Properties Module


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  • Properties module - Title Page
  • Optional Research Question: Visit the British Museum Website and find out why nanotechnologists are interested in the Lycurgus cup.
  • Lots of clips of ferrofluid in action on U tube eg
  • Lots of clips of Nitinol on U tube eg
  • Photo: Mike Walker,
  • End title
  • Properties Module

    1. 1. Properties
    2. 2. Module Outcomes <ul><li>Have an understanding of bulk properties (classical effects) </li></ul><ul><li>Have an awareness of how properties change at the nanoscale (quantum effects) </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the properties of nanoparticles to their bulk properties </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the link between surface area, size of particles and reactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that many materials acquire new and better properties at the nanoscale and this is leading to an influx of nanotechnology products/ procedures. </li></ul>
    3. 3. What If? <ul><li>… you could do something new with an old material? </li></ul>Image: Courtesy K. Alford Bridge8 <ul><li>Gold? </li></ul><ul><li>Magnets? </li></ul><ul><li>Wire? </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon? </li></ul><ul><li>Light source? </li></ul><ul><li>Glass? </li></ul>
    4. 4. Gold  Gold Nanoparticles <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Clumps of gold molecules forming nano-sized particles </li></ul><ul><li>Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Different colours depending size </li></ul><ul><li>Semiconductors </li></ul><ul><li>More reactive. </li></ul>Image: Schatz Group, Northwestern University <ul><li>Different sized nanoparticles </li></ul><ul><li>Same material (gold atoms) </li></ul><ul><li>Different Optical properties - colours </li></ul>
    5. 5. Gold Nanoparticles <ul><li>Current </li></ul><ul><li>Gold nanoparticles are found in products like paint, inkjet paper, textiles, and cosmetics </li></ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul><ul><li>For sensitive diagnostic tests and novel treatments such as in the detection of Alzheimer's disease </li></ul><ul><li>Nanobullets that heat up and kill cancer cells </li></ul><ul><li>In computing/electronics/printing data storage, where gold nanoparticles can be used to increase the speed at which data can be written </li></ul><ul><li>Nanogold conductive inks. </li></ul>Applications
    6. 6. Magnets  Ferrofluids <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Ferrofluids are composed of nanoscale ferromagnetic particles suspended in a carrier fluid, usually an organic solvent or water </li></ul><ul><li>Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Sticks to magnets </li></ul><ul><li>Takes on 3-Dimensional shape of a magnetic field </li></ul><ul><li>Changes density in proportion to </li></ul><ul><li>magnetic field strength. </li></ul>Image: S. Kodama & M. Takeno @ Ars Electronica <ul><li>Different sized nanoparticles </li></ul><ul><li>Same material (compound haematite) </li></ul><ul><li>New properties (liquid magnet) respond to environment </li></ul>
    7. 7. Ferrofluids <ul><li>Current </li></ul><ul><li>Damping speakers, graphic plotters instrument gauges. </li></ul><ul><li>Inks and money </li></ul><ul><li>Seals- gas lasers, motors, blowers, hard drives </li></ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul><ul><li>Biomedical through attaching drugs to magnetic particles </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed artificial heart </li></ul><ul><li>Retinal repair in place of eye surgery. </li></ul>Applications Image: S. Kodama & M. Takeno @ Ars Electronica
    8. 8. Wire  Shape Memory Alloys <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Shape memory alloys are alloys that have different metallic structures at different temperature </li></ul><ul><li>They can be made to return to a previous shape via phase transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Shape memory alloys have similar properties to human hair and human tendons </li></ul><ul><li>Can be set to return to an original ‘remembered’ shape . </li></ul>Image: Courtesy Bridge8/Flinders University <ul><li>Same material (alloy of Ni and Ti) </li></ul><ul><li>Special crystal structure </li></ul><ul><li>New properties mean response to a change in temperature </li></ul>
    9. 9. Shape Memory Alloys <ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Orthodontics </li></ul><ul><li>Heart surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Robotics </li></ul><ul><li>Textiles </li></ul><ul><li>Creative artwork. </li></ul>Image: Courtesy Bridge8/Flinders University
    10. 10. Carbon  Carbon Nanotubes <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>A web of carbon atoms formed into a tube shape </li></ul><ul><li>Can be single walled or multi-walled </li></ul><ul><li>Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced conductivity </li></ul><ul><li>Very good thermal conductors, important for electronic nano circuits. </li></ul>Image: Schwarzm, Wikipedia <ul><li>Same element (carbon) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon atoms are arranged in a special way </li></ul><ul><li>New enhanced properties, now 1000x stronger than steel </li></ul>
    11. 11. Carbon Nanotubes <ul><li>Current </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme strength allows many applications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sporting equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic nano-circuits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul><ul><li>Tear resistant clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible computer displays </li></ul><ul><li>Space elevator </li></ul><ul><li>Combat armor. </li></ul>Applications Image: Schwarzm, Wikipedia
