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The Human Side of Project Management


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Introduction to The Human Side of Project Management

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The Human Side of Project Management

  1. 1. The Human Side of Project Management Management of System Development (MSD) 7th September, 2014 Presented By Achchuthan Seetharan
  2. 2. Outline ● Introduction ● The Formal Organizational Structure ● The Informal Organizational Structure ● Stakeholder Analysis ● The Project Team ● Knowledge Management
  3. 3. Introduction Key Ingredients to IT Project Management ● Technology o is a tool to the project ● Processes o provide structure & path ● People o determine the success of the project o known as stakeholders of the project
  4. 4. Introduction (Continued...) Human Resource Management ● Human Resource Management is the fundamental component of defining and developing the project infrastructure. ● It includes processes that organize, manage and lead the project team.
  5. 5. Introduction (Continued...) Human Resource Management (Continued…) ● Associate process of HRM o Develop Human Resource Plan o Acquire Project Team o Develop Project Team o Manage Project Team
  6. 6. The Formal Organizational Structure ● Defines, o Official roles o Responsibilities o Reporting Relationships ● Determines, o How resources are allocated o Who has authority over those resources o Who is really in charge of the Project Matrix
  7. 7. The Formal Organizational Structure (Continued...) ● Tells how individuals or groups within an organization should relate to one another. ● Commuication flows through published channels. ● Three formal organizational structures o Functional o Project o Matrix
  8. 8. The Formal Organizational Structure (Continued...) Figure 1. The three formal organization structures
  9. 9. Functional Structure ● Most traditional organizational form. ● Based upon organizing resources to perform specialized tasks and activities. ● Projects are managed within the existing functional hierarchy. ● Individuals or groups perform similar functions and have similar areas of expertise. The Formal Organizational Structure (Continued...)
  10. 10. Functional Structure (Continued…) The Formal Organizational Structure (Continued...) Figure 2. The Functional Structure
  11. 11. Functional Structure (Continued…) ● Advantages o Increased flexibility o Breadth and depth of knowledge and experience o Less Duplication ● Disadvantages o Determining authority and responsibility o Poor response time o Poor integration The Formal Organizational Structure (Continued...)
  12. 12. Project Structure ● Each project is treated as a separate, independent unit ● The project manager and the project team are typically assigned to a particular project on a full-time basis ● The project manager has sole authority and responsibility over the project and its resources ● The supporting organization provides financial and administrative controls The Formal Organizational Structure (Continued...)
  13. 13. Project Structure (Continued…) The Formal Organizational Structure (Continued...) Figure 3. The Project Structure
  14. 14. Project Structure (Continued…) ● Advantages o Clear authority and responsibility o Improved communication o High level of integration ● Disadvantages o Project isolation o Duplication of effort o Projectitis The Formal Organizational Structure (Continued...)
  15. 15. Matrix Structure ● The matrix organization is a combination of the vertical functional structure and the horizontal project structure. ● Specialized skills can be assigned to the project either on a part-time or on a more permanent basis. ● Ability to integrate areas and resources throughout an organization. The Formal Organizational Structure (Continued...)
  16. 16. Matrix Structure (Continued…) The Formal Organizational Structure (Continued...) Figure 4. The Matrix Structure
  17. 17. Matrix Structure (Continued…) ● Advantages o High level of integration o Improved communication o Increased project focus ● Disadvantages o Higher potential for conflict o Poorer response time The Formal Organizational Structure (Continued...)
  18. 18. The Informal Organizational Structure ● Tells how individuals or groups actually relate to one another. ● Bypasses the formal lines of communication and flows in any direction at a much faster pace - “grapevine”. ● Power is also determined by how well one is connected in the informal network.
  19. 19. Stakeholders ● Individuals, groups, or organizations that have a stake or claim in the project's successful or unsuccessful outcome. Stakeholder Analysis ● A stakeholder analysis helps the project team; o to understand the informal organization better o to show who should be involved with the project o understand the role that they must play Stakeholder Analysis
  20. 20. Developing a Stakeholder Analysis ● Develop a list of stakeholders. o Who are interested in the success or failure of a project’s outcome. ● Identify each stakeholder’s interest on the project’s outcome by; o a “+1” if they have an positive interest o a “−1” if they have a negative interest o a “ 0 ” if they are neutral o a “ ? ” if unsure about their interest Stakeholder Analysis (Continued...)
  21. 21. Developing a Stakeholder Analysis (Continued...) ● Gauge the level of influence each stakeholder has over the project by using a scale from 0-5. ● Assess potential conflict among the different stakeholders. o Some stakeholders may act in their own self-interest ● Defining a role for each of the stakeholders. o Every project should have a champion who will be a public supporter of the project. Stakeholder Analysis (Continued...)
