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Teori Public Relation.pptx

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Teori Public Relation.pptx

  1. 1. B.C. Lo 1 Public Relations and Globalization School of Journalism & Communications Chinese University of Hong Kong Presenter: BC Lo
  2. 2. B.C. Lo 2 Definition of Public Relations Public Relations Society of America – PRSA Public relations helps an organization and its public to adapt mutually to each other. International Public Relations: Negotiating Culture, Identity & Power by Patricia A Curtin & T. Kenn Gaither
  3. 3. B.C. Lo 3 Chartered Institute of Public Relations  The discipline which looks after reputation, with the aim of earning understanding and support and influencing opinion and behaviour.  It is a planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain goodwill and understanding between an organization and its public.
  4. 4. B.C. Lo 4 Scholars Management of communications between an organization and its public, best accomplished by using two-way symmetric communication.
  5. 5. B.C. Lo 5 Commonly Used Definition A form of strategic communication directed primarily towards gaining public understanding and acceptance and the process of creating a good relationship between an organization and the public, especially with regard to reputation and communication of information.
  6. 6. B.C. Lo 6 Old School – One Way Street  Always labelled as propaganda & persuasion  Associated with dictatorship & authoritarian  Different viewpoint/different side of the coin  “Democratic countries” always pushing to create a “level playing field” for economic reasons
  7. 7. B.C. Lo 7 Globalization Dissolves Boundaries  Government shifting to democracy  Nation building  Multinational Corporation (MNC) expansion  NGOs boost and monitor development  Economic reasons - promotion of trade & tourism
  8. 8. B.C. Lo 8 Nation Building  Concentrate government effort to achieve its domestic and international goals  Domestic – national unity & consensus  International – show of power  Soft power – economic power (investment, trade & tourism)
  9. 9. B.C. Lo 9 Global PR Driven by Business  Technology growth  Trading agreements  MNCs need to: 1. Understand local culture 2. Balance short-term gain with long-term relations 3. Work through local & national, legal & cultural issues 4. Integrate Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) & sustainability
  10. 10. B.C. Lo 10 Investment – Culture’s 5 Moments of Circuit  Regulation – controls & considering factors  Production – creation of cultural products, planning & execution of a campaign  Representation – conveying the meaning, method of distribution  Identities – set up and maintenance of an identity  Consumption – audience decoding messages, receptive to the investment
  11. 11. Culture’s 5 Moments of Circuit Regulations Production Representation Identities Consumption B.C. Lo 11
  12. 12. B.C. Lo 12 Globalisation & PR Covers  Marketing PR – approach, strategies & tools  Corporate reputation – image, models, tools & crisis management  MNC’s internal communications  Event sponsorships – case studies in sports, arts, culture, charity & ambush  Creativity in PR
  13. 13. B.C. Lo 13 Global PR Cornerstone – Ethics  Advocacy  Expertise  Fairness  Honesty  Independence  Loyalty
  14. 14. B.C. Lo 14 Know Your Public – Push, Pull and Pass Approaches
  15. 15. B.C. Lo 15 3 Ways to Know Your Audience Approach Messages Channels/Tools  Push  Pull  Pass
  16. 16. B.C. Lo 16 Push Approach List all stakeholders between you and your ultimate consumers/users Who helps/ harms Combine with SWOT analysis Useful tools to find out what goes wrong Messages formulation Channel/message matching/Mapping Resources allocation
  17. 17. B.C. Lo 17 Pull Approach Analysis of your ultimate users/consumers  Who are they – categories, age, sex, etc.  What factors appeal  Positioning & priorities  Which channels  How to capture & keep – trial & loyalty  How to create behaviour changes  Tools/channels/timing – resources allocation
  18. 18. B.C. Lo 18 Pass Approach What are the obstacles & ways to overcome  Company, products & services  Who are the gatekeepers?  How to PASS  Third party help  Divert attention  Business changes
  19. 19. Customer Experience Management Approach Customer decision journey:  Touch points, entry points & obstacles (pain points)  What makes them come/return – needs, choice  How to keep them – loyalty program  What makes consumers use more – extend usage, occasions, etc. B.C. Lo 19
  20. 20. Total Marketing Experience Touch Points Service Product B.C. Lo 20
  21. 21. Consumer Journey Planning Awareness • Advertising • Word-of-Mouth • online Experience • Decision • Sale • Consumption Loyalty • Reinforcement • Dissatified • After Sales Call B.C. Lo 21
  22. 22. Chadstone Digital Journey B.C. Lo 22
  23. 23. B.C. Lo 23 In-class Exercise Apply the 3 approaches (Push, Pull, Pass) to work out a consumer experience management journey to analyze the marketing PR activities of an international company/organization/product in HK & China markets.
