M. M., Cuthbert, B. N. & Lang, P. J. (1999):Affect and the startle reflex, in Dawson, M.E., Schell, A.& Boehmelt, A. (Eds.): Startle modification: Implicationsfor neuroscience, cognitive science and clinical science,Stanford University Press, Stanford, 242–276. Calvo, M. G., & Lang, P. J. (2004). Gaze patterns whenlooking at emotional pictures: Motivationally biasedattention. Motivation and Emotion, 28, 221–243. Dichter, G.S., Tomarken, A.J. & Baucom, B.R. (2002):Startle modulation before, during and after exposure toemotional stimuli, International Journal ofPsychophysiology, 43, 191-196© iMotions - Emotion Technology A/S . Denmark, India, USA . . CONFIDENTIAL Redistribution is not permitted without written permission from iMotions. “iMotions’ trademarks” are registered trademarks of iMotions - Emotion Technology A/S in the US and EU. 6/6