  22. 22. Developing a Stakeholder Analysis (Continued...) ● Identify an objective for each stakeholder. o This may require getting their acceptance or approval concerning certain aspects of the project. ● Identify various strategies for each stakeholder. o These strategies may require building, maintaining, improving, or re- establishing relationships. Stakeholder Analysis (Continued...)
  23. 23. Stakeholder Analysis (Continued...) Figure 5. An example of Stakeholder Analysis Chart
  24. 24. The Project Team ● People are the most valuable resource for IT projects and have the greatest influence on the project's outcome. ● Therefore it is important that the Project Manager and the Team Members be chosen wisely.
  25. 25. The Project Team (Continued...) The Roles of Project Manager ● Managerial Role o Planning, Organizing and Controlling ● Administrative Role o Performance reviews, Project tracking & reporting ● Leadership Role o Motivate people, Select the right path to the common goal
  26. 26. Attributes of a Successful Project Manager ● Ability to communicate with people. o Strong communication skills & share a common vision o Ability to connect with people ● Ability to deal with people. o Have soft skills to deal with people, their egos and their agendas o Be a good listener o Have a sense of humor o Willing to share knowledge and skills with others The Project Team (Continued...)
  27. 27. Attributes of a Successful Project Manager (Continued...) ● Ability to create and sustain relationships o A negotiator o A good salesperson ● Ability to organize o Develop the project plan o Acquire resources o Create an effective project environment o Understand contingencies may impact the plan The Project Team (Continued...)
  28. 28. Team Selection and Acquisition Team Selection and Acquisition ● Recruiting (or acquiring) and assigning people to a project team is a critical task for the project manager. ● Selecting the right mix of people with technical and non technical skills is a decision that can influence the outcome of the project. ● A well-balanced Project Team Members possess; o Technology skills o Business/organization skills o Interpersonal skills The Project Team (Continued...)
  29. 29. Team Selection and Acquisition The Real Team ● A small number of people ● Complementary skills ● Commitment to a common approach and goals ● Mutual accountability The Project Team (Continued...)
  30. 30. Work Groups Vs Teams Work Groups Teams tolerate each other trust each other engage in conflict embrace conflict are assigned to work together are committed to working together focus on blame focus on results The Project Team (Continued...)
  31. 31. The Project Environment ● The Project Manager should also focus on the Project Environment which includes; o Adequate space to work and meet o Technology o Office Supplies and Stationary o Culture The Project Team (Continued...)
  32. 32. Knowledge Management Learning Cycle ● Theory proposed by John Dewey to describe how people learn. ● The concept has been applied to Project Teams and Knowledge Management. ● Learning cycles provide a way to resolve ambiguous situations through the repeated pattern of thinking through a problem.
  33. 33. Knowledge Management(Continued...) Figure 6. The Learning Cycle Four Phases of Learning Cycle ● Understand and frame the problem ● Plan ● Act ● Reflect and learn
  34. 34. Knowledge Management(Continued...) Four Phases of Learning Cycle (Continued...) ● Understand and frame the problem o At the beginning of a project, the team members do not understand the challenge assigned to them. o The team just needs to work out the details of how to go about implementing the solution. o Team must understand that preconceived solutions are likely to produce run-of-the-mill results. o Teams should encourage open humility
  35. 35. Knowledge Management(Continued...) Four Phases of Learning Cycle (Continued...) ● Plan o Teams should create a shared understanding of the problem. o Team can brainstorm on;  what they know (the facts)  what they think they know (assumptions)  what they don't know (questions to be answered)
  36. 36. Knowledge Management(Continued...) Four Phases of Learning Cycle (Continued...) Figure 7. An Example of a Team Learning Record
  37. 37. Knowledge Management(Continued...) Four Phases of Learning Cycle (Continued...) ● Act o Carrying out the actions defined in the team's action plan. o Team members can work on their own or together; o The purpose of these actions should be to generate knowledge and test assumptions.  to test out assumptions  try out hunches  experiment  gather and analyze data
  38. 38. Knowledge Management(Continued...) Four Phases of Learning Cycle (Continued...) ● Reflect and Learn o The team should meet to share its findings and reflect upon what everyone has learned. o This reflection must take place in an environment of openness, honesty and trust. o Once the team has a chance to meet and reflect on the information it has acquired, the team can document what it had learned.
  39. 39. Knowledge Management (Continued...) Assessment of Team’s Learning ● Speed o Number of learning cycles completed ● Depth o The degree to which the team deepen its understanding on the project ● Breadth o The impact of the team's proposed solution on the organization
  40. 40. Thank You