  24. 24. B.C. Lo 24 Marketing PR Marketing PR: A Marketer’s Approach to Public Relations & Social Media by Gaetan T. Giannini, Jr. The Marketer’s Guide to Public Relations by Thomas Harris
  25. 25. B.C. Lo 25 Definition of MPR Marketing public relations is the process of planning, executing and evaluating programs that encourage purchase and consumer satisfaction through credible communication of information and impression that identify companies and their products with needs, wants, concerns and interests of consumers. The Marketer’s Guide to Public Relations by Thomas Harris
  26. 26. B.C. Lo 26 Marketing PR (MPR) What does MPR do? 1. Builds organization/product identity 2. Increases visibility 3. Establishes as an expert 4. Educates stakeholders on issues 5. Shapes public opinion 6. Maintains image 7. Stimulates trial & repeat usage
  27. 27. B.C. Lo 27 Basic Rules of MPR  Highest cost effectiveness & creditability  Newsworthy – public attention  Share news – share of voice & share of mind  Proper packaging – appeal  Get to the right people – public  Be available – close to your public  Be engaged – two-way communication  Realize its global reach – not a local story  Ethics is key – facts & figures
  28. 28. B.C. Lo 28 MPR Planning Need to consider a company’s  Vision & Mission  Business environment  Measurable goals  Implementation – the devil is in the details  Monitoring & timely adjustment – plan for the worst  Review & evaluation
  29. 29. MPR Planning & Tools B.C. Lo 29
  30. 30. B.C. Lo 30 Business Strategy Diamond Arena – which product category, channel, market segment, geographic area, value creation strategies Vehicles: how will we get there? – internal development, JV, licensing/ franchising, alliances or acquisitions Staging & pacing: what will be our speed and sequence of moves? Speed of expansion, sequence of initiatives Differentiators: image, customization, price, styling, product reliability, speed to market Economic logic - Lowest cost Best return
  31. 31. B.C. Lo 31 Business Strategy Diamond  Economic Logic – how to realize Return On Investment (ROI) – which market/price/customer base  Arena – decisions & strategies – what product/channel (place)  Vehicles – means to conduct business – JV or wholly-owned, franchise, acquire, OEM  Differentiators – competitive advantages  Staging – speed & sequence to implement plan
  32. 32. B.C. Lo 32 How MPR Serves an Organization  HR – employer of choice  Investor relations  Vendors/suppliers relations  Customer relationship management  Government relations
  33. 33. B.C. Lo 33 Brand Authors/Culture & Stories Brand Culture- Stories, Images & Association Firm Popular Culture Influencers Customers Brand Stories Brand Stories
  34. 34. B.C. Lo 34 Brand Value  Reputation value – customer confidence  Relations value – long-term trust, e.g. hospitals  Experiential value – shortcut to allow customers making effective choices – experience & word-of- mouth  Symbolic value – status, lifestyle, politics & other social aspirations
  35. 35. B.C. Lo 35 SMART Goal Setting 1. Specific 2. Measurable 3. Attainable 4. Realistic 5. Tangible
  36. 36. B.C. Lo 36 Elements of the MRP Planning Process  Objectives  Segmentation & target markets  Type of connectors – channels & tools  Messages  Measurement
  37. 37. B.C. Lo 37 10 Commonly Used Brand Building Tools
  38. 38. B.C. Lo 38 1. No Advertising Support  Information for media  Celebrity endorsement  Contests – selection of spokesperson  Special events  Wars – cola, TV, beer, shopping malls, etc. Case studies: Walkman, iPod/iPhone, Awards ceremonies
  39. 39. B.C. Lo 39 2. Making News Before Launch  Create suspense, last minute changes  First ever – technical breakthrough  Positioning and re-positioning  Celebrities – leaks and gossips Note: Plan for the worst – what may backfire
  40. 40. B.C. Lo 40 3. Enhance Advertising Effect  Awards, endorsements & testimonials  Create controversy, short supply  Tie in with charity/community events  Bundle with film/DVD/concert releases  Multi-destinations publicity – create discussion  Multi-media – electronic, print, outdoor & web  Strategic alliance – tie in/bundle with others
  41. 41. B.C. Lo 41 4. Winning Consumer Loyalty  Giving back – discounts, points & upgrade  Loyalty programs – different classes  Suggested usages, serving tips, pairing  VIP events – wine tasting, investment talks  Special interest, special tours, trials Case studies: Benz, BMW, Martell, credit cards, mileage programs, Campbell’s Soup
  42. 42. B.C. Lo 42 5. New Product Launch  Create news/stories prior launch  New news – breakthrough  The “making of “– stories behind  Educate consumers – usage, effect  Comparison & tests – tortoise jelly  Road shows & demos – multi-city/market  Product placement  Encourage product trial – sampling
  43. 43. B.C. Lo 43 6. New News for Old Products  Promoting new benefits/usage – aspirin  Re-positioning – oatmeal  New packages – PET soft dinks  New ways to use – whisky & green tea  Endorsement & awards  Contests – user generated content Case studies: SKII for men, whisky & green tea
