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L9 grammar 2


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JBP-1, Lesson 9 Grammar note.

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L9 grammar 2

  1. 1. Lesson Recap Lesson 9 Object(s) is/are (location). X は ∼ にあります/います
  2. 2. In Lesson 8, we learned to tell and ask for the presence/existence of an item/ person X. あります。 Prior to above sentences we did not know what/who is there, thus the sentences introduce existence of item X and person X as new information to listeners. place に a r i m a s ug an i There is/are item/person X at place. item X が います。place に person X が g an i i m a s u
  3. 3. In response, one can tell what/who is there as new information and say ; B1F 1F ? ? B1F 1F ? ? ? What is there on the 1st floor? Who is there on the 1st floor of the basement? ちかいっかい に おとこのひと が います。 いっかいに う けつけが あります。 うけつけ おとこのひと ikkai ni uketsuke ga arimasu chika-ikkai ni otokono hito ga imasu There is an reception desk on the 1st floor? There is a man on the 1st floor of the basement? いっかいに な にが ありま すか 。 ikkai ni nani ga arimasuka ちかいっかいに だれが いま すか。 chika-ikkai ni dare ga imasuka To ask item/person X, you can use the question words なに(what) for items and だれ(who) for people, then say ;
  4. 4. However we ve already found out that there is a reception desk on the 1st floor. Let s ask receptionists of the location of the post office in the building. Besides, we know there are more facilities in this building as the left figure, but we don t know where these facilities are located in the building. Where is the post office? うけつけ uketsuke ?
  5. 5. You can use the question word どこ(where) and say ; In response, the receptionists can inform you and say ; yuubinkyoku wa doko ni arimasuka ゆうびんきょくは どこにありますか。 yuubinkyoku wa sangai ni arimasu ゆうびんきょくは 3がいにあります。 doko is on the 3rd floor. Where is the post office? 3F The
  6. 6. が あります。 arimasuga There is/are item X (@place). は に あります。 arimasuwa n i Item X is/are @place. item X item X place The first sentence below introduces existence of an item X. The second sentence above tells the location description of the item X to the listener(s). place に n i X は place に あります/います Item X becomes the subject of the sentence with a particle は . ( existence sentence ) ( location sentence ) wa ni de * * It calls for the particle に , rather than で , for the place description.
  7. 7. に あります。 arimasu wa n i item X に あります/います です imasuperson X に います。 は place です。 You can also unify and replace に あります/います into です either to item X and person X. n i arimasun i imasu desu desu Item X/ person X is/are @place. When you ask locations of item X and person X, you can replace に ありますか /いますか to ですか just like ; yuubinkyoku wa doko ni arimasuka ゆうびんきょくは どこにありますか。 Where is the post office? yuubinkyoku wa doko desuka ゆうびんきょくは どこですか。 wa item X person X は place yuubinkyoku wa sangai desu (ゆうびんきょくは) 3がいです。 Q : A :
  8. 8. In this lesson, we learn to describe locations in more detail. More specifically, we learn to describe the location of an item/person relative to another item, as in item/person X is in front of item/person Y. wa item X person X は place です。 desu wa item X person X は location word です。 desu item/person Y no の breaking down the place to more detailed description with location words. item/person X は item/person Y の まえです。
  9. 9. うえ した まえ うしろ なか となり ちかく ue shita mae ushiro naka tonari chikaku wa item X person X は です。 desu Y no の item X person X is/are Y. on/above under/ beneath in front of behind inside next to near
  10. 10. Telling numbers of item/person X with counters. の に no ni あります/います number + counter が ga arimasu imasu There are three books on the desk. location word つくえのうえ に ほん が 3さつ あります。 Y X There are four students in front of the convenience store. コンビニのまえ に がくせい が よにん います。 no gani arimasu imasu san-satsuhontsukue ue no gani yo-ningakuseikonbini mae にん(nin) is used for the counter of people, however, there are two exceptions for one person and two people as ひとり(hitori) and ふたり(futari). * * - End -