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Designing LoRaWAN for dense IoT deployments webinar


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As more and more IoT devices are being added to the network in increasingly massive deployments, it is important to design IoT networks from the beginning to meet the scalability requirements of the future.

In this webinar, Actility’s Olivier Hersent and Rohit Gupta welcome special guest Bill Versteeg of to reveal various solutions based on learnings from Actility’s deployments that can be used to design LoRaWANs for scalability. They will also explore how densification leads to lower power consumption by end devices, resulting in dramatic reduction in TCO for the end customer. Last but not least, you will discover how operators, whether mobile or fixed, can leverage their assets to deploy low-cost LoRaWAN picocells. Discover:
Why adaptive data rate is key to LoRaWAN scaling
How combining macro and picocells delivers coverage AND capacity
The dramatic impact of network densification on capacity and device TCO
Why micro-cellular networks are the future of LoRaWAN
How to deploy coverage for a real-world water metering application

Published in: Technology
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Designing LoRaWAN for dense IoT deployments webinar

  1. 1. DESIGNING A LORAWAN NETWORK FOR DENSE DEPLOYMENT Rohit Gupta, Product Manager, Actility Olivier Hersent, Founder & CEO, Actility Bill Versteeg, IoT Architect, JumpStartIoT
  2. 2. Copyright ©Actility • Why is LoRaWAN important to the IoT? • LoRaWAN Overview • LoRaWAN Capacity Analysis • Case Study: LoRaWAN Use Cases for North America • Conclusion & Wrap-Up Agenda
  3. 3. Copyright ©Actility - ConfidentialCopyright ©Actility - Confidential Why is LoRaWAN important to the IoT? IoT market overview and segmentation
  4. 4. Copyright ©Actility - Confidential LPWA: The missing link for industrial IoT Battery life Range LPWA BLE, Z-Wave, W-Mbus… WIFI Cellular Source : Machina Research 2016 In 2023 there will be more than 4 billion LPWA devices worldwide Industrial Logistics & Supply Chain Agriculture eHealth Smart City & Environment Consumer Utilities Smart Building LPWA devices (x 1000) 0 500,000 1,000,000 1,500,000 2,000,000 2,500,000 3,000,000 3,500,000 4,000,000 4,500,000 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 LPWA: LoRaWAN, LTE-M, NB-IOT
  5. 5. Copyright ©Actility LoRaWAN overview 5
  6. 6. Copyright ©Actility - Confidential LoRaWAN standard network architecture 6 Up to 15km range Network Server OSS / Supervision Apps Designed for billions of objects Low battery consumption 10+ years life Low deployment cost, unlicensed spectrum, no network planning Multiplier effect with every base station NS-AS API AS AES Secured Payload
  7. 7. Copyright ©Actility Long Range Architecture + Asynchronous access = optimum solution for low power applications LoRaWAN Device Classes
  8. 8. Copyright ©Actility - Confidential Adaptive Data Rate Mechanism 14km 10km 8km 6km 4km 290bps 530 970 Avg bitrate ~1300bps 2D simulation (flat environment)
  9. 9. Copyright ©Actility - Confidential Macro for Coverage, Pico for capacity Seamless macrocell/picocell collaboration 9 NwC Network controller implements virtualized MAC layer: - Duplicate removal - ADR - Downlink routing picocel l
  10. 10. Copyright ©Actility - Confidential Simple capacity increase 10 Drop-in a new base station Effects of doubling GW density (macro or pico cell): • 2x capacity per cell • 2x avg battery life • 10x capacity for network