  44. 44. B.C. Lo 44 7. Use of Charity  Cause related marketing – sports equipment  Self-generated content – “Mama Bloggers”  Compassion – disaster relief  Advertising for public cause – water conservation Case studies: Project Hope, Project Smile, Project Pink Chalk
  45. 45. B.C. Lo 45 8. Using Special Occasions  Stories about founder, records, milestones  Birthdays & anniversaries  Special day, week, month  Special offer for certain groups – Mother’s Day, Teacher’s Day Case studies: Olympic Day Run, National Day, Beer Festival
  46. 46. B.C. Lo 46 9. Lobbying  Legislation  Use of experts & authorities  Word-of-mouth & viral word-of-mouth  Reference groups & fan clubs  Official or third party endorsement  Professional & trade associations support  University research
  47. 47. B.C. Lo 47 10. Use of Mascots & Figures  Create mascots – Michelin, Olympic Games, Asia Games  Figures & trademarks – Pepsi man  Color – orange, pink, red, green  Collectors’ items – memorabilia  Trends, wars and “rumors” Case studies : Coca-Collectors’ Club
  48. 48. B.C. Lo 48 Useful List of MPR Tactics & Tools  Awards  Books  Contests  Demonstrations  Exhibits  Fan clubs  Festivals  Grand opening  Hotlines  Interviews  Luncheons  Meetings  Museums/pavilions  Newsletters  Official endorsement  Product placement  Public service announcements  Questionnaires
  49. 49. B.C. Lo 49 Useful list of MPR Tactics & Tools (cont’d)  Radio trade for mentions  Road shows  Sampling  Symbols  Tours  “Thons” – marathons, bikeathons, walkathons, telethons  Underwriting  Vehicles  Video news release  Special day/occasion  Expert columns  Youth program  Use of color
  50. 50. B.C. Lo 50 Group Exercise Case studies: Select a product/service from a MNC or an international organization in HK or China. Analyze how they apply some of the 10 commonly used brand tactics. Or: Apply brand building tactics to any existing product or service in HK or China. Give details about planning, implementation & measurement of effectiveness.
  51. 51. Public Opinion & Its Impact on Brands B.C. Lo 51
  52. 52. Why Borders  Consumer boycott  Government actions – new law/policy/off the shelf/ penalty  Pressure groups actions – increase cost  Financial pressure - share price drop, shareholder activism  Reputation damage spreading to other markets B.C. Lo 52
  53. 53. What We Should Focus On  Causes of the problem  How it will develop  How will it affect us – worst case scenario  How can we resolve/mitigate/use it?  Price to pay – can we afford it?  Creating a good growth environment B.C. Lo 53
  54. 54. True to Ourselves  Public Opinion is neither “Public” nor “Opinion”  Public is only true for “Public Opinion Leaders”  Opinion is often a “decided” set agenda - get buy-in only B.C. Lo 54
  55. 55. Public Opinion in the West  Kingdom – power from Heaven – Christianity  French thinker Rousseau’s “Public Agreement” in 1762 – “Public Opinion”  Voting to delegate our power to someone to manage the state – the public servant  Watchdogs – check & balance – constitutions, media, public opinion B.C. Lo 55
  56. 56. Public Opinion in China  Sons of heaven – Federalism  Public opinion – folk & children’s songs, dynasty changes  Beliefs – Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism  Chairman Mao’s “Single Party” system  Post Cultural Revolution – correct past wrongs  Open policy – watchdog & public pressure  Changes – mass media & internet B.C. Lo 56
  57. 57. Public Opinion Polls  Test the water/fly kites – to adjust policies  Know what appeals to voters – how to win  Participation – call for action – vote & resources  Seek out people sharing same values – gatherings, mass media & internet  Agenda setting B.C. Lo 57
  58. 58. Nationalism – Case Studies  China Vs. USA Anti-spiritual pollution, Belgium Coke boycott, Starbucks in Forbidden City  China vs. Japan Prado & Badao, Nippon Paint, Japanese cars  China Vs. France Olympic Torch relay, Carrefour stores B.C. Lo 58
  59. 59. HK vs. Mainland China  D & G incident  “Invasion” of pregnant women mainlanders  Anti-mainlander trends in HK & impact on local tourism B.C. Lo 59
  60. 60. Mainland China Case Studies  Super girls/ Voice of China  South China Tigers & tourism  Milk powder rush around the world  Red Cross China & impact on NGOs  Bear bile juice & company public listing  Human search engines – mistresses, cigarettes, watches, false qualifications, moon cakes B.C. Lo 60
  61. 61. Citizen Marketers – 4Fs  Filters – human wire services, bloggers  Fanatics – sports fanatics – analyze & call for action, advocates & drivers  Facilitators – mayors of online towns – bring fans together  Firecrackers – “one-hit-wonders” that attract lots of attention for one song, incident – tend to die out quickly, can be highly damaging B.C. Lo 61
  62. 62. Action for a Good Cause  Fur boycott  Ban shark fin  Animal welfare/no animal testing  Water conservation  Compassion – disaster relief/ earthquake, flooding, poverty elimination  Anti-corruption, anti-child labor  Education for the underprivileged B.C. Lo 62
  63. 63. In-class Exercise Case study Use a case study in either China or Hong Kong to illustrate how public opinion affects a product, a service or an organization. B.C. Lo 63
