WCAG 2.0: Why can't we all just get along?


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WCAG 2.0 became a W3C Recommendation three years ago. Now various public administrations around the globe wanting to ensure the accessibility of their digital communications strategies and online presence, are preparing to adopt WCAG as their accessibility standard. However, history shows us that accessibility experts have raised countless heated debates on how to best implement these guidelines. If field experts cannot agree on the most effective interpretations, how can we expect regular Web project stakeholders, who are not accessibility specialists, to agree on a common understanding or interpretation? It is already hard enough for organizations to implement the various success criteria of WCAG 2.0 on a single website; how much more difficult does this become when the goal is to do so across every website an organization owns? How can an organization make their websites consistently accessible to people with disabilities and aging populations, when no one agrees on what must be done and how it should be done? But what if there was a way to build a common general understanding of the intentions behind these success criteria? Wouldn’t this help in implementing WCAG 2.0 more consistently? This training session will demonstrate how accessibility standards can be broken down into a series of requirements that ensure all stakeholders in a Web project, regardless of their level of expertise with the accessibility guidelines, come up with similar interpretations and more importantly, implementations so everyone manages to get along when the time comes to understand and implement WCAG 2.0.

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WCAG 2.0: Why can't we all just get along?

  1. 1. Development Track – AccessU 2012WCAG 2.0Why can’t we all just get along? LOUIS ARMSTRONG “You say WooCAG and I say WayCAG, You say Area and I say AH-ria, WooCAG, WayCAG, Area, AH-ria, Lets call the whole thing off!”John  Sla)n  AccessU  2012  Denis  Boudreau,  AccessibilitéWeb    Aus8n  –  May  15th,  2012Brought  to  you  by  
  2. 2. 2012. Some Rights Reserved.  BY  -­‐  AAribu8on    NC  -­‐  NonCommercial    SA  -­‐  ShareAlike  2.5  Canada  Brought  to  you  by   /  2  
  3. 3. Trainer Denis  Boudreau      Over  11  years  in  Web  Accessibility      President,  AccessibilitéWeb        Co-­‐editor,  SGQRI  008  standards      Invited  Expert,  W3C    Brought  to  you  by   /  3  
  4. 4. SummaryGeneral overview1.  Implementa8on  challenges  2.  Deep  within  the  WCAG  2.0  specs  3.  Shedding  light  into  WCAG  2.0  4.  PuWng  it  all  together  Brought  to  you  by   /  4  
  5. 5. But before we begin...Come pick the tag(s) that fit you mostWhat  best  describes  the  work  you  do?  Brought  to  you  by   /  5  
  6. 6. Brought  to  you  by   Implementation challenges /  6  
  7. 7. Implementation challengesAccessibility becomes a serious businessAccessibility  audi)ng  is  not  a  game  anymore  •  Accessibility  audits  used  to  be  without  consequences  •  This  is  all  changing  with  legal  requirements  &  law  suits   •  Compliance  becomes  an  increasingly  sensi8ve  issue   •  People  now  expect  measurable  and  objec8ve  results  •  While  compliance  is  objec8ve,  accessibility  is  not   •  So  when  has  an  organiza8on  made  “enough”  efforts?  Brought  to  you  by   /  7  
