Unit testing (eng)


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● What is Unit Testing?
● Benefits
● What is Test Driven Development?
● What is Behavior Driven Development?
● Categories of (Unit) Tests / Software Testing
Pyramid, Frameworks
● C++, Java, .NET, Perl, PHP frameworks
● Unit-testing Zend Framework application

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Unit testing (eng)

  1. 1. Unit Testing08/11/2011
  2. 2. Softjourn Inc.Unit Testing Anatoliy Okhotnikov Softjourn Inc.
  3. 3. Agenda● What is Unit Testing?● Benefits● What is Test Driven Development?● What is Behavior Driven Development?● Categories of (Unit) Tests / Software Testing Pyramid, Frameworks● C++, Java, .NET, Perl, PHP frameworks● Unit-testing Zend Framework application
  4. 4. What is Unit Testing?● Ford new engine test area● Special test harness that connects a gas and oil line● For the output, a measuring device is connected to the drive shaft that comes directly out of the engine● Engine starts and revs up● Within about 5 minutes the computer is able to analyze the torque curve, gas usage, and oil usage
  5. 5. What is Unit Testing?● In computer programming, unit testing is a method by which individual units of source code are tested to determine if they are fit for use. A unit is the smallest testable part of an application. In procedural programming a unit may be an individual function or procedure. Unit tests are created by programmers or occasionally by white box testers.● Ideally, each test case is independent from the others: substitutes like method stubs, mock objects, fakes and test harnesses can be used to assist testing a module in isolation. Unit tests are typically written and run by software developers to ensure that code meets its design and behaves as intended. Its implementation can vary from being very manual (pencil and paper) to being formalized as part of build automation
  6. 6. Benefits The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct. A unit test provides a strict, written contract that the piece of code must satisfy. As a result, it affords several benefits.● Find problems early (in the development cycle)● Facilitates change (refactor, regression, etc.)● Simplifies integration (parts, sum & integration)● Documentation (live, understand API)● Design (TDD, no formal design, design element)
  7. 7. What is Test Driven Development?● a software development process that relies on the repetition of a very short development cycle: first the developer writes a failing automated test case Test that defines a desired improvement or new function, then produces code to pass that test and finally refactors the Code new code to acceptable standards.● Kent Beck, who is credited with Refactor having developed or rediscovered the technique, stated in 2003 that TDD encourages simple designs and inspires confidence.
  8. 8. What is Behavior Driven Development?● An agile software development technique that encourages collaboration between developers, QA and non-technical or business participants in a software project.● A response to Test Driven Development, including Acceptance Test or Customer Test Driven Development practices as found in Extreme Programming.● It extends TDD by writing test cases in a natural language that non-programmers can read.● With a Feature Injection, BDD covers the analysis space and provides a full treatment of the software lifecycle from vision through to code and release.
  9. 9. Test Categories
  10. 10. Categories of (Unit) Tests● Small: Unit Tests ● Check conditional logic in the code ● A debugger should not be required in case of failure● Medium: Functional Tests ● Check whether the interfaces between classes abide by their contracts● Large: End-to-End Tests ● Check for “wiring bugs”
  11. 11. Software Testing Pyramid
  12. 12. FrameworksC++ 51C 39 Wikipedia:JavaScript 29 373 testingJava 27 frameworks in.NET 23PHP 11 70 programmingCommon Lisp 11 languagesObjective-C 9Perl 9ActionScript / 9Adobe Flex
  13. 13. C++● CppUnit ● Differences in compilers, platforms, and programming● Boost.Test styles. C++ is not exactly a● CppUnitLite clean, fully supported● NanoCppUnit language, with one coding standard.● Unit++ ● List of features you want● CxxTest ● Timing support: individual/total● Unit Test++ ● Installation, Creation, Modification, etc.
  14. 14. UnitTest++● http://unittest-cpp.sourceforge.net/UnitTest++.html● Lightweight unit testing framework for C++● Designed to do test-driven development on a wide variety of platforms● Simplicity, portability, speed, and small footprint● ANSI portable C++: Win32, Linux, Mac OS X● Written and maintained by Charles Nicholson and Noel Llopis “C++ For Game Programmers”
  15. 15. UnitTest++ Example● a minimal C++ program to run a failing test through UnitTest++ UnitTest++$ g++ -I./src -c test.cpp -o test.o UnitTest++$ g++ test.o libUnitTest++.a -o test UnitTest++$ ./test test.cpp:6: error: Failure in FailSpectacularly: false FAILURE: 1 out of 1 tests failed (1 failures). Test time: 0.00 seconds.
  16. 16. Java● JUnit ● Java has an abundance of libraries that can help with the● TestNG development of your tests cases● JTest ● Unit tests are fairly easy to write● Cactus and have very rapid performance,● Mockito so its not going to take you long to run them.● JWalk ● Dont Sacrifice Design for the● SureAssert Sake of Testing ● Use Statistical Testing for Non- deterministic Code
  17. 17. JUnit● http://junit.sourceforge.net/● JUnit is a simple framework to code repeatable tests written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck. It is used by the developer who implements unit tests in Java. Most famous of XUnits, JUnit is Open Source Software.● Annotate a method with @org.junit.Test● When you want to check a value, import static org.junit.Assert.*, call assertTrue() and pass a boolean that is true if the test succeeds