  64. 64. Corporate Reputation & Its Global Development B.C. Lo 64
  65. 65. B.C. Lo 65 Corporate Reputation Management Corporate Reputation: Managing Opportunities & Threats, edited by Ronald J. Burke, Graeme Martin, Cary L. Cooper
  66. 66. B.C. Lo 66 Corporate Reputation  Corporate reputation is a function of the perceptions & attitudes towards it held by individual members of a particular group of stakeholders  Corporate identity – how people outside an organisation assess those within
  67. 67. B.C. Lo 67 Opinion Research Corporation Input from 4,000 Executives  Customer focus – quality of product/service, value for $, responsiveness  Competitive effectiveness – quality of management, investment strategies, financial soundness  Market leadership – vision, differentiators  Corporate culture – social image, recruit & retain talent  Communications
  68. 68. B.C. Lo 68 Favourable Corporate Reputation  Employer of choice – recruit & retain talents  Customers/consumers become advocates – affects purchase decision
  69. 69. B.C. Lo 69 Good Features  Distinctiveness – only this company can do it  Focus – experts in the field, specialized  Consistency – communications, policies & practices  Identity – perceived as genuine & listening  Transparency – corporate governance
  70. 70. B.C. Lo 70 6 Elements that Build Good Corporate Reputation  Social responsibility – support worthy causes  Communication – transparency, full disclosure & open dialogue  High quality products & services  Talent – rewards and attracts talent  Financial measures – high investment value  Leadership – CEO, best in class, sets example Reference: Weber Shandwick & Reputation Institute
  71. 71. B.C. Lo 71 Preliminaries – First Steps  Formulate a corporate reputation strategy & business sustainability  Integrate communication & social responsibilities into the strategy  Develop a good crisis management strategy  Good communication of the corporate story to both internal and external stakeholders  Good corporate culture that attracts & retains talent
  72. 72. B.C. Lo 72 Building Blocks  Emotional appeal  Vision & leadership  Social responsibility  Workplace environment  Financial performance  Quality of products and services
  73. 73. B.C. Lo 73 Measurement of Corporate Reputation  Recognition  Trust  Stock price  Financial performance  Employment recruitment & retention
  74. 74. B.C. Lo 74 Building a Corporate Reputation for New Firms  Founder’s track record  Quality of partners  Certificates achieved  Board of Directors members  Logos, stories & success of the brand  Compare with others – benchmarking
  75. 75. B.C. Lo 75 Corporate Rebranding Even successful brands need rebranding. Steps: 1. Develop a brand essence – differ from others 2. Create a guiding framework – balance old & new, what to keep & what to do more 3. Market needs old & new, or a bigger share 4. Communication training & internal marketing 5. Integrated communications & marketing strategies 6. Promote new brand to all stakeholders
  76. 76. B.C. Lo 76 Damages To Corporate Reputation  Product recalls  Scandals  Spillovers  Issues & crisis  Legal battles Key: Issue and crisis management readiness
  77. 77. B.C. Lo 77 Audits & Measurement  Cognitive – Fortune magazine’s annual America’s Most Admired Companies; FT Global MBA Ranking – salary after graduation  Measurement of opinions & experiences of respondents in different stakeholder groups  Benchmarking  What to keep (strength) & what to improve
  78. 78. B.C. Lo 78 Reputation Management Cycle Measuring Explaining Acting Controlling Outcome
  79. 79. B.C. Lo 79 Global Reputation Management Approach  Employer brand  Social responsibilities  Corporate citizenship – what matters most  Issue & crisis management
  80. 80. B.C. Lo 80 Using CSR to Drive Reputation 1. Identify key stakeholders 2. Understand what they want 3. Identify company VMV 4. Identify communication gaps & create support 5. Take strategic actions to close gaps 6. Consistent communication to stakeholders & public 7. Measure activity effectiveness in increasing support 8. Analyze & improve
  81. 81. B.C. Lo 81 Know Your CSR Drivers  Conservationism & environmental issues  Compassionate – corporate gifting, emergency relief, food bank  Creativity  Volunteerism  Donation matching  Recognition & endorsement from third party – awards & executives on key committees
  82. 82. B.C. Lo 82 Employer Branding  Employer of choice  External and internal communications  Impact on psychological contract link - job applicants, recruitment & retention - psychological fulfillment or breach  Career development  Empowerment & perception  Social factors  Importance of staff communications
  83. 83. B.C. Lo 83 Employer Brand Building Tools  Newsletters in various formats – old & new media  Employee portal/website(s)  Corporate website/apps  Town Hall  Employee day/night  Career development/enhancement – job rotations  Volunteerism  Creativity  Staff family & friends engagement
  84. 84. B.C. Lo 84 Group Discussion Apply what you have learned from the Corporate Reputation Management section to analyze a local branch of an international company. Prepare a plan to enhance its corporate reputation.
