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U.S. General Services Administration 
Role-Based Accessibility in 
Government: 
Everyone’s Responsibility 
#RoleBasedA11y ...
Hi! I’m Angela, your 
accessibility consultant. 
2
You don’t need me … 
3
You don’t need me … as 
much as you think. 
4
We accessibility consultants 
are tasked with all the work 
to make sure projects are 
accessible. 
5
Often, people think we only 
use a checklist, after a 
project is fully developed, 
to test for accessibility. 
6
We’ve treated accessibility as 
an issue only relevant to 
development. 
7
Or, sometimes people think 
that if we “test with JAWS” 
… 
8
Or, some think if I run a 
project through WAVE, or 
the Web Accessibility 
Toolbar, or FireEyes, or 
aChecker, or … 
9
But … 
10
But … it’s not working. 
11
One person can’t do it all … 
12
One person can’t do it all … 
you need an accessibility 
team … 
13
One person can’t do it all … 
you need an accessibility 
team … that you already 
have. 
14
The key is your current staff 
can work together to create 
accessible projects. 
15
It doesn’t matter if you’re … 
in upper management. 
16
It doesn’t matter if you’re … 
a developer. 
17
It doesn’t matter if you’re … 
a project manager. 
18
It doesn’t matter if you’re … 
a usability specialist. 
19
It doesn’t matter if you’re … 
an accessibility specialist. 
20
If we’re to produce accessible 
projects … 
21
We must change our 
process! 
22
We must change our 
process! But, how? 
23
… by using “P-O-U-R” 
principles from the Web 
Content Accessibility 
Guidelines (WCAG 2.0) 
24
What is POUR? 
WCAG 2.0 
principles 
of 
accessibility: 
Perceivable 
Operable 
Understandable 
Robust 
25
Accessibility responsibilities 
• Accessibility Responsibility Breakdown 
• Based on WCAG 2.0 
• Canadian 
Government 
• C...
Accessibility responsibilities 
• Project management 
• Analysis 
• Information architecture 
• Interaction design 
• Grap...
Accessibility responsibilities 
• Development 
• Quality assurance—testing 
• Upper management 
28
Tasks 
29
Project management 
• Integrate and plan accessibility 
• Oversee tasks and responsibilities 
• Choose technical and funct...
Project management 
• Responsibilities from WCAG 2.0 
–Overseer: all guidelines 
–Successful results 
–Degree of accessibi...
Analysis 
• Analysis of platforms, interfaces, 
etc. 
• Solve problems/consider user 
interaction and behaviors 
–Prevent ...
Information architecture 
• Structure of pages and content 
–Relationships among info types 
–Page titles 
–How to navigat...
Interaction design 
• Scripting, content changes, 
interactivity: 
–Design conveys content relationships— 
headings, spaci...
Graphic design 
• The overall look and feel of every 
interface—including navigation, 
content 
– Consistent behavior thro...
Prototyping 
• Building HTML and CSS templates 
–Separation of style from content 
–Page language 
–Alt text for all non-t...
Content/editing 
• Authoring the site’s written 
content, alternative text, and other 
content 
–Content structure 
–Plain...
Development 
• Integrating HTML and CSS; 
programming scripts and 
applications 
–Building from the prototype 
–Progressiv...
Quality assurance 
• Verifying that the team followed 
the guidelines properly 
–Test with accessibility tools 
–Manual re...
Quality assurance 
• Checklists versus usability and 
access: 
–Use a checklist when testing, so you 
don’t forget anythin...
Upper management: You set 
the tone in your 
organization. 
41
Upper management’s role 
• Support accessibility 
• Require accessibility 
• Encourage teamwork 
• Make your environment c...
What about vendors? 
43
Projects by vendors 
• Make sure your contract requires 
accessible products built to your 
specifications and subject to ...
Pitfalls to avoid and 
lessons to learn 
45
It doesn’t work 
• Not training team members in 
accessibility 
• Having the accessibility champ do all 
the testing at ev...
It doesn’t work 
• Focusing only on “checklist accessibility” 
rather than “functional accessibility” 
• Allowing the acce...