  8. 8. Implementation challengesDifficulties of implementing requirementsWhat  makes  WCAG  2  great  also  makes  it  flawed  •  Being  technology  agnos8c  is  awesome  •  Great  for  sustainability  but  comes  with  drawbacks   •  A  certain  vagueness  in  success  criteria  formula8on   •  Leaves  room  for  various  uneducated  interpreta8ons   •  Opens  the  door  to  lots  of  uneven  implementa8ons   •  Indirectly  contributes  to  making  accessibility  hard  Brought  to  you  by   /  8  
  9. 9. Implementation challengesDifficulties of implementing requirementsWCAG  2,  a  double-­‐edged  sword?  •  The  vagueness  is  clarified  in  the  techniques  &  failures  •  LiAerally,  thousands  of  pages  to  go  through  •  But  those  are  only  informa8ve  (therefore,  not  required)   •  Not  everyone  reads  them  (most  don’t  take  the  8me)   •  We  are  all  welcomed  to  cherry  pick  what  we  like   •  Or  maybe  even  come  up  with  new  techniques  Brought  to  you  by   /  9  
  10. 10. Implementation challengesDifficulties of implementing requirementsThe  Canadian  government  approach  •  Turn  W3C  recommenda8ons  into  formal  requirements   •  Make  WCAG  2.0  level  AA  a  mandatory  standard   •  Providing  measurable  means  to  achieve  compliance   •  Applying  at  least  one  technique  per  success  criteria   •  Generally  trying  to  avoid  the  common  failures   •  Indirectly  gran8ng  those  techniques  norma8ve  status  This  creates  obvious  problems  in  most  organiza)ons  Brought  to  you  by   /  10  
  11. 11. Implementation challengesThe perfect example... 1.3.1  Info  and  Rela)onships   Informa8on,  structure,  and  rela8onships   conveyed  through  presenta8on  can  be   programma8cally  determined  or  are   available  in  text.  (Level  A)     What  the  hell  does  this  mean?   When  is  such  a  success  criteria  “sufficiently  met”?  Brought  to  you  by   /  11  
  12. 12. Implementation challengesLet’s take the AccessU website...Brought  to  you  by   /  12  
  13. 13. Implementation challenges1.3.1 Info and RelationshipsSome  of  the  things  to  consider...   Categories   Details   Seman8cs   Use  seman8c  elements  to  markup  structure,  text  and  color  cues   Headings   Organize  pages  using  h1-­‐h6  headings   Tables   Use  seman8c  elements  to  markup  data  tables,  use  data  table  elements  and   aAributes  (summary,  cap8on,  th,  thead,  tbody,  id,  headers,  etc.)     Forms   Associate  labels  and  form  controls,  use  8tle  aAributes,  provide  a  descrip8on  for   groups  using  fieldset  and  legend,  use  optgroup  to  group  op8on  elements  inside  a   select.     Lists   Use  ol,  ul  and  dl  for  lists  or  groups  of  links.     Presenta8on   Use  text  to  convey  info  conveyed  by  varia8ons  in  presenta8on  of  text,  use  CSS  to   control  visual  presenta8on,  separate  informa8on  and  structure  from  presenta8on.    Brought  to  you  by   /  13  
  14. 14. Implementation challengesThe perfect example... Experience  has  shown  us  that  for     25  people  in  a  room,  we  will  get     about  25  different  answers...  Brought  to  you  by   /  14  
  15. 15. Implementation challengesDifficulties of implementing requirementsThe  Quebec  government  approach  •  Refute  WCAG  2.0  because  of  its  vagueness   •  Make  WCAG  2.0  level  AA  a  mandatory  standard   •  Iden8fy  techniques  and  turn  them  into  requirements   •  Breaking  down  each  SC  into  measurable  goals   •  Crea8ng  another  standard  altogether  in  the  process  This  creates  obvious  problems  for  web  accessibility  Brought  to  you  by   /  15  