  85. 85. B.C. Lo 85 Defending a Product at Risk – Issues and Crisis Management
  86. 86. Old Days Are Gone  Government could gag media  Local story could be contained  Monetary solutions  Cooperate with media to attack competition  What happened inside to stay inside B.C. Lo 86
  87. 87. Incidents and Crisis An emergency situation that needs immediate action to avoid serious damage to business, people or brand or, that could result in serious adverse publicity. Reference: International Public Relations Association B.C. Lo 87
  88. 88. Common Crisis Elements  One or a series of negative incidents/events  Serious damage to image, brand property & people  Business disruption B.C. Lo 88
  89. 89. Issue and Crisis Management Your success is determined by how well you can manage the “coverage” – both traditional & new media. B.C. Lo 89
  90. 90. Crisis Management Approach PRP  Prevent if possible  Reduce negative impact  Protect company future Key = Good planning in advance B.C. Lo 90
  91. 91. General Principles – 4 Cs  Control – agreed process  Contain – prevent escalation, localize, isolate  Concern – show concern for public  Caution – facts first, avoid hasty reactions, speculation & over disclosure B.C. Lo 91
  92. 92. Step 1: Identify All Possible Threats  Plant related  Transportation related  Employee related  Product or package related  Customer related  Supply related  National disaster  Terrorism & violence B.C. Lo 92
  93. 93. Step 2: Physical Check 1. Do you have an early alert system? 2. What notification system in place? 3. What is the emergency response plan? 4. What internal issues can cause damages if exposed in public? 5. Spokesperson in Crisis 6. How much information we share with public? 7. How to reach management & employee? B.C. Lo 93
  94. 94. Step 2: Physical Check (cont’d) 8. How does this happen in other organizations? - How many times has it taken place? - What lawsuits or investigation faced? - What can we learn from this? - What will we do if it happens on us ? - What can we change to prepare to face a similar situation? B.C. Lo 94
  95. 95. Early Warning System 1. 2/3 begins with negative news 2. Negative news worksheet - fact finding - assessment - reaction analysis - Recommendations to management B.C. Lo 95
  96. 96. Q1: Do We Have an Early Warning System? 1. Timely daily clipping report – print, electronic & new media 2. Do we have the right contacts in media, government and other key stakeholder groups? 3. Time needed to reach management during odd hours B.C. Lo 96
  97. 97. Q2: Do We Have an Updated Emergency Response Plan? 1. When was it last updated/tested? 2. Is it tied in with plans from others sites/countries/head office? 3. When was last approval? 4. Who are the team leaders and members? 5. How soon can they get ready? B.C. Lo 97
  98. 98. Q3: Any Internal Issue that Can Damage Us if Goes Public? 1. What are they? 2. How does it impact us & stakeholders? - lawsuit - government investigation - share price fluctuation 3. Will it affect head office, other markets? 4. How can we minimize/mitigate/resolve? B.C. Lo 98
  99. 99. Q4: Spokesperson in a Crisis 1. Who is he/she? Any alternative? 2. Does he/she has all the needed information? 3. Disclosed information approval steps & time 4. Who has the final say – important legal role B.C. Lo 99
  100. 100. Q5: Communications with Management 1. Who makes the calls at different levels? 2. Any impact to employees/customers/suppliers/ shareholders/government? 3. Who calls the shots? 4. Recommendations to management B.C. Lo 100
  101. 101. Q6: Early Warning System 1. When was the first indicator? Who alerted you? Why? 2. Any similar incidents recently? 3. Any insight & source? - What questions asked? Reporter’s attitude & background - What is our response? - What will likely be the coverage - tone & size B.C. Lo 101
  102. 102. Communications in Crisis  Find out what is known and unknown  Weigh disclosure options & develop a plan  Get support from senior management  Brief the media – document after each interview – protect and improve  Anticipate the aftershocks  Document & share learning B.C. Lo 102
  103. 103. Dealing with Media in a Crisis  Be honest – don’t lie, best truth  Facts – double check everything  Get management support  Third party support – industry association, academia, authorities  Remember: you are not working for the media. They can be your friends, not partner B.C. Lo 103
  104. 104. Dealing with Media in a Crisis – Keep at Local Level  Isolated incident  Use local public opinion leaders, business leaders, academia or other third party Remember not so say: - Anything without approval, avoid “no comment”, internal conflict, personal matters - Do not comment on competitor(s) B.C. Lo 104
  105. 105. Staying in Control in Crisis  The first hour – find out what is known and what is unknown - cut through the chaos, check all available information/data  Weight disclosure options, build a disclosure plan – minimize impact quickly, anticipate questions & possible development, focus on known facts  Get management support/clearance before meeting media – build confidence, don’t push B.C. Lo 105
  106. 106. Staying in Control – Before You Speak  Take time to get used to surroundings  Look clam & confident – get notes in order  Be brief – focus on confirmed facts & messages  Don’t be pressured into responding – friendly, polite but firm  Check and confirm with authorities – be consistent B.C. Lo 106