Cooperating with your 
colleagues 
48
You and your colleagues 
• What can you do to bridge the gap 
between people, departments, and 
philosophies? 
–Sometimes ...
You and your colleagues 
–Stand against any existing “us versus 
them” vibe 
–Create a “no shame; no blame” 
atmosphere 
–...
You and your colleagues 
• Negotiate with your team and 
management 
–Come armed with research, statistics, 
analytics—wha...
You and your colleagues 
• You know these principles, but we 
assume management does, too— 
they might not 
–Save time: It...
You and your colleagues 
–It’s the law 
–It’s the right thing 
–You might need it 
53
Final words 
54
In a nutshell … 
• Start small 
• One person may have many roles 
• Adapt this process to your organization 
and its cultu...
Resources 
56
P-O-U-R 
• WCAG 2.0 Principles of Accessibility 
, World Wide Web Consortium 
• Constructing a POUR Website, 
WebAIM 
57
Project management 
• Integrating Accessibility in the Organization’s , Denis Boudreau 
• Accessibility for Project Manage...
Project management 
• Planning Accessibility, Government of 
Canada 
• Just Ask: Integrating Accessibility Throughout , Sh...
Writing content 
• Accessibility for Web Writers, 4 
Syllables 
• Content and Usability: Web Writing 
, WebCredible 
• Cle...
Design 
• Web Accessibility for Designers, 
WebAIM 
• Just Ask: Integrating Accessibility Throughout , Shawn Lawton Henry ...
Design 
• Color Contrast Checker, WebAIM 
• Accessibility Color Wheel 
• Vischeck Color Contrast Photoshop Plug-• Trace Ph...
Prototyping/development 
• Build a library of accessible code! 
• Use code generators (see the 
tools at Accessify) 
• W3C...
Prototyping/development 
• Accessibility testing tools 
–Juicy Studio Accessibility Toolbar 
(Firefox)—reviews ARIA, data ...
Quality assurance 
• Accessibility Evaluation Resources, 
W3C-Web Accessibility Initiative 
• Evaluation, Testing, and Too...
Quality assurance 
• Favelets for Checking Web 
Accessibility, Jim Thatcher 
• Trace Photosensitive Epilepsy 
Analysis Too...
Quality assurance 
• Central Office of Information, 
Delivering Inclusive Websites 
• Establishing a Screen Reader Test 
P...
Thank you! 
Angela Hooker 
angela.hooker@gsa.gov 
@AccessForAll 
68
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Role-Based Accessibility in Government

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Role-Based Accessibility in Government

  1. 1. U.S. General Services Administration Role-Based Accessibility in Government: Everyone’s Responsibility #RoleBasedA11y Angela M. Hooker DigitalGov University, November 2012
  2. 2. Hi! I’m Angela, your accessibility consultant. 2
  3. 3. You don’t need me … 3
  4. 4. You don’t need me … as much as you think. 4
  5. 5. We accessibility consultants are tasked with all the work to make sure projects are accessible. 5
  6. 6. Often, people think we only use a checklist, after a project is fully developed, to test for accessibility. 6
  7. 7. We’ve treated accessibility as an issue only relevant to development. 7
  8. 8. Or, sometimes people think that if we “test with JAWS” … 8
  9. 9. Or, some think if I run a project through WAVE, or the Web Accessibility Toolbar, or FireEyes, or aChecker, or … 9
  10. 10. But … 10
  11. 11. But … it’s not working. 11
  12. 12. One person can’t do it all … 12
  13. 13. One person can’t do it all … you need an accessibility team … 13
  14. 14. One person can’t do it all … you need an accessibility team … that you already have. 14
  15. 15. The key is your current staff can work together to create accessible projects. 15
  16. 16. It doesn’t matter if you’re … in upper management. 16
  17. 17. It doesn’t matter if you’re … a developer. 17
  18. 18. It doesn’t matter if you’re … a project manager. 18
  19. 19. It doesn’t matter if you’re … a usability specialist. 19
  20. 20. It doesn’t matter if you’re … an accessibility specialist. 20
  21. 21. If we’re to produce accessible projects … 21
  22. 22. We must change our process! 22
  23. 23. We must change our process! But, how? 23
  24. 24. … by using “P-O-U-R” principles from the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG 2.0) 24
