TOTAL INSTITUTIONS - GOFFMAN• Place of residence and work, where a large number of like-situated people live cut off from the wider society for an appreciable period of time.• Characterized by walls around it, barriers. Leading to an enclosed formally administered round of life. • Erving Goffman (1961)
DIFFERENT KINDS…TYPES OF TIS1. for the incapable & harmless2. those incapable of looking after themselves & seen as an (unintended) threat to the community3. those who might pose a danger to the community4. those institutions which pursued some work like task5. retreats from the world
THE “SELF”• Goffman not concerned with what the participant is expected to do alone but what he actually does in relation to what he is expected to do
SELF-CONCEPT• Our self concept sustained by family, friends, workmates, parents, friends, siste rs, workers etc • Also in name, clothes , possessions• In TI‟s these forms of reflections of self are largely absent
In a TI, the inmate is:‘Stripped of self…and then reconstituted in the image of insanity’ (Goffman 1961) 6
THE STRIPPING OF THE SELF NATIVE AMERICAN INDIANS CARLISLEINDIAN BOARDING SCHOOL 1880-1900 7
TOM TORLINO NAVAJO , BEFORE &AFTER ENTERING CARLISLE INDIAN SCHOOL 8
CHARACTERISTICS OF A TI• all aspects of life conducted in the same place & under the same single authority• daily activities carried out by a large batch of inmates who are treated alike 9
There are four stages: admission; mortification; adaptation; release Inmates arrive at the total institution with a „presenting culture‟ – a way of life based on their home world, and an associated sense of self The regime of the total institution works to break the link between the individual and all aspects of his/her pre-admission life This process is known as „disculturation‟
MORTIFICATION OF THE SELF• Mortification of the „self‟. • patients might be forced to eat all food with a spoon • pointing out negative attributes; talking about the person as if they weren‟t there, etc.
ARIZONA‟S TENT CITYI N M AT E S AT T H E M A R I C O P A C O U N T Y T E N T C I T Y J A I L
The inmate learns to conform to the new regime (or suffer the consequences) The privilege system (rewards for obedience) ‘provides a framework for personal reorganization’
Upon release the inmate may not be able to readjust after extensive ‘disculturation’ (leading to recidivism) The inmate may be ‘stigmatized’ by association with the total institution
IMPORTATION THEORY• Inmate subcultures are brought into prisons from the outside world • Pre-prison life experiences • Socialization patterns
DEPRIVATION THEORY• Inmate subculture develops in response to the deprivations in prison life• “In prison, those things withheld from and denied to the prisoner become precisely what he wants most of all.” Eldridge Cleaver, African American author, activist, and former prisoner
INTEGRATION MODEL• A combination of Importation Theory and Deprivation Theory.
INMATE SOCIETYPrinciples of the convict code include:• Inmates should mind their own affairs.• Inmates should not inform the staff about the illicit activities of other prisoners.• Inmates should be indifferent to staff.• Conning and manipulation skills are valued.
• Five elements of the prison code:• don‟t interfere with interests of other inmates – don‟t rat on others• play it cool and do your own time• don‟t whine – be a man• don‟t exploit inmates – don‟t break your word• don‟t be a sucker – don‟t trust guards or staff
values inmateroles “subculture” customs language
PRISON SUBCULTURES Argotsace duce - best friend banger - a knife billy - white man boneyard - conjugal visit chester - child molester dog - homeboy or friend ink - tattoos man walking - signal guard coming tree jumper - rapist
PRISONIZATION• The process by which an inmate becomes socialized into the customs and principles of the inmate society. • Clemmer
Donald Clemmer, The Prison Community, 1940 Menard Penitentiary (Illinois) Assimilation of norms Prison as a functional whole Affects all prisoners (to varying degrees)Prisoners take on ‘the folkways, mores, customs, and general culture of the penitentiary’ (Clemmer, 1940, p. 299)
DEGRADATION CEREMONY• A conspicuous ritual that is played out in various stages of the criminal justice process that is designed to degrade, dehumanize, & humiliate an individual.• By design or effect, it informs an inmate/criminal that s/he is “outside” of & beneath society, that s/he is no longer regarded as honest, honorable, trustworthy, upright, & good.
VIOLENCE AND VICTIMIZATION• It is generally agreed that there is more physical violence by inmates in today‟s men‟s prisons than there was in earlier periods.
VIOLENCE AND VICTIMIZATION• Common motives for physical violence in prison are:• To demonstrate power and dominance over others• To retaliate against a perceived wrong, such as the failure of another inmate to pay a gambling debt• To prevent the perpetrator from being victimized (for example, raped) in the future
SYKES‟ DEPRIVATIONS• the loss or deprivation of liberty• the loss or deprivation of autonomy• the loss or deprivation of goods and services• the loss or deprivation of heterosexual relationships• the loss or deprivation of security
Homosexuality in Prison• wolf - aggressive men who assume the masculine role in homosexual relations• punks - forced into submitting to the female role, often by wolves• fags - natural proclivity toward homosexual activity and effeminate mannerism
COPING AND ADJUSTING• Life in prison is different from living in the free community. Prison life includes:• Pronounced deprivation of personal freedom and material goods• Loss of privacy• Competition for scarce resources• Greater insecurity, stress, unpredictability
COPING AND ADJUSTMENTPrison life also encourages qualities counter tothose required for functioning effectively inthe free community, by:• Discouraging personal responsibility and independence• Creating excessive dependency on authority• Diminishing personal control over life events