  107. 107. Staying in Control – Anticipate the Aftershock  Time to resolve the crisis – can be a long time  Additional resources to sustain effort  Possible legal/government/labor/insurance & other issues  Document everything to defend yourself and for the review to improve, compare notes B.C. Lo 107
  108. 108. Shall We Be Proactive?  No, unless absolutely in need – give the right facts  Unless in a recall or pressure from consumers/ suppliers/employees  No management on camera unless needed  On-camera – if someone important to say/clarify B.C. Lo 108
  109. 109. Shall We Recall Products?  Health & safety issues  Advised by government or authorities  Recall is costly, damaging reputation & business  May impact other markets & head office – decision made after consultation  Make sure proper authority is given in advance, recovery system in place B.C. Lo 109
  110. 110. Build Relations in Advance How?  Product news/marketing events  Journalists, public opinion leaders, bloggers,  Media gatherings, public occasions  Find/Seek them out – internet, direct message B.C. Lo 110
  111. 111. Case Studies & Syndicated Exercise  Coca-Cola Belgium boycott  Product recall  The Pellet lesson B.C. Lo 111
  112. 112. How to Write a CM Plan  Start with what needs to be protected  Create a crisis management team  Create guidelines/procedure – flow chart  Establish a crisis center/war room  Prepare alert system & material in advance  Aftermath management – documentation & learning B.C. Lo 112
  113. 113. B.C. Lo 113 Media Relations in Global PR
  114. 114. Basic Understanding of News Media  Electronic – radio, TV  Print – newspapers, magazines, trade  New media – websites & bloggers  Beat – special field, business, geographical  News agencies – local, regional & international, government, business  Correspondents, chambers of commerce, embassies B.C. Lo 114
  115. 115. Media Opportunities  Editorials – co-ops, trade development  Expert articles – columnists, talk shows  Cases – successful cases, landmarks  Events – media events  Interviews – exclusive, group, live, on-camera  Blogs & websites  Media convergence – eroded borders – news websites B.C. Lo 115
  116. 116. Create Viral Word-of-Mouth  Capture the imagination by being fun  Easy to use and highly visible product  Target well – interest and engage audience  Associate with credible sources  Combine delivery technology – text, video B.C. Lo 116
  117. 117. Key Opinion Leaders (KOL)  Know where to find them  Make sure they have appeal/draw  Citizen marketers (4Fs) – filters, fanatics, facilitators, firecrackers  Blogs & bloggers  Offline word-of-mouth, face-to-face, telephone B.C. Lo 117
  118. 118. What is News? Story Told First Time  Famous & successful people, heroes  New facts, discovery, first of its kind  Human interest, love, hero, role model  Locally related, nationalism  Disasters, conflicts, fights  Gossip, money, sex, power  Underdog  Trends B.C. Lo 118
  119. 119. The Press Release  The 5Ws 1H – what, who, where, which, why, How  Inverted primary writing – must have first  Backgrounder  Fact sheet  Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  Supporting material (certificates, pictures)  Press kit – paper Vs. electronic  Video news release B.C. Lo 119
  120. 120. Selling a Story  Newsworthiness  Credibility  Relationships  Beliefs & values  Interests  Communications  Exclusive  Fitting into editorial calendar B.C. Lo 120
  121. 121. How Are You Sure You Have the Media Interested? The Harris Grid Newsworthiness High Low High B.C. Lo 121 Press conference Use of celebrity Give a reason Charity, first of its kind, new application Sponsorship Consumer Interest Low
  122. 122. Use of Pictures or Video “A good picture is worth a thousand words.”  Availability of good photographer/briefing  Proper caption  Hard copy Vs. soft copy  Nature of news media & preference of editors  Picture Vs. footage B.C. Lo 122
  123. 123. Proactive or Reactive  Proactive – when you want publicity  Reactive – when you want to clarify  On-camera or off-camera – preparedness Are you prepared:  Background, statement, key messages, Q&A  Media training – rehearsals, latest facts B.C. Lo 123
  124. 124. In-class Assignment Apply Harris Grid to design a media event you are going to stage in the near future for a product or service of a MNC operating in HK or China. You must pick a product or service first. Then use one of the 10 brand building tactics to define what you are going to do for an event. List out how to generate the news angle with different tools you are going to use. B.C. Lo 124
  125. 125. Understanding Government Relations in Asia B.C. Lo 125
  126. 126. Code of Ethics/Foreign Anti-corruption Acts  Most MNCs have it – protection of company, brands, property & management  Protect shareholders by preventing a market dragging the whole system down B.C. Lo 126
  127. 127. Basic Questions  Why and how did it happen?  What is the core problem – governance or government?  Our objectives  Key decision maker(s)  What is the price? Can we afford it?  Can competitors, trade, supplier involvement B.C. Lo 127
  128. 128. Clear Objective for Our Actions  Fact finding or seeking help  Approval  Protect our reputation to prevent government intervention  Lobbying  Put competitor on the defense  Create a barrier for entry B.C. Lo 128