    12. 12. Light Source  Quantum Dots <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>A nano-scale crystalline structure made from cadmium selenide </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbs white light and then reemits it a couple of nanoseconds later in a specific color </li></ul><ul><li>Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Semiconductors </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum dots are so small that adding or removing an electron can change the properties </li></ul><ul><li>The size of the quantum dot can change the colour emitted. </li></ul>Image: Dr. D. Talapin, University of Hamburg <ul><li>Same material (compound) </li></ul><ul><li>Different sized nanoparticles </li></ul><ul><li>Different optical properties-different colours </li></ul>
    13. 13. Quantum Dots <ul><li>Current </li></ul><ul><li>Medical markers </li></ul><ul><li>Data storage </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum dots can be used to light up cancer cells. </li></ul>Applications Image: Gao et al (2004). Nat Biotechnol , 22:969-976, Dr. D. Talapin, University of Hamburg
    14. 14. Glass  Aerogel <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Aerogels resemble gels, but composed of mostly air rather than liquid (also called nanofoams or frozen smoke) </li></ul><ul><li>Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Semi transparent </li></ul><ul><li>Low acoustic conductivity </li></ul><ul><li>Low density </li></ul><ul><li>Brittle. </li></ul>Image: John Barrie @ flickr <ul><li>Same material (silica) </li></ul><ul><li>Nanostructured </li></ul><ul><li>Different properties - insulator </li></ul>
    15. 15. Aerogel <ul><li>Excellent insulator (can withstand more than 500 o C). </li></ul>Applications Image: John Barrie @ flickr Watch video-
    16. 16. Activity 1 Bulk Properties Of Elements <ul><li>What do we know about bulk properties of elements? </li></ul>Image: Nature blog, courtesy Emily Unell
    17. 17. Experiment 1 Teacher Demonstration <ul><li>Same material–different behaviour! </li></ul>Image: By Mike Walker on <ul><li>What happens when you burn a nail in the hot part of a Bunsen flame? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens when you burn steel wool with a match or any flame? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you explain why the same material behaves differently? </li></ul>
    18. 18. Activity 2 Surface Area Of Cubes <ul><li>Does the surface area of a cube change if you divide it into smaller cubes? </li></ul>Image: Booyabazooka, Wikimedia
    19. 19. Properties Change At The Nanoscale <ul><li>If the cube is continually cut, the surface area will increase but the volume does not change </li></ul><ul><li>This is significant in nanoscience - nanoparticles acquire new chemical or physical properties </li></ul><ul><li>You will now do three experiments to illustrate how properties change at the nanoscale. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Experiment 2 Surface Area <ul><li>Properties change at the nanoscale. </li></ul>How does the surface area affect the rate of change? Image: Maria Kaloudi @ stock.xchng, Jade Gordon @ stock.xchng
    21. 21. Experiment 3 Making Gold Nanoparticles <ul><li>Properties change at the nanoscale. </li></ul>Image: Courtesy Bridge8/Flinders University
    22. 22. Experiment 4 Making Ferrofluid <ul><li>Properties change at the nanoscale. </li></ul>Image: S. Kodama & M. Takeno @ Ars Electronica
    23. 23. What Happens To Bulk Properties At The Nanoscale? <ul><li>At the nanoscale materials acquire special/new properties </li></ul><ul><li>Two different sized nanoparticles of the same material may have different properties. </li></ul>
    24. 24. What Happens To Bulk Properties At The Nanoscale? <ul><li>Smaller particles acquire new chemical or physical properties </li></ul><ul><li>Some properties of nanoparticles are due to surface area </li></ul><ul><li>Small particles have a larger percentage of atoms on the surface </li></ul><ul><li>Small particles have a high surface to volume ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Finer sugar grains have a vastly larger surface area than larger chunks </li></ul><ul><li>The larger the exposed surface, the faster the dissolution (or reaction rate) because the solvent has greater access to the solute. </li></ul>Discussion of Experiment 2 Image: Mipan @ stock.xchng
    25. 25. What Happens To Bulk Properties At The Nanoscale? Discussion of Experiment 3 Gold acquires new properties at the nanoscale. Images: © Dorling Kindersly
    26. 26. What Happens To Bulk Properties At The Nanoscale? Discussion of Experiment 4 Nano-sized particles allow for a magnet in liquid phase rather than solid. Images L to R: Courtesy Bridge8/Flinders University
    27. 27. Definitions So what is nanoscience? Nanoscience is the study of phenomena and manipulation of materials at the atomic, molecular and macromolecular scales where properties differ significantly from those at a larger scale. So what is nanotechnology? Nanotechnology is the design, characterisation, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at the nanometre scale. Definition from Royal Society and Royal Academy for Engineering 2004
    28. 28. Revision <ul><li>List 5 bulk properties of metals. </li></ul><ul><li>Why are properties of material at the nanoscale important in nanotechnology? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does steel wool burn producing a flame, while a steel nail remain red hot </li></ul><ul><li>Draw up a table and compare the bulk and nanoscale properties of </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gold </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shape Memory Alloy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ferrofluids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Nanotubes. </li></ul></ul></ul>