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Program Planning: Logic Model

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This is a 2-hour presentation and workshop given to the residents at Boston University as part of the Dental Public Health program. Topic presents one of the useful tools for program planning and evaluation in any field. A list of useful websites for online courses and worksheets are provided at the end.

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Program Planning: Logic Model

  1. 1. PROGRAM PLANNING LOGIC MODEL Alaa Qari BDS Feb 10th, 2016
  2. 2. OUTLINES ➤ What is a logic model? ➤ Logic model components ➤ Logic model and evaluation ➤ Benefits of logic models ➤ What does a logic model look like? ➤ Limitations of logic models ➤ Developing a logic model ➤ Resources (Online courses & worksheets)
  3. 3. WHAT IS A LOGIC MODEL ?
  4. 4. WHAT IS A LOGIC MODEL? Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  5. 5. ➤ A logic model is a graphic illustration of a program, initiative, or intervention that is a response to a given situation. ➤ Shows the logical relationships among the resources that are invested, the activities that take place, and the benefits or changes that result. ➤ A series of “if-then” relationships that, if implemented as intended, lead to the desired outcomes WHAT IS A LOGIC MODEL? Resources ResultsActivities
  6. 6. LOGIC MODEL A logic model is the core of… Program planning Evaluation Program management Communications. “Logic modeling is really a way of thinking.” Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  7. 7. Where are you going? How will you get there? What will tell you that you’ve arrived? Logic model is your program ROAD MAP
  8. 8. WHERE..? Logic models can be applied to: ➤ A small program ➤ A process (i.e. a team working together) ➤ A large, multi-component program ➤ An organization or business
  9. 9. TERMINOLOGY Logic model may also be called… ➤ Theory of change ➤ Program action ➤ Model of change ➤ Conceptual map ➤ Outcome map ➤ Program logic
  10. 10. ACCOUNTABILITY ERA ➤ What gets measured gets done. ➤ If you don’t measure results, you can’t tell success from failure. ➤ If you can’t see success, you can’t reward it. ➤ If you can’t reward success, you’re probably rewarding failure. ➤ If you can’t see success, you can’t learn from it. ➤ If you can’t recognize failure, you can’t correct it. ➤ If you can demonstrate results, you can win public support. Reinventing Government, Osborne and Gaebler, 1992
  11. 11. A SIMPLE LOGIC MODEL Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  12. 12. A SIMPLE LOGIC MODEL Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  13. 13. EXPANDED SIMPLE LOGIC MODEL Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  14. 14. EXPANDED SIMPLE LOGIC MODEL Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  15. 15. FULL LOGIC MODEL Logic Model 5 3 4 2 1 6 Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  16. 16. LOGIC MODEL COMPONENTS
  17. 17. 1) THE SITUATION (THE FOUNDATION) Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  18. 18. 1) THE SITUATION PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  19. 19. 1) THE SITUATION PROBLEM ANALYSIS Situation Statement: Model County Tobacco-Free Coalition is increasingly concerned about the unhealthy work environments for county youth. A recent Chamber of Commerce study showed 75% of county youth with part-time and summer jobs work in the service industry, mainly in restaurants where youth workers are exposed to cigarette smoke. Ten percent of the county's restaurants (non-bars) and 75% of fast-food establishments are voluntarily smoke-free. Research suggests that smoking bans and restrictions in public places not only reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure but also are associated with lower youth smoking rates and delayed onset of smoking. Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  20. 20. Factors influencing the program focus: Mission. Values. What you know about the situation. What others are doing in relation to the problem. Resources. Experience. History. 1) THE SITUATION-PRIORITIES Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  21. 21. 2) INPUTS (RESOURCES) Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  22. 22. 3) OUTPUTS "WHAT WE DO AND WHO WE REACH” Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  23. 23. 4) OUTCOMES “WHAT DIFFERENCE DOES IT MAKE” Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  24. 24. 4) OUTCOMES (GOAL & OBJECTIVES) Audiences (Focus of the outcome) Goal (My program’s broad long-term public health goal) Behavioral Objectives (Specific actions in accordance with my public health goal) Learning Objectives (knowledge, skills, beliefs, opinions, attitude to carry out my behavior objectives)
  25. 25. 4) OUTCOMES (GOAL & OBJECTIVES) Audiences (Focus of the outcome) Goal (My program’s broad long-term public health goal) Behavioral Objectives (Specific actions in accordance with my public health goal) Learning Objectives (knowledge, skills, beliefs, opinions, attitude to carry out my behavior objectives) Young adults aged 18-29 years Example from Arnold M, Dejong W. Watch your back : A randomized efficacy study of a theory-guided website to promote melanoma knowledge and skin self- examination among young adults. 2016;0(0):1–14.
  26. 26. 4) OUTCOMES (GOAL & OBJECTIVES) Audiences (Focus of the outcome) Goal (My program’s broad long-term public health goal) Behavioral Objectives (Specific actions in accordance with my public health goal) Learning Objectives (knowledge, skills, beliefs, opinions, attitude to carry out my behavior objectives) Reduce melanoma morbidity and mortality Example from Arnold M, Dejong W. Watch your back : A randomized efficacy study of a theory-guided website to promote melanoma knowledge and skin self- examination among young adults. 2016;0(0):1–14.