  129. 129. Legal Conditions  Foreign Anti-Corruption Act/Foreign Practices Act/ICAC  State Department (government) requirements  Corporate governance  Local restrictions/protection B.C. Lo 129
  130. 130. Class Exercise – Are We Prepared?  List all organizations that you/your company need to reach out for government relations activities.  Do you have the latest information of the key contacts?  If not, how are we going to develop the network?  When was the last time we update the lists? B.C. Lo 130
  131. 131. B.C. Lo 131 Event Sponsorship − Use of Sports, Art, Cultural Exhibitions & Events as Tools Event Sponsorship by Bruce E. Skinner & Vladimir Rukavina
  132. 132. B.C. Lo 132 History of Event Sponsorship  Since Roman Empire – Michelangelo, Leonardo de Vinci  Advertising − 1600s, e.g. classified ad in French newspaper in 1631  Pioneers – 1920s to70s, e.g. Goodyear Blimp, Philip Morris Festival of Stars at the Kentucky Derby  Era of development – 1984 onward, e.g. LA Olympics & Peter Ueberroth  Added Value of 1990s – measured by sales, B2B, ROI  Technological era – cybercast of Elton John concert
  133. 133. B.C. Lo 133 Key to a Successful Event: Media  Present the dominant event in community, industry, region or international appeal  Media exposure – coverage, coverage…  Grab hearts and minds of majority  Do something others cannot/have not  Develop a high regard event – “value” what people talk about – only “they” can do it  Make it something sponsors cannot stay away from
  134. 134. B.C. Lo 134 Sponsorship – Why Supporters  Must invite sufficient media coverage  Must attract existing and potential users – the warm and fussy feeling  Meaningful link between product & event, engage users, customers and key stakeholders  Link needs to be evident, not intrusive  Can support promotion, ad and marketing campaign  Results can be evaluated – Return On Investment
  135. 135. B.C. Lo 135 Event Planner’s Marketing plan  What you have to sell – internal/external coverage  Start by selling to media – coverage  Which categories of company should you approach – reasons that motivate them  Any existing supporters of similar events – right fit  How they do it in similar countries/markets  Look at account payable to decide what you need to get
  136. 136. B.C. Lo 136 Key for Event Sponsorship  News creator(s) – the draw of officiating guests  Participants, invited guests of event – relations building – atmosphere  Media exposure – national, regional and international coverage  Marketing opportunities – reach new customers and enhance relations with existing ones
  137. 137. B.C. Lo 137 Music, Sex and Sports Overcome Cultural Boundaries
  138. 138. B.C. Lo 138 Revenue for Sports Events  Broadcast rights – 1/3 to 40% (coverage = advertising slots)  Merchandising and licensing – 1/3 (How can a sponsor make use of this?)  Tickets and on site – less than 1/3 (sponsor’s right – hospitality)
  139. 139. B.C. Lo 139 Sports Sponsorship in Mainland China  Success in the1984 LA Olympics  China reform policy  2 rest days a week provides leisure time  Public fund cuts, alternate resources  Health consciousness  Business opportunities
  140. 140. B.C. Lo 140 Sports Sponsorship Goals  Promote sales – identify the link  Enhance awareness  Increase acceptance  Grow loyalty – award loyal customers  Customer relationship  Government relations – effective market entry  Corporate image & reputation  Product trial  Employment relations
  141. 141. B.C. Lo 141 Entitlement  Use of name  Use of mascots  Promotion  Venue publicity/media exposure  Endorsement  Tickets & hospitality opportunities  Olympics  World Cup  Asian Games  National Games  Premier Leagues  NBA
  142. 142. B.C. Lo 142 Naming Rights  Associate a venue with your company/brand  Difficult to capture Return On Investment  Continued media coverage is limited Case study: Kodak & Oscar venue
  143. 143. B.C. Lo 143 Using Sports Celebrities  Official brand/product spokesperson  Media exposure for events and activities  Charity/community projects  Use of products Alternative planning - Scandals and negative associations, e.g. Tiger Woods - Ambush marketing
  144. 144. Return on Investment  Sponsorship – may be just permission to use logo, mascots, publicity material and limited tickets, e.g. Olympics, World Cup  May need the same or double investment to capitalize on what you have paid  Need to set aside funding to prevent ambush B.C. Lo 144
  145. 145. B.C. Lo 145 Sports Celebrities: Plus and Minus  Hope for the best and plan for the worst  Paparazzi – scandals, the dark side  Short shelf life of celebrities  Cultural conflicts Case studies: Tiger Woods, NBA Superstars, English Premier League
  146. 146. B.C. Lo 146 Arts, Music and Cultural Sponsorship
  147. 147. Use of Celebrities, Successful Leaders, Heroes  Common tool for Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG)  Quick awareness and acceptability  Celebrities seeking partnership with FMCG due to the high advertising investment  Need alternative plan in place on Day 1  Celebrity acceptability can change overnight – scandals, nude pictures, drugs, alcoholism B.C. Lo 147
  148. 148. Charity Event Sponsorship Commonly used platforms:  Education – Project Hope, Pink Chalk  Environmental protection – water conservation  Family relations – mother/father & kids, developmental skills, EQ/IQ  Health – oral hygiene, Operation Smile  Compassion – flood/earthquake relief B.C. Lo 148
