101 4.1 create partitions and filesystems


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101 4.1 create partitions and filesystems

  1. 1. Junior Level Linux Certification
  2. 2. Exam Objectives Key Knowledge Areas ext2 ext3 xfs reiserfs v3 vfat Objective 4: Devices, Linux Filesystems, Filesystem Hierarchy Standard Create partitions and filesystems Weight: 2 Terms and Utilities fdisk mkfs mkswap 2
  3. 3. File Systems 3 FILE SYSTEM is the methods and data structures that an operating system uses to keep track of files on disk or partition or, the way the files are organized on disk Linux Filesystems can be created with the mkfs command. Cmd is a front end to several filesystem-specific commands (such as mkfs.ext3 for ext3 and mkfs.reiserfs for ReiserFS) To view what filesystem-specific support is installed on the system use: ls /sbin/mk* command. Linux Swapspaces are created with the mkswap command. Ex: yourname@yourcomp~> ls /sbin/mk* /sbin/mkdosfs /sbin/mkfs.ext2 /sbin/mkfs.ntfs /sbin/mke2fs /sbin/mkfs.ext3 /sbin/mkfs.vfat /sbin/mkfs /sbin/mkfs.ext4 /sbin/mkfs.xfs /sbin/mkfs.btrfs /sbin/mkfs.ext4dev /sbin/mkhomedir_helper /sbin/mkfs.cramfs /sbin/mkfs.msdos /sbin/mkswap Create partitions and filesystems
  4. 4. File Systems 4 Linux Swapspaces and Filesystems can be created with fdisk Ex: yourname@yourcomp~> fdisk -v fdisk (util-linux-ng 2.16) yourname@yourcomp~> sudo fdisk /dev/sdb [sudo] password for: The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 30401. There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024, and could in certain setups cause problems with: 1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO) 2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK) Command (m for help): p Disk /dev/sdb: 250.1 GB, 250059350016 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 30401 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes Disk identifier: 0x000404d6 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/sdb1 1 25 200781 83 Linux /dev/sdb2 26 12965 103940550 83 Linux /dev/sdb3 12966 30401 140054670 83 Linux Command (m for help): Create partitions and filesystems
  5. 5. Creating a swap space 5 swap space from other partition with mkswap Ex: yourname@yourcomp~> mkswap /dev/sda4 Setting up swapspace version 1, size = 4192960 KiB no label, UUID=8f5a3a05-73ef-4c78-bc56-0e9b1bcc7fdb mkswap doesnt check if file or partition isn't used. It can overwrite important files and partitions swap space is part of hard disk that is used as virtual memory Linux can use a normal file in filesystem or separate partition for swap space. used as a raw partition, and will not contain any filesystem. type 82 (Linux swap); Create partitions and filesystems
  6. 6. Creating a swap space 6 Ex: yourname@yourcomp~> dd if=/dev/zero of=/extra-swap bs=1024 count=1024 1024+0 records in 1024+0 records out /extra-swap is the name of the swap file and the size of is given after the count=. yourname@yourcomp~> mkswap /extra-swap 1024 Setting up swapspace, size = 1044480 bytes After created a swap file or swap partition, you need to write a signature to its beginning; contains administrative information used by kernel. command to do is mkswap Ex: the swap space is still not in use: it will exist, but the kernel does not use it to provide virtual memory. Create partitions and filesystems
  7. 7. Creating a swap space 7 initialized swap space is used with swapon. tells kernel that swap space can be used and path to swap space is given as argument Ex: yourname@yourcomp~> swapon /extra-swap to start swapping on temporary swap file use the following command: /dev/hda8 none swap sw 0 0 /swapfile none swap sw 0 0 startup scripts will run command swapon -a, which will start swapping on all the swap spaces listed in /etc/fstab Ex: Swap spaces can be used automatically by listing them in /etc/fstab file swap space can be removed with swapoff swap used automatically with swapon -a can be removed from with swapoff -a; it looks at /etc/fstab to find what to remove Create partitions and filesystems
  8. 8. Creating a swap space 8 monitor swap with free or top or in /proc/meminfo View enabled swap devices use swapon –s or with cat /proc/swaps yourname@yourcomp~> swapon –s Filename Type Size Used Priority /dev/sdb1 partition 514044 0 -1 /dev/sdb5 partition 4192928 0 -2 yourname@yourcomp~> cat /proc/swaps Filename Type Size Used Priority /dev/sdb1 partition 514044 0 -1 /dev/sdb5 partition 4192928 0 -2 Ex: Create partitions and filesystems