  27. 27. 4) OUTCOMES (GOAL & OBJECTIVES) Audiences (Focus of the outcome) Goal (My program’s broad long-term public health goal) Behavioral Objectives (Specific actions in accordance with my public health goal) Learning Objectives (knowledge, skills, beliefs, opinions, attitude to carry out my behavior objectives)
  28. 28. 4) OUTCOMES (GOAL & OBJECTIVES) Audiences (Focus of the outcome) Goal (My program’s broad long-term public health goal) Behavioral Objectives (Specific actions in accordance with my public health goal) Learning Objectives (knowledge, skills, beliefs, opinions, attitude to carry out my behavior objectives) Checks skin thoroughly for melanoma Example from Arnold M, Dejong W. Watch your back : A randomized efficacy study of a theory-guided website to promote melanoma knowledge and skin self- examination among young adults. 2016;0(0):1–14.
  29. 29. 4) OUTCOMES (BEHAVIOR BASED) Learning Objectives (short-term objectives) Barriers and motivators. Health behavior theory concepts:
  30. 30. 4) OUTCOMES (BEHAVIOR BASED) Learning Objectives (short-term objectives) Barriers and motivators. Health behavior theory concepts: ➤ Perceived Severity Understands that melanoma can be deadly Example from Arnold M, Dejong W. Watch your back : A randomized efficacy study of a theory-guided website to promote melanoma knowledge and skin self- examination among young adults. 2016;0(0):1–14.
  31. 31. 4) OUTCOMES (BEHAVIOR BASED) Learning Objectives (short-term objectives) Barriers and motivators. Health behavior theory concepts: ➤ Perceived Susceptibility People this age can get melanoma Example from Arnold M, Dejong W. Watch your back : A randomized efficacy study of a theory-guided website to promote melanoma knowledge and skin self- examination among young adults. 2016;0(0):1–14.
  32. 32. 4) OUTCOMES (BEHAVIOR BASED) Learning Objectives (short-term objectives) Barriers and motivators. Health behavior theory concepts: ➤ Self-Efficacy Feels confident that s/he can do skin self-examination correctly Example from Arnold M, Dejong W. Watch your back : A randomized efficacy study of a theory-guided website to promote melanoma knowledge and skin self- examination among young adults. 2016;0(0):1–14.
  33. 33. 4) OUTCOMES (BEHAVIOR BASED) Learning Objectives (short-term objectives) Barriers and motivators. Health behavior theory concepts: ➤ Outcomes Expectations Believes that melanoma is easy to cure when it is found early Example from Arnold M, Dejong W. Watch your back : A randomized efficacy study of a theory-guided website to promote melanoma knowledge and skin self- examination among young adults. 2016;0(0):1–14.
  34. 34. 4) OUTCOMES (BEHAVIOR BASED) Learning Objectives (short-term objectives) Barriers and motivators. Health behavior theory concepts: ➤ Response Efficacy Believes that doing skin self-examination is an effective way to find melanoma early Example from Arnold M, Dejong W. Watch your back : A randomized efficacy study of a theory-guided website to promote melanoma knowledge and skin self- examination among young adults. 2016;0(0):1–14.
  35. 35. 4) OUTCOMES (BEHAVIOR BASED) Learning Objectives (short-term objectives) Barriers and motivators. Health behavior theory concepts: ➤ Subjective Norms Believes that friends/ family think s/he should do skin self- examination Example from Arnold M, Dejong W. Watch your back : A randomized efficacy study of a theory-guided website to promote melanoma knowledge and skin self- examination among young adults. 2016;0(0):1–14.
  36. 36. 4) OUTCOMES “WHAT DIFFERENCE DOES IT MAKE” Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  37. 37. 5) ASSUMPTIONS Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  38. 38. 5) ASSUMPTIONS Assumptions are principles, beliefs, ideas about: The problem or existing situation. The resources and staff. The way the program will operate. Expected outcomes and benefits. The knowledge base. The external & internal environment. The participants: how they learn, their behavior, motivations, etc. ➤ Inaccurate or overlooked assumptions are the basis for failure or less than expected results. (failed health campaigns!)
  39. 39. 5) ASSUMPTIONS (WHY IT IS IMPORTANT) As you left the house today and came to this session, what were some of your assumptions about the day? Why is it important that we think about assumptions?