  25. 25. What is POUR? WCAG 2.0 principles of accessibility: Perceivable Operable Understandable Robust 25
  26. 26. Accessibility responsibilities • Accessibility Responsibility Breakdown • Based on WCAG 2.0 • Canadian Government • Coopérative AccessibilitéWeb 26
  27. 27. Accessibility responsibilities • Project management • Analysis • Information architecture • Interaction design • Graphic design, including mockups • Prototype • Editing (content development) 27
  28. 28. Accessibility responsibilities • Development • Quality assurance—testing • Upper management 28
  29. 29. Tasks 29
  30. 30. Project management • Integrate and plan accessibility • Oversee tasks and responsibilities • Choose technical and functional criteria • Distinguish between accessibility and conformance with the law/guidelines • Know the limitations of the tools • Assess technology platforms’ impact 30
  31. 31. Project management • Responsibilities from WCAG 2.0 –Overseer: all guidelines –Successful results –Degree of accessibility –Documentation 31
  32. 32. Analysis • Analysis of platforms, interfaces, etc. • Solve problems/consider user interaction and behaviors –Prevent errors –Determine what happens upon error –When items receive focus/context –Timing, re-authentication –Contextual help 32
  33. 33. Information architecture • Structure of pages and content –Relationships among info types –Page titles –How to navigate to each page –Headings and labels (including forms) 33
  34. 34. Interaction design • Scripting, content changes, interactivity: –Design conveys content relationships— headings, spacing, lists –Content is perceivable without regard to location, size, shape, color –Keyboard navigation –Flashing content—3 times per second –Minimize errors 34
  35. 35. Graphic design • The overall look and feel of every interface—including navigation, content – Consistent behavior throughout – Logical design/reading order – Color contrast – Real text instead of graphics of text – Font size 35
  36. 36. Prototyping • Building HTML and CSS templates –Separation of style from content –Page language –Alt text for all non-text items –Pages parse properly (compatibility) –Keyboard navigation 36
  37. 37. Content/editing • Authoring the site’s written content, alternative text, and other content –Content structure –Plain language –Consistent behavior –Prevent errors/error text –Captions and audio descriptions 37
  38. 38. Development • Integrating HTML and CSS; programming scripts and applications –Building from the prototype –Progressive enhancement/behavior –Captioning multimedia –Widgets –APIs 38
  39. 39. Quality assurance • Verifying that the team followed the guidelines properly –Test with accessibility tools –Manual review/read code –Test with assistive technologies –Review content for readability 39
  40. 40. Quality assurance • Checklists versus usability and access: –Use a checklist when testing, so you don’t forget anything –You can satisfy every requirements and still have accessibility problems –Don’t lose sight of your users’ ability to access your info and complete tasks 40
  41. 41. Upper management: You set the tone in your organization. 41
  42. 42. Upper management’s role • Support accessibility • Require accessibility • Encourage teamwork • Make your environment conducive to teamwork • Trust your team—let them do their jobs and empower them 42
  43. 43. What about vendors? 43
  44. 44. Projects by vendors • Make sure your contract requires accessible products built to your specifications and subject to your interpretation of accessibility • Ask to see their process for building in accessibility, and require documentation for your project • Schedule checkpoints where you verify their work 44
  45. 45. Pitfalls to avoid and lessons to learn 45
  46. 46. It doesn’t work • Not training team members in accessibility • Having the accessibility champ do all the testing at every interval • Putting the work before relationships • Forgetting that guidelines overlap • Not involving upper management • Thinking the process won’t evolve 46
  47. 47. It doesn’t work • Focusing only on “checklist accessibility” rather than “functional accessibility” • Allowing the accessibility program to be personality driven—it must outlive you and me 47