  16. 16. Implementation challengesGoing down the fragmentation path Many  public  administra)ons  decide     to  rewrite  accessibility  standards.     Though  perfectly  understandable  and     in  some  cases,  even  produc)ve,     this  is  bad  news  for  the  Web.  Brought  to  you  by   /  16  
  17. 17. Implementation challengesThe value of standards harmonizationHow  standards  fragmenta)on  hurts  the  web  •  Slows  down  poten8al  progress  towards  increasing  a11y  •  Govt  must  spend  more  resources  on  alternate  versions  •  Mainstream  authoring  tools  lack  accessibility  support  •  Products  developed  locally  can’t  compete  globally  •  Organiza8ons  must  track  &  support  differing  standards  These  are  all  very  true  in  the  Quebec  province  today  Brought  to  you  by   /  17  
  18. 18. Implementation challengesThe value of standards harmonizationHow  standards  harmoniza)on  actually  helps  •  All  benefit  from  years  of  interna8onal  collabora8on  •  Govts  save  funding  by  using  W3C/WAI  resources  •  Sonware  developers  benefit  from  economies  of  scale  •  Web  developers  can  more  easily  produce  content  •  Govts  can  take  advantage  of  collabora8ve  resources  But  that  doesn’t  mean  things  can’t  be  improved  Brought  to  you  by   /  18  
  19. 19. Implementation challengesEducation & Outreach Working Group Standards  harmoniza)on   •  Explains  key  role  of  harmoniza8on   •  Promotes  adop8on  of  a  consistent      set  of  interna8onal  standards   •  Currently  being  updated   •  Available  at  -­‐  hAp://is.gd/szEDLJ  Brought  to  you  by   /  19  
  20. 20. Implementation challengesFilling a gap in WCAG 2.0Improving  on  what’s  already  out  there  •  S8ll,  the  Quebec  accessibility  standards  have  values   •  Fixing  success  criteria  general  vagueness   •  Providing  the  developers  with  clear  guidance   •  Reaching  out  to  already  exis8ng  documents   •  Crea8ng  a  “filter”  to  apply  WCAG  2.0  consistently   •  Promo8ng  harmoniza8on  through  fragmenta8on?!  Brought  to  you  by   /  20  
  21. 21. Implementation challengesEstablishing common groundsComing  to  an  agreement  for  accessibility  •  Consistency  is  crucial  for  overall  coherence  •  Even  more  so  when  an  organiza8on  has  many  websites  •  Unless  a  lot  of  effort  is  devoted:   •  Developers  hardly  have  access  to  detailed  specs   •  Sharing  a  common  understanding  is  a  real  challenge   •  Results  are  uneven  and  global  coherence  suffers  Brought  to  you  by   /  21  
  22. 22. Implementation challengesEstablishing common grounds End  results  are  always  the  same.     Ask  any  website  owner  out  there.  Brought  to  you  by   /  22  
  23. 23. WAI-Engage WikiRole-based accessibility Thus  came  ARB*   (a11y  responsibility  breakdown)   •  Looking  at  WCAG  2.0  SC  by  roles   •  Get  involved  in  the  community:          comment,  contribute,  use   •  Make  this  your  own  and  bring  it      into  your  organiza8on!   •  Available  at  -­‐  hAp://is.gd/5CoJd4  Brought  to  you  by   /  23  
  24. 24. Brought  to  you  by   Deep within WCAG 2.0 /  24  
  25. 25. Deep within WCAG 2.0WCAG 2.0 documents overview Resource   The  WCAG  2.0   Documents   hAp:// www.w3.org/WAI/ intro/wcag20  Brought  to  you  by   /  25  
  26. 26. Deep within WCAG 2.0The accessibility guidelines Resource   WCAG  2.0  -­‐  Web   Content  Accessibility   Guidelines   hAp://www.w3.org/TR/ WCAG/  Brought  to  you  by   /  26  
  27. 27. Deep within WCAG 2.0The WCAG 2.0 mindmap Resource   The  WCAG  2.0  Map:     A  (totally  awesome)   visual  guide  to   understanding  web   accessibility   hAp:// www.stamfordinterac 8ve.com.au/the-­‐ wcag-­‐2-­‐0-­‐map/  Brought  to  you  by   /  27  