  40. 40. 6) EXTERNAL FACTORS (ENVIRONMENT)
  41. 41. LOGIC MODEL Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  42. 42. LOGIC MODEL AND EVALUATION
  43. 43. EVALUATION ➤ Evaluation helps you know how well that program or initiative actually works. "What worked, what didn't, why?" "How can we make it better?” ➤ The systematic collection of information to make judgements, improve program effectiveness and/or generate knowledge to inform decisions about future programs. (Patton, 1997)
  44. 44. ➤ First: Expending evaluation resources on a poorly designed program is a poor use of resources. ➤ Second: Expending evaluation resources on programs that are not ready to be evaluated or aren't being implemented is also a waste of resources. ➤ Third: In order to organize an evaluation to reasonably test the program theory, you need a clear depiction of the theoretical base. (logic model)
  45. 45. ➤ Key aspects of a comprehensive evaluation plan. 1)The Focus: what to evaluate? Is the focus of the evaluation the whole program or a component of the program? EVALUATION Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  46. 46. 2) QUESTIONS Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  47. 47. 3) INDICATORS Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  48. 48. Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  49. 49. 4) TIMING ➤ WHEN it is appropriate to collect data. Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  50. 50. 5) DATA COLLECTION ➤ Sources of information: program documents, existing databases, research reports, participants, … ➤ Methods of data collection: surveys, interviews, case studies, mail, … ➤ Sampling and instrumentations. Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  51. 51. LOGIC MODEL
  52. 52. Provide a graphic description of a program Brings detail to broad goals; helps in planning, evaluation, implementation, and communications. Makes underlying beliefs and theory of the program explicit. show the relationship of program inputs and outputs to expected results. Summarizes complex programs to communicate with stakeholders, funders, audiences. Guides prioritization and allocation of resources Enhances teamwork and motivates staff Helps to identify important variables to measure; use evaluation resources wisely
  53. 53. WHAT DOES A LOGIC MODEL LOOK LIKE?
  54. 54. LOGIC MODELS INPUTS OUTPUTS OUTCOMES Program investments Activities Participation Short Medium What we invest What we do Who we reach What results Long- term LOGIC MODEL WORKSHEET Program title: Situation Statement: Enhancing Program Performance with Logic Models October, 2002 UW-Extension provides equal opportunities in employment and programming, including Title IX and ADA. Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  55. 55. WHICH ONE..? ➤ What type of graphic display do you think will work best for you? Why? ➤ Will one or multiple models better depict your work? ➤ What level of detail do you need - who will use the logic model - for what purpose?
  56. 56. WHICH ONE..? Logic models look different depending on: Purpose Type and complexity of program Agency orientation
  57. 57. PROGRAMS ARE NOT LINEAR ➤ The linkages - not just what is labeled as input, output, or outcome - that give the model its power. Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program Development and Evaluation
  58. 58. LOGIC RELATIONSHIPS
  59. 59. LOGIC MODEL LIMITATIONS
  60. 60. ➤ Represents intention, but it is not reality ➤ Focuses on expected outcomes ➤ Challenge of causal attribution Many factors influence process and outcomes ➤ Doesn’t address: 
 Are we doing the right thing? or Should we do this program?
  61. 61. DEVELOPING A LOGIC MODEL
  62. 62. LOGIC MODEL WORKSHEET Program title: Situation Statement: Enhancing Program Performance with Logic Models October, 2002 UW-Extension provides equal opportunities in employment and programming, including Title IX and ADA.
  63. 63. KEEP IN YOUR MIND THAT… ➤ Logic Model Development is a PROCESS ➤ Practice, practice, practice! ➤ The process of constructing a logic model may be the most important aspect of logic model development. ➤ Logic models are refined and changed many times. Keep your logic model dynamic. ➤ Be sure to include all six components of logic models, and use lines and arrows to illustrate direct linkages between and among components.
  64. 64. STEPS… ➤ Step 1: Determine the purpose of the logic model and who will use it, for what? ➤ Step 2: Involve others. ➤ Step 3: Set the boundaries for the logic model. ➤ Step 4: Understand the situation (Problem Analysis) ➤ Step 5: Explore the research, knowledge base, and what others have done/are doing.
  65. 65. LET’S PRACTICE!
  66. 66. USEFUL RESOURCES (ONLINE COURSES & WORKSHEETS) University of Wisconsin- Extension: Planning and Evaluating Education and Outreach Programs with a Logic Model http://www.uwex.edu/ces/lmcourse/# Logic Model Templates http://www.uwex.edu/ces/pdande/evaluation/evallogicmodel.html NW Center for Public Health Practice- online training http://www.nwcphp.org/training/opportunities/summer-institute-for-public-health-practice/ resource-center/implementing-program-planning-and-evaluation/index.html Community Toolbox: Developing a Logic Model http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/overview/models-for-community-health-and-development/ logic-model-development/main Center for Disease Control http://www.cdc.gov/eval/resources/index.htm Logic Model Development Guide http://www.smartgivers.org/uploads/logicmodelguidepdf.pdf
  67. 67. REFERENCES ➤ Community tool box http://ctb.ku.edu/en ➤ Taylor-Powell, E., Jones, L., & Henert, E. (2002) Enhancing Program Performance with Logic Models. Retrieved February 7, 2016 from the University of Wisconsin-Extension web site: http://www.uwex.edu/ ces/lmcourse/ ➤ "Evaluation Logic Model." Evaluation Logic Model. Web. 7 Feb. 2016. <http://www.uwex.edu/ces/pdande/evaluation/ evallogicmodel.html>. ➤ Arnold M, Dejong W. Watch your back : A randomized efficacy study of a theory-guided website to promote melanoma knowledge and skin self- examination among young adults. 2016;0(0):1–14.
  68. 68. THANK YOU!

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