  11. 11. Copyright ©Actility ➔ Significantly less investment ➔ Roll out extra capacity where needed ➔ Disruptive business model for sharing operator costs Public / On-prem collaborative networks 11 Traditional public network approach Number of public base stations (network investment) %pop Public-private collaborative approach Population coverage extended by long range private picocells LPWA optimal deployment strategy (1) Build public network critical mass rapidly (50 to 60% population) (2) Win most ISM type RFPs, build 1000s of picocells on customer sites (3) Patch public network where necessary
  12. 12. Copyright ©Actility LoRaWAN Capacity Analysis 12
  13. 13. Copyright ©Actility Link budget for LoRaWAN LoRaWAN Regional parameter EU India US China (868MHz) (868 MHz) (915 MHz) (470 MHz) Limiting Link (RX2 DL Coverage) Uplink Uplink Uplink Uplink LoRaWAN Spreading Factor SF12 / 125KHz SF12 / 125KHz SF10 / 125 kHz SF12 / 125 kHz UE TX Power (Max Allowed) (1) 16.0 dBm 30 dBm 30 dBm 19.15 dBm UE Antenna Gain (2) 0 dB 0 dB 0 dB 0 dB GW Antenna Gain (3) 6 dB 6 dB 6 dB 6 dB GW Cable losses (4) 0.5 dB 0.5 dB 0.5 dB 0.5 dB Gateway Rx Sens. (5) -140.0 dBm -140.0 dBm -134.7 dBm -140.0 dBm Link budget (1)-(4)-(5)+(2)+(3) 161.5 dB 175.5 dB 170.2 164.65 Source: Actility Whitepaper: How does LoRaWAN and Cellular IoT Complement each other,
  14. 14. Copyright ©Actility Link Budget comparison for LoRaWAN Vs Cellular IoT *Link budget calculation for 3GPP Cat-M1 is based on different assumptions, as shown in the table Source: ** 164 dB Link Budget for NB-IoT is reached using 64 repetitions Max Tx Power (dBm) Link Budget (dB) or MCL LoRaWAN (EU 868 MHz) 16.0 dBm 161.5 LoRaWAN (India 865 Mhz) 30 dBm 175.5 LoRaWAN (US 915 MHz) 30 dBm 170.2 LoRaWAN (China 470 MHz) 12.15 dBm 164.65 3GPP Cat-M1 (Option 1*) 20 dBm 155.7 3GPP Cat-M1 (Option 2*) 23 dBm 160.7 3GPP Cat NB-IoT 23 dBm 164 (**)
  15. 15. Copyright ©Actility LoRaWAN Deployment Parameters (EU 868 MHz) Applicable Regulatory Rules Europe - 868 MHz (Urban Scenario) Number of LoRaWAN channels 16 EU (For US, it is 72 UL, 8 DL Channels) Target UL Cell Edge Data Rate LoRa SF7-SF12 / 125 kHz (varies based on coverage) Target (worst case) UL Effective Packet Error Rate 10% #Transmissions per UL packet 1-3 Tx End-Device Location Indoor Daylight UL Noise Rise at Gateway 10 dB End-Device Max TX Power 16 dBm End-Device Antenna Gain 0 dBi Default Gateway Cable and Connector Losses 0.5 dB UL Payload size 20 Bytes # UL Packets / day / device 48
  16. 16. Copyright ©Actility Single Cell Deployment (UL only) LoRaWAN Capacity Goes beyond Aloha due to ADR, Capture Effect and Orthogonal Spreading Factors Capture Effect: ● Reduction of packet loss from collisions
  17. 17. Copyright ©Actility Multi-Cell Deployment (UL Only) Macro-Diversity Allows same LoRaWAN message in UL to be received by multiple gateways thus improving capacity upto 4X
  18. 18. Copyright ©Actility Multi-Cells with Retransmissions (UL Only) Retransmissions significantly improve the capacity especially at lower Gateway densities
  19. 19. Copyright ©Actility Battery Lifetime (UL Transmissions only) ● 5Wh Battery Capacity ● Results does not include DL or MCU or sensor power consumption ● The results only include LoRaWAN modem power consumption (48 UL/Day, No DL) 10X Improvement in battery lifetime with densification Battery lifetime improves significantly due to densification
  20. 20. • Use Case: Water and Gas metering • Battery Replacement campaign cost: 30 $/meter • Tasks (Identification, collection, replacement, re-dispatch) • Total number of meters: 100k What is the impact of battery lifetime on 10yr TCO? Battery Lifetime has dramatic 10X impact on OPEX (TCO)