  48. 48. Cooperating with your colleagues 48
  49. 49. You and your colleagues • What can you do to bridge the gap between people, departments, and philosophies? –Sometimes an accessibility consultant has to be a counselor, evangelist, educator, and/or a maverick (among other roles) –Make sure you’re not being a nag 49
  50. 50. You and your colleagues –Stand against any existing “us versus them” vibe –Create a “no shame; no blame” atmosphere –Take every opportunity to educate your colleagues 50
  51. 51. You and your colleagues • Negotiate with your team and management –Come armed with research, statistics, analytics—whatever they’ll respond to –Think of it as finding the best outcome for users—it’s not about winning –Be forthright, but be careful –See Carol Smith’s “ Empower Yourself: Negotiate for the User ” 51
  52. 52. You and your colleagues • You know these principles, but we assume management does, too— they might not –Save time: It takes time to implement accessibility, but it’s faster than remediating –Save money: It takes money to implement accessibility, but it’s cheaper than remediating 52
  53. 53. You and your colleagues –It’s the law –It’s the right thing –You might need it 53
  54. 54. Final words 54
  55. 55. In a nutshell … • Start small • One person may have many roles • Adapt this process to your organization and its culture—keep it evolving • Build rapport within and among teams— talk • Negotiate—don’t be afraid • It’s about what’s best for users 55
  56. 56. Resources 56
  57. 57. P-O-U-R • WCAG 2.0 Principles of Accessibility , World Wide Web Consortium • Constructing a POUR Website, WebAIM 57
  58. 58. Project management • Integrating Accessibility in the Organization’s , Denis Boudreau • Accessibility for Project Managers, Henny Swan • Managing Accessibility Compliance in the Enterprise , Karl Groves • Plan for Accessibility, Option Keys 58
  59. 59. Project management • Planning Accessibility, Government of Canada • Just Ask: Integrating Accessibility Throughout , Shawn Lawton Henry • Disability types/issues –Visually, cognitively, motor, and hearing impaired; neurological/seizure disorders; elderly and aging 59
  60. 60. Writing content • Accessibility for Web Writers, 4 Syllables • Content and Usability: Web Writing , WebCredible • Clear Helper – resources to produce accessible content for people with cognitive disabilities • Readability Test, Juicy Studio 60
  61. 61. Design • Web Accessibility for Designers, WebAIM • Just Ask: Integrating Accessibility Throughout , Shawn Lawton Henry • Design Considerations, WebAIM 61
  62. 62. Design • Color Contrast Checker, WebAIM • Accessibility Color Wheel • Vischeck Color Contrast Photoshop Plug-• Trace Photosensitive Epilepsy Analysis Tool (PEAT) – tests flashing content 62
  63. 63. Prototyping/development • Build a library of accessible code! • Use code generators (see the tools at Accessify) • W3C Mobile Web Best Practices • Web Accessibility Gone Wild, WebAIM 63
  64. 64. Prototyping/development • Accessibility testing tools –Juicy Studio Accessibility Toolbar (Firefox)—reviews ARIA, data tables, and color contrast –FireEyes, Deque –WAVE, WebAIM –Web Accessibility Toolbar (WAT; IE and Opera), The Paciello Group 64
  65. 65. Quality assurance • Accessibility Evaluation Resources, W3C-Web Accessibility Initiative • Evaluation, Testing, and Tools, WebAIM • WCAG 2.0 Checklist, WebAIM • Wickline Color Blind Web Page Filter 65
  66. 66. Quality assurance • Favelets for Checking Web Accessibility, Jim Thatcher • Trace Photosensitive Epilepsy Analysis Tool (PEAT) – tests flashing content • Evaluating Websites for Accessibility, Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) 66
  67. 67. Quality assurance • Central Office of Information, Delivering Inclusive Websites • Establishing a Screen Reader Test Plan, Henny Swan • Web Accessibility Gone Wild, WebAIM • Template for Accessibility Evaluation Reports, W3C-WAI 67
  68. 68. Thank you! Angela Hooker angela.hooker@gsa.gov @AccessForAll 68

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