  9. 9. Creating an ext3 filesystem 9 Ex: yourname@yourcomp~> mkfs -t ext3 /dev/sda8 mke2fs 1.41.9 (22-Aug-2009) Filesystem label= OS type: Linux Block size=4096 (log=2) Fragment size=4096 (log=2) 2624496 inodes, 10488429 blocks 524421 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user First data block=0 Maximum filesystem blocks=4294967296 321 block groups 32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group 8176 inodes per group Superblock backups stored on blocks: 32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208, 4096000, 7962624 Writing inode tables: done Creating journal (32768 blocks): done Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done This filesystem will be automatically checked every 20 mounts or 180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override. • To add journal to an existing ext2, use tune2fs with -j option. • To display or set label for ext2 or ext3, use e2label. Labels limited to 16 characters. • To display UUID (Universally Unique Identifier) for the formatted partition, use blkid cmd Linux filesystems generate UUID when the filesystem is formatted - 128-bit identifier displayed as 32 hexadecimal digit and four hyphens Create partitions and filesystems
  10. 10. Other tools and filesystems 10 cfdisk tool (console based) Ex: Create partitions and filesystems
  11. 11. Other tools and filesystems 11 gpart partitioning tool Ex: Create partitions and filesystems
  12. 12. Linux file system 12 Linux filesystem contains files arranged on a block storage device in directories. Linux filesystem is a single tree with the / directory as its root directory. Ex: Create partitions and filesystems
  13. 13. File system Hierarchy Standard 13 Directories required in / by the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard Set of requirements and guidelines for file and directory placement under UNIX-like operating systems. Directory Description bin Essential command binaries boot Static files of the boot loader dev Device files etc Host-specific system configuration lib Essential shared libraries and kernel modules media Mount point for removable media mnt Mount point for mounting a filesystem temporarily opt Add-on application software packages sbin Essential system binaries srv Data for services provided by this system tmp Temporary files usr Secondary hierarchy var Variable data http://www.pathname.com/fhs/ Create partitions and filesystems
  14. 14. Filesystem Hierarchy Standard 14 Ex: Create partitions and filesystems
  15. 15. Linux file system 15 A simple description of UNIX system, applicable to Linux, is: "On a UNIX system, everything is a file; if something is not a file, it is a process.” • Regular files: Contain normal data. Ex. text files, executable files or progs, input for or output from a program. • Directories: Files that are lists of other files. • Special files: The mechanism used for input and output. Most special files are in /dev • Links: System to make a file or directory visible in multiple parts of the system's file tree. • Domain sockets: Special file type (similar to TCP/IP sockets) providing inter-process networking protected by the file system's access control. • Named pipes: More or less like sockets. Form a way for processes to communicate with each other, without using network socket semantics. Create partitions and filesystems
  16. 16. Linux file system 16 The -l option to ls cmd displays the file type, using the first character of each input line Good options are with -F and --color combined: Ex: yourname@yourcomp~> ls -l total 80 -rw-rw-r-- 1 jaime jaime 31744 Feb 21 17:56 intro Linux.doc -rw-rw-r-- 1 jaime jaime 41472 Feb 21 17:56 Linux.doc drwxrwxr-x 2 jaime jaime 4096 Feb 25 11:50 course File types in ls -long list Symbol Meaning •- Regular file •d Directory •l Link •c Special file •s Socket •p Named pipe •b Block device File types in ls –F suffixes to non-standard file name. For mono-color use and printing Character File type •nothing Regular file •/ Directory •* Executable file •@ Link •= Socket •| Named pipe View info coreutils ls Create partitions and filesystems
  17. 17. Fim de sessão 17