  21. 21. Copyright ©Actility The number of sensors is always higher than the number of gateways Sensor cost is a primary driver for TCO For high volume LoRaWAN sensors, most of the component costs will be driven down with traditional high volume manufacturing processes. Battery cost : • Battery costs do not follow a traditional volume/price curve : they are a very high volume component • In low volumes, the battery is roughly 1/5th the cost of a typical sensor • In high volumes, the battery’s cost would rise to ½ (or more) of the sensor cost To reduce cost of the battery: lower the power requirements of the sensor, to shrink the size of the battery. Power Consumption and TCO
  22. 22. Copyright ©Actility • LoRaWAN Capacity scales dramatically with densification of gateways • ADR, Macro-diversity, re-transmissions and network management algorithms are the key to scaling capacity (upto 2X-73X) • LoRaWAN battery lifetime increases significantly (upto 10X) due to densification • There can be (upto 10X) reduction in TCO (OPEX) using appropriate design choices and smart ADR algorithms • US has more UL channels compared to EU, delivering even more capacity Conclusions of analysis Choosing the appropriate network design and adaptive algorithms (ADR) are the key to achieving lower power consumption, TCO and optimum network scaling
  23. 23. Copyright ©Actility Case Study: LoRaWAN Use cases for North America 23
  24. 24. Copyright ©Actility • Tower based gateways require leasing space on the towers, waterproof bespoke gateways, climbing the tower, power, zoning, permitting, and perhaps backhaul. • Operators can choose to opportunistically deploy femto gateways in device that the operator is already deploying • Low cost Bill of Materials added that leverage ongoing installations • Wi-Fi hotspots, power supplies, amplifiers, cable modems, thermostats, virtual assistants, audio/video devices, etc • Add a small (7cm by 3cm) 8 channel reference design via USB/I2C • Provide less than 3 watts of power and dissipate less than 3 Watts of heat Sparse tower based macro gateways Vs dense Femtocell gateways ~100 times as many gateways for ~1/10th of the capital
  25. 25. Copyright ©Actility Tower Gateways • Due to expensive tower costs, typical tower-based design uses 4km tower spacing • Target hitting 2 gateway by sending 1 packet per day at SF10 and 27 dBm • 64 channel gateways Use Case: Water Meters Deployment Femto Gateways • Density driven by the opportunistic device themselves • Urban devices are currently very dense, as little as 30m gateway spacing • Add enough LoRaWAN gateway enabled devices to target 100m to 200m gateway spacing • Sensors hit 10+ gateways at SF7 and 17dBm
  26. 26. Copyright ©Actility Tower Gateways • Assume network costing for 20 macro gateways on leased towers 100K Water Meters example first 5 years network cost Femto Gateways • For the 5 year cost of 20 tower based gateways, operator could install as many as 120K femto gateways • Figure 10K femto gateways would actually saturate the geography • Save ~80% of the network build
  27. 27. Copyright ©Actility Tower Gateways • Design sensors to operate at average distance of ~2km of gateway • Sensors design needs to send at 27 dBm for 400ms (11 byte packet at SF10) • Add a high power RF front end and a much larger battery • ~$10 additional cost per water meter • $10 times 100K meters == $1M 100K Water Meters example first 5 year sensor cost Femto Gateways • Design sensor to have average distance to gateway between 30m and 200m • Sensor needs to send at 17 dBm for ~50ms (11 byte packet at SF7) • Use baseline low power sensor design and normal battery • Lower cost design
