1<br />MemoryChapter 8<br />
2<br />Memory<br />Studying Memory: Definition<br />Atkinson and Shiffrin’s Information 	Processing Model (components).<br...
Working/Short-Term Memory
Long-Term Memory
Storing Memories in the Brain (Long term Potentiation).</li></ul>Encoding: Getting Information In<br /><ul><li>How We Enco...
What We Encode</li></li></ul><li>3<br />Memory<br />Flashbulb memories<br />Implicit and Explicit Memories<br />Retrieval:...
4<br />Memory Construction<br /><ul><li>Misinformation and Imagination Effects
Source Amnesia
Discerning True and False Memories
Children’s Eyewitness Recall
Repressed or Constructed Memories of Abuse?</li></li></ul><li>5<br />Memory<br />Memory is the basis for knowing your frie...
6<br />The Phenomenon of Memory<br />Memory is clearly very important but what is it.<br /> How do we define it?<br />
7<br />Studying Memory: Information Processing Models<br />Monitor<br />(Retrieval)<br />Disk<br />(Storage)<br />Keyboard...
8<br />Information Processing<br />The Atkinson-Schiffrin (1968) three-stage model of memory includes a) sensory memory,b)...
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Chapter 8 Part 1

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Chapter 8 Part 1

  1. 1. 1<br />MemoryChapter 8<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Memory<br />Studying Memory: Definition<br />Atkinson and Shiffrin’s Information Processing Model (components).<br /><ul><li>Sensory Memory
  3. 3. Working/Short-Term Memory
  4. 4. Long-Term Memory
  5. 5. Storing Memories in the Brain (Long term Potentiation).</li></ul>Encoding: Getting Information In<br /><ul><li>How We Encode (Iconic and Echoic Memory)
  6. 6. What We Encode</li></li></ul><li>3<br />Memory<br />Flashbulb memories<br />Implicit and Explicit Memories<br />Retrieval: Getting Information Out (retrieval cues and mood congruency)<br />Forgetting (Schacter’s 7 ways of forgetting)<br />Encoding Failure, Storage Decay, Retrieval Failure (Interferences)<br />
  7. 7. 4<br />Memory Construction<br /><ul><li>Misinformation and Imagination Effects
  8. 8. Source Amnesia
  9. 9. Discerning True and False Memories
  10. 10. Children’s Eyewitness Recall
  11. 11. Repressed or Constructed Memories of Abuse?</li></li></ul><li>5<br />Memory<br />Memory is the basis for knowing your friends, your neighbors, the English language, the national anthem, and yourself.<br />If memory was nonexistent, everyone would be a stranger to you; every language foreign; every task new.<br />
  12. 12. 6<br />The Phenomenon of Memory<br />Memory is clearly very important but what is it.<br /> How do we define it?<br />
  13. 13. 7<br />Studying Memory: Information Processing Models<br />Monitor<br />(Retrieval)<br />Disk<br />(Storage)<br />Keyboard<br />(Encoding)<br />Sequential Process<br />
  14. 14. 8<br />Information Processing<br />The Atkinson-Schiffrin (1968) three-stage model of memory includes a) sensory memory,b) short-term memory, and c) long-term memory.<br />Frank Wartenberg/ Picture Press/<br /> Corbis<br />Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works<br />Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works<br />
  15. 15. 9<br />Modifications to the Three-Stage Model<br />Some information skips the first two stages and enters long-term memory automatically.<br />Since we cannot focus on all the sensory information received, we select information that is important to us and actively process it into our working memory. <br />
  16. 16. 10<br />Encoding: Getting Information In<br />How We Encode<br />Some information (route to your school) is automatically processed.<br />However, new or unusual information (friend’s new cell-phone number) requires attention and effort.<br />
  17. 17. 11<br />Automatic Processing<br />Space: While reading a textbook, you automatically encode the place of a picture on a page.<br />Time: We unintentionally note the events that take place in a day.<br />Frequency: You effortlessly keep track of things that happen to you.<br />
  18. 18. 12<br />Effortful Processing<br />Committing novel information to memory requires effort just like learning a concept from a textbook. Such processing leads to durable and accessible memories.<br />Spencer Grant/ Photo Edit<br />© Bananastock/ Alamy<br />
  19. 19. 13<br />Effortful Processing and Rehearsal<br />Effortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition. <br />Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables: TUV YOF GEK XOZ<br />
  20. 20. 14<br />Memory Effects<br />Spacing Effect: We retain information better when we rehearse over time.<br />Serial Position Effect: When your recall is better for first and last items on a list, but poor for middle items.<br /><ul><li>Recency and Primacy effects - </li>

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