  18. 18. JUnit Example● a minimal Java class to run a successful test junit$ javac -cp junit-4.10.jar MyFirstTest.java junit$ java -cp junit-4.10.jar:. org.junit.runner.JUnitCore MyFirstTest JUnit version 4.10 Time: 0.004 OK (1 test)
  19. 19. .NET● csUnit ● There are a wide variety of unit testing tools available for .NET.● MSTest Fortunately, the structure of unit● NUnit tests is similar within most of the● NUnitAsp frameworks.● .TEST ● NUnit has historically been one of the most popular frameworks● xUnit.net ● There are 2 main parts of a unit● Visual testing system, the testing Studio framework and a test runner.
  20. 20. NUnit● http://www.nunit.org/ initially ported from JUnit● written entirely in C# and has been completely redesigned to take advantage of many .NET language features, for example custom attributes and other reflection related capabilities.● NUnit has two different ways to run your tests. The console runner, nunit-console.exe, is the fastest to launch, but is not interactive. The gui runner, nunit.exe, is a Windows Forms application that allows you to work selectively with your tests and provides graphical feedback
  21. 21. NUnit Example● [TestFixture] is the way to indicate that the class contains test code.● [Test] is an indication that it is a test method.● TransferFunds : expected <250> but was <150>
  22. 22. Perl● Test::More ● Put your tests in t/ and follow the convention of ##-name.t.● TAP ● Create a "Smoke Test" script and● Test::Harness a bunch of generic tests● Test::Unit ● Its as simple as deciding what● Test::Class you want to write, writing a test● Test::Builder for what you are going to write, then writing the code that does it● Test::Able ● Start of by creating a file called tdd_is_cool.pm and a file called tdd_is_cool.t
  23. 23. Test::More● http://search.cpan.org/perldoc?Test::More● Yet another framework for writing test scripts● By convention, each test is assigned a number in order, often very useful to assign a name● Before anything else, you need a testing plan● use Test::More tests => 23;● ... run your tests ...● done_testing( $number_of_tests_run );
  24. 24. Test::More Example● A simple test module with two tests:●●●● test::more$ perl tdd_is_cool.t● 1..2● ok 1 - use tdd_is_cool;● ok 2 - TDD is cool!
  25. 25. PHP● PHPUnit ● As unit testing has gained popularity, it has become a● SimpleTest standard practice in PHP with● lime libraries and frameworks such as● Atoum Swiftmailer, the Zend Framework, Yii and Symfony all requiring unit● ojes test coverage of their source code● Testilence Even good programmers make ●● Apache-Test mistakes. The difference between a good and a bad programmer is● OnionTest that the good uses tests to detect his mistakes as soon as possible
  26. 26. PHPUnit● PHPUnit is the de-facto standard for unit testing in PHP projects. It provides both a framework that makes the writing of tests easy as well as the functionality to easily run the tests and analyse their results.● Part of xUnit family, created by Sebastian Bergmann, integrated & supported by Zend Studio/Framework.● Simple installation with PEAR
  27. 27. Installation● PHPUnit should be installed using the PEAR Installer. This installer is the backbone of PEAR, which provides a distribution system for PHP packages, and is shipped with every release of PHP since version 4.3.0.● The PEAR channel (pear.phpunit.de) that is used to distribute PHPUnit needs to be registered with the local PEAR environment. Furthermore, components that PHPUnit depends upon are hosted on additional PEAR channels. pear channel-discover pear.phpunit.de pear channel-discover components.ez.no pear channel-discover pear.symfony-project.com● This has to be done only once. Now the PEAR Installer can be used to install packages from the PHPUnit channel: pear install phpunit/PHPUnit● After the installation you can find the PHPUnit source files inside your local PEAR directory; the path is usually /usr/lib/php/PHPUnit.
  28. 28. Unit Testing Zend Framework● Lets create a new Zend Framework application: zf create project zf-project
  29. 29. First Run● Launch an auto-generated unit tests from tests directory with the phpunit command:● phpunit.xml – testing configuration settings● bootstrap.php – load application during testing
  30. 30. IndexController Auto-Generated Test
  31. 31. A Word of Explanation● What are the parameters ● URL generated from an Array of parameters ● Are we dispatched to the correct place and result● What we were checking in the test ● dispatch – point the URL where we go to ● assertModule – are we in the correct module? ● assertController – checks the controller we are in ● assertAction – checks the action ● assertQueryContentContains – checks the content
  32. 32. Coverage Report● Test coverage report(requires XDebug) with phpunit –coverage /report/directory/path
  33. 33. Zend Testing Further Reading● http://anton.shevchuk.name/php/unit-tests- zend-framework-application/● You can use DOM assertions: ● CSS selectors ● XPath● Use mock for Zend_Auth● Create emulators/wrappers● Write more tests!
  34. 34. Recommendation Summary● C++ ● UnitTest++ advanced & convenient● Java ● JUnit the first and the best● .NET ● NUnit most popular & rich● Perl ● Test::More de-facto standard● PHP(Zend) ● PHPUnit (Zend_Test) must haveEven good programmers make mistakes.The difference between a good and a badprogrammer is that the good uses tests todetect his mistakes as soon as possible.
  35. 35. Links● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_unit_testing_frameworks● http://gamesfromwithin.com/exploring-the-c-unit-testing- framework-jungle● http://www.testdriven.com/● http://www.phpunit.de/manual/3.6/en/index.html● https://github.com/sebastianbergmann/phpunit/● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unit_testing● http://www.slideshare.net/sebastian_bergmann/getting-started- with-phpunit● http://anton.shevchuk.name/php/unit-tests-zend-framework- application/● http://www.slideshare.net/DragonBe/introduction-to-unit-testing- with-phpunit-presentation-705447