  28. 28. Deep within WCAG 2.0The WCAG 2.0 documents Resource   Resource   Resource   How  to  Meet  WCAG  2.0   Understanding  WCAG  2.0   Techniques  and   hAp://www.w3.org/ hAp://www.w3.org/TR/ Failures  for  WCAG  2.0   WAI/WCAG20/quickref/   UNDERSTANDING-­‐ hAp://www.w3.org/ WCAG20/   TR/WCAG-­‐TECHS/  Brought  to  you  by   /  28  
  29. 29. Brought  to  you  by   Shedding light into WCAG 2.0 /  29  
  30. 30. Shedding light into WCAG 2Nuts and bolts of web accessibility1st  exercise  –  working  with  SC  1.1.1  •  Organize  in  groups  of  two  to  three  people  •  In  10  minutes:   •  Iden8fy  someone  responsible  for  taking  notes   •  Find  as  many  related  best  prac8ces  as  you  can   •  Try  to  find  related  poten8al  accessibility  problems   •  We’ll  then  share  findings  with  the  rest  of  the  group  Brought  to  you  by   /  30  
  31. 31. Shedding light into WCAG 2WCAG 2.0 AccessU ShortList Laying  founda)ons  for  a  WCAG  2.0  Filter   •  Non-­‐Text  Content  (SC  1.1.1)   •  Info  and  Rela8onships  (SC  1.3.1)   •  Meaningful  Sequence  (SC  1.3.2)   •  Use  of  Color  (SC  1.4.1)   •  Contrast  -­‐  Minimum  (SC  1.4.3)   •  Keyboard  (SC  2.1.1)   •  Focus  Order  (SC  2.4.3)   •  Link  Purpose  -­‐  In  Context  (SC  2.4.4)   •  Available  at  -­‐  hAp://is.gd/gsmr2P  Brought  to  you  by   /  31  
  32. 32. Shedding light into WCAG 2Nuts and bolts of web accessibility2nd  exercise  –  working  with  other  SC  •  Organize  in  groups  of  four  to  five  people  •  In  10  minutes  (per  assigned  SC):   •  Iden8fy  someone  responsible  for  taking  notes   •  Find  as  many  related  best  prac8ces  as  you  can   •  Try  to  find  related  poten8al  accessibility  problems   •  We’ll  then  share  findings  with  the  rest  of  the  group  Brought  to  you  by   /  32  
  33. 33. Brought  to  you  by   Putting it all together /  33  
  34. 34. Putting it all togetherAdopting an assessment methodThree-­‐step  accessibility  evalua)on  1.  Tes8ng  the  web  page  with  a  screen  reader  2.  Using  an  automa8c  checker  for  basic  problems  3.  Running  manual  tes8ng  to  complete  the  audit   And  write  recommenda)ons  people  can  use!!!  Brought  to  you  by   /  34  
  35. 35. Putting it all together1st - Using NVDA to Evaluate Web Accessibility Resource   Using  NVDA  to   Evaluate  Web   Accessibility   hAp://webaim.org/ ar8cles/nvda/  Brought  to  you  by   /  35  
  36. 36. Putting it all together2nd - Web accessibility checker Resource   Web  Accessibility   Checker   hAp://achecker.ca/ checker/  Brought  to  you  by   /  36  
  37. 37. Putting it all together3rd - Roger Hudson’s WCAG 2.0 checklist Resource   WCAG  2.0  Checklist   hAp:// www.usability.com.au /resources/ wcag2checklist.cfm  Brought  to  you  by   /  37  
  38. 38. Putting it all togetherEasy to use tools to get the job doneMozilla  Firefox   Microso^  Internet  Explorer•  Web  Developer  Toolbar   •  Web  Accessibility  Toolbar  •  Accessibility  Evaluator  •  Juicy  Studio  a11y  Toolbar   Other  useful  tools  •  FireBug   •  Color  Contrast  Analyzer  •  HeadingsMap   •  FireEyes  Extension  •  NoSquint  •  WAI-­‐ARIA  Landmarks  •  Fangs    Brought  to  you  by   /  38  
  39. 39. Thank You!Denis  Boudreau,  President  Coopéra)ve  AccessibilitéWeb  1751  Richardson  street,  suite  6111  Montreal  (Quebec),  Canada  H3K  1G6  Toll  Free:  +1  (877)  315-­‐5550  Email:  db@csaw.ca  Web:  www.accessibiliteweb.com  TwiAer  :  @AccessibiliteWb  /  @dboudreau  Brought  to  you  by   /  39