  149. 149. Supporting Charity Events  Is your consumer interested, likely to or will take part?  Is it a creditable event? Is the partner reliable?  Will this give your consumer a reason to buy?  Will our publicity backfire?  How can I prevent competitors to ambush?  How to draw a line to prevent backfire? B.C. Lo 149
  150. 150. Commonly Used Tools  1 per purchase/item  Lump sum  Matching – internal & external Key – contingency B.C. Lo 150
  151. 151. Keys to Successful Event Management Coverage – appeal of the event, celebrities to take part, any local community and CSR element 3 Keys 1.VIPs – news generators, photo opportunity 2.Audience – hospitality, how can sponsor get most out of it 3.Media – publicity pre-event, during the event and post event B.C. Lo 151
  152. 152. B.C. Lo 152 Case Studies  Tennis – Opens and Masters  Standard Chartered Marathon  SPCA Dog Walkathon  Olympics, World Cup, NBA, CBA  Premier League, Super League  Pink Chalk Project  Health Train, Obis
  153. 153. Group Assignment Apply what was discussed in class to develop an event management plan. It can be a sports, cultural or charity event. Remember to start with getting media coverage. State clearly your objectives, event logistics and publicity details and how you define success and ROI. B.C. Lo 153
  154. 154. Ambush PR – Guerilla or Parasite Marketing B.C. Lo 154
  155. 155. Ambush PR  Started in sports sponsorship, spread to other marketing/business activities  Creates confusion for major sponsorships, e.g. no need to pay for sponsorship fees – more resources to put into markets  Create distraction to affect competitor’s marketing effectiveness B.C. Lo 155
  156. 156. International Olympic Committee  Ambush marketing will destroy the funding of the Olympics. We must handle seriously.  Funding – The Olympic Programs (TOP) provide money for organizing committee B.C. Lo 156
  157. 157. Case Studies  Fuji Vs. Kodak 1984: Kodak TV spend  Seagram 1998: athlete’s family to Seoul  Adidas Vs. Nike 1992: Nike’s Dream Team, Amex room key in official hotel  Puma 1996: champion holding shoes  Annett Vs. Qantas 2000: Annett (Track and Field) B.C. Lo 157
  158. 158. IOC Weigh In  IOC – Ambush marketing will destroy our funding. Introduction of strict guidelines to combat ambush marketing  2000 onward Clean City Act in Sydney Olympics  2004 Athens Olympics  2008 Beijing Olympics  2012 London Olympics B.C. Lo 158
  159. 159. Ambush Marketing  Use of creativity  Morals & ethics  Hard to use repeatedly  Price and consequences B.C. Lo 159
  160. 160. Group Discussion Describe a successful ambush PR event in China or Hong Kong B.C. Lo 160
  161. 161. Creativity In PR, 4th Edition, Andy Green, Kogan Page, CIPR Creativity in Public Relations B.C. Lo 161
  162. 162. Definition of Creativity “A creative act consists of not only originating but also evaluating the added value it contributes.” “It is not novelty of its own sake, but it must produce some form of value that can be recognized by a third party.” Andy Green, Creativity in PR B.C. Lo 162
  163. 163. Green Light & Red Light Thinking Green Light Thinking  Anything goes & permissible  Anything is possible  The big picture is in the context  Combinations of new elements  Positive impact of risk  Looking at pictures, sound & movement  Emotional & intuitive  Anything can happen in the future Red Light Thinking  Analysis  Judgment  Practicalities  Functionality – will it work  Negative impact of risks  Details  Logical  Examine what worked in the past B.C. Lo 163
  164. 164. Different Thinking  Same box thinking – within existing paradigm  Smaller box thinking – focus on one small part of the existing paradigm, e.g. target a niche group, new life for quick win, change color  Bigger box thinking – breaking down and going beyond the boundaries of the original paradigm – sample pen/pencil in space ship B.C. Lo 164
  165. 165. Creative Thinking Spectacles  Directors – extremely clear focus, quickly find out problem, move quickly, but may see 1-2 issues, miss some opportunities  Analysts – see order and structure in analysis, uncomfortable in chaos, process takes over the end goal, may lead to paralysis  Enthusiasts – greater scope & energy, not do the simple & obvious  Team players – team focused, too focused on people, shy away from taking action B.C. Lo 165
  166. 166. The Creative Process – 5 Is  Information – get relevant information, “why”  Incubation – set aside & think, subconscious, day dreaming, time management  Illumination – flash of inspiration, record it  Integration – working within the media  Illustration – translating the idea within the context B.C. Lo 166
  167. 167. Encourage Creative Technique  Suspend judgment  Stimulate a quantity of ideas  Focus on details of a situation, of a problem  Combination of different elements  Structure information, review situation  Encourage creative stage of mind  Prevent anxiety  Make time to be creative B.C. Lo 167
  168. 168. Suggested Techniques  Establish the creative range – the safe option/extreme  Work backwards from the future  State the problem in reverse  Create an imaginary person  Snakes & ladders – pros and cons  Forced combinations B.C. Lo 168
  169. 169. Using the 7 Sins Sin Prompt Qs Application Greed Save/make $ Sloth Easier life – convenience Anger Avoid what angers you Pride Feel good – social status Envy Make people jealous Lust How to look attractive Gluttony Satisfy hunger B.C. Lo 169

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