  28. 28. Copyright ©Actility • Most network operators provide data service to ~1/3rd of the households in their coverage area • In dense urban environments, the average distance between a given operator’s subscribers is ~30 meters • If you can hit 100% penetration of opportunistic LoRaWAN gateways to your subscribers, you get 30 meter gateway spacing • Working backwards to lower, phased penetrations leads to 100m or 200m gateway spacing • 5 year cost for a femto gateway is roughly 5K times lower than a tower gateway • Much more robust network with 50K femto gateways deployed than 10 tower based gateways. • Particularly true if you can get at least 10 femto gateways installed at the top of residential buildings. Density (as seen by a large operator)
  29. 29. Copyright ©Actility • Facilities based gateways • WiFi hotspots • Strand based power supplies • Strand based amplifiers Possible Dense Deployment Models
  30. 30. Copyright ©Actility • Indoor gateways • Bespoke indoor gateways to cover specific vertical markets • Operators -- Opportunistic large scale deployment in Customer Premise Equipment • Cable modems • DSL modems • Wifi routers • Equipment Vendors -- Opportunistic large scale deployments in Retail devices • WiFi extenders • Personal Assistants (Amazon Echo, Google Home, etc) • TVs Possible Dense Deployment Models
  31. 31. Copyright ©Actility The future of LoRaWAN networks is microcells - In urban environments the noise floor is expected to get higher due to increased traffic - Macro-diversity provides 3 benefits: - increased capacity, - greater resilience to interference - lower power consumption for end devices Key Takeaways
  32. 32. Copyright ©Actility Conclusion 32
  33. 33. Copyright ©Actility Deploying LoRaWAN Macro-Cell for Coverage and LoRaWAN femto-cells for Capacity Coverage Layer (Macro-Cell) + Capacity Layer (Femto-Cells) + LoRaWAN Roaming for seamless interoperability Key Benefits: ➢ Reduced TCO for Operator ➢ Reduced TCO for Enterprises ➢ Deploy Capacity where needed ➢ Private/Public sharing of infrastructure costs ➢ LTE-M backhaul to further reduce costs ➢ Improved LoRaWAN based geolocation Wireless Backhaul (LTE-M) LoRaWAN Macro-Cell Low-cost indoor/ outdoor femto-cells Very low cost indoor femto-cells LoRaWAN Roaming Hub
  34. 34. Copyright ©Actility • LoRaWAN Air Interface Dimensioning tool for computing deployment parameters based on traffic and terrain characteristics LoRaWAN Air Interface Dimensioning Tool
  35. 35. Copyright ©Actility LoRaWAN Roaming Enables Coverage Densification 35 Macrodiversity! (several receivers) Simultaneous roaming with multiple networks ⇒ Closer GWs ⇒ Higher data rate, lower power (ADR!) ⇒ Less interference (win-win) ⇒ More battery life ⇒ More GWs ⇒ Better TDOA/RSSI geolocation accuracy ADR: Adaptive Data Rate TDOA: Time Difference of Arrival RSSI: Received Signal Strength Indicator Very unique mode of roaming: • Not available to NB-IoT, Wi-SUN (tech limitation) • Not available to SigFox (business model limitation) Home NS Join Server Visited NSs AS
  36. 36. Copyright ©Actility ThingPark Wireless and ThingPark Exchange key to LoRaWAN densification for reducing TCO LoRaWAN Connectivity ThingPark Platform IoT Platform
  37. 37. Copyright ©Actility 1. LoRaWAN Network can scale almost indefinitely with densification 2. Densification can dramatically improve network capacity (upto 2X-73X) 3. Densification also results in longer battery lifetimes (upto 10X) 4. Densification is the key to reduction in TCO (upto 10X) for both service provider and Enterprises 5. LoRaWAN roaming when combined with public/private network deployment can be one of key enablers for densification by sharing different private and public operator networks 6. The key to densification lies in intelligent network design during deployment and smart ADR algorithms Key Takeaways
  38. 38. Contact Actility Sales representative for more information on ➢ ThingPark Wireless ➢ ThingPark Enterprise ➢ ThingPark Exchange For all technical enquiries: How to arrange for ThingPark Wireless demo?
  39. 39. Copyright ©Actility Questions? 39