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Ground deformation effects on subsurface pipelines and infrastructure

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Autor: Thomas O'Rourke
Fecha: 2017/09/29

Published in: Engineering
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Ground deformation effects on subsurface pipelines and infrastructure

  1. 1. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE Tom O’Rourke Thomas R. Briggs Professor of Engineering Cornell University GROUND DEFORMATION EFFECTS ON SUBSURFACE PIPELINES AND INFRASTRUCTURE
  2. 2. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Harry Stewart Chalermpat Pariya-Ekkasut Jai JungChristina ArgyrouJoe Chipalowsky Brad Wham Dimitra Bouziou Tim Bond
  3. 3. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE TOPICS • Underground Assets • Soil/Pipe Interface • Soil/Pipeline Interaction • 2D and 3D Behavior • (Tunneling Effects on Pipelines) • Next Generation Pipelines • Pipeline System Performance • Impact on Communities
  4. 4. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE TOPIC • Underground Assets
  5. 5. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE U.S. PIPELINE INVENTORY •489,000 km Gas & Liquid Fuel Transmission Lines •2,035,000 km Gas Distribution Lines •67 Million Gas Service Lines •1,900,000 km Water Distribution Lines •$2.4 Trillion Water Pipeline Replace Value •1 km Pipeline Every 9 Minutes in US •1 km Pipeline Every 1-2 Minutes Worldwide
  6. 6. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE DEP (NYC) US PIPELINE INVENTORY 90-95% ≤ 600 mm 99% of Gas Distribution Pipelines ≤ 600 mm (PHMSA, 2015) (Water)
  7. 7. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE UNDERGROUND INFRASTRUCTURE
  8. 8. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE KOREAN PIPELINE NEWS CAST
  9. 9. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE EXTREME SOIL-PIPELINE INTERACTION •Earthquakes •Hurricanes and Floods •Landslides: Aerial and Submarine •Tunneling and Deep Excavations •Subsidence
  10. 10. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE EXTREME SOIL-PIPELINE INTERACTION Soil Material & Geometric Nonlinearities Pipeline Material & Geometric Nonlinearities
  11. 11. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE TOPIC • Soil/Pipe Interface
  12. 12. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE
  13. 13. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE
  14. 14. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE
  15. 15. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE TACTILE PRESSURE SENSORS 50 X 40 cm plan dimensions ~ 2000 sensels
  16. 16. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE PLANE STRAIN EXPERIMENTS
  17. 17. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE θ θ θ p(θ) p(θ)tanδsinθ p(θ)cosθ b) Normal Stress Distribution c) Expanded View N   O R  Expanded View O   FH a) Shear Stress Orientation ds = Rd
  18. 18. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE pmax b) Normal Stress Distribution τ a) Shear Stress Orientation θ Expanded View O θ O R=D/2 p(θ) τ(θ) dS=Rd c) Expanded View Note:Not in scale dθ pH
  19. 19. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE 0 100 200 Normal Stress, kPa  = 10 mm 0 100 200 Normal Stress, kPa  = 30 mm 0 100 200 Normal Stress, kPa  = 120 mm 0 100 200 Normal Stress, kPa  = 10 mm 0 100 200 Normal Stress, kPa  = 30 mm 0 100 200 Normal Stress, kPa  = 120 mm b) Centerline Sensor a) Side Sensor
  20. 20. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE SOIL PRESSURE DISTRIBTION
  21. 21. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE θ θ θ p(θ) p(θ)tanδsinθ p(θ)cosθ fT = pNtanδ and fA = pHtanδ Plot fT/fA vs tanδ
  22. 22. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE fT/fA VS tanδ
  23. 23. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE fT 𝑓𝐴 = 1.531 1.273 + 0.672 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝛿
  24. 24. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE COUPLED TRANSVERSE & LONGITUDINAL SOIL FORCES Gap Element: Links Forces Normal with Forces Parallel to Pipe By Coulomb Friction Law tanT Nf p 
  25. 25. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE LESSONS: SOIL-PIPE INTERFACE •Relationship Between Soil Force Normal to Pipe Surface vs Force Normal to Pipe Longitudinal Axis Is Key for Modeling Coupled Soil-Pipe Interaction •Evaluation of Friction Along Pipe from Soil Force Normal to Longitudinal Axis.
  26. 26. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE TOPIC • Soil/Pipeline Interaction
  27. 27. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE SOIL-PIPELINE INTERACTION P y • Nonlinear Interaction Relationships Calibrated by Full- Scale Experiments • Can Replicate Complex Interactions in Pipe & Soil • 3-D Continuum Modeling Evolving; Still Challenges
  28. 28. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE SOIL-PIPELINE INTERACTION MODELS Continuum (Robert et al 2016) Continuum (Vazouras et al, 2012) Shell & Discrete Soil Reactions (Xie et al 2013) Continuum (Xie et al 2013)
  29. 29. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE Pole for planes (’yy, ’yx) (’xx, ’xy) ’ds ’ps  ’ ’ (0, dxy/2) (dyy, dyx/2) Pole for directions d d/2 CO  Mohr’s circle for incremental strain (’ff, ’ff) Mohr’s circle for stress (After Lings and Dietz, 2004) Pole for planes (’yy, ’yx) (’xx, ’xy) ’ds ’ps  ’ ’ (0, dxy/2) (dyy, dyx/2) Pole for directions d d/2 CO  Mohr’s circle for incremental strain (’ff, ’ff) Mohr’s circle for stress (After Lings and Dietz, 2004) ψψ ψψ Pole for planes (’yy, ’yx) (’xx, ’xy) ’ds ’ps  ’ ’ (0, dxy/2) (dyy, dyx/2) Pole for directions d d/2 CO  Mohr’s circle for incremental strain (’ff, ’ff) Mohr’s circle for stress (After Lings and Dietz, 2004) Pole for planes (’yy, ’yx) (’xx, ’xy) ’ds ’ps  ’ ’ (0, dxy/2) (dyy, dyx/2) Pole for directions d d/2 CO  Mohr’s circle for incremental strain (’ff, ’ff) Mohr’s circle for stress (After Lings and Dietz, 2004) ψψ ψψψψ ψψ Direct Shear Plane Strain PLANE STRAIN & DIRECT SHEAR STRENGTH
  30. 30. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE GLACIAL FLUVIAL SAND Density d (kN/m3) ds-p (degrees) ps-p (degrees) ψp (degrees) Medium 15.5 ~ 16.5 35 ~ 37 41 ~ 44 3 ~ 6 Dense 16.5 ~ 17.5 38 ~ 40 45 ~ 47 7 ~ 10 Very Dense 17.5 ~ 18.0 41 ~ 43 48 ~ 49 11 ~ 17 300 mm
  31. 31. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE LARGE-SCALE 2-D TESTS 2.4 m 2.4 m 1.8 m Direction of pipe movement North Buried pipe
  32. 32. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE Analytical Model:  MC Yield Surface  Strain Compatible Modulus  Strain Softening from Peak Shear
  33. 33. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE Void VertDist,mm Horizontal Distance, mm
  34. 34. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE SIMULATION VS FULL-SCALE TEST RESULTS
  35. 35. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE MAXIMUM DIMENSIONLESS SOIL REACTION FORCE Lateral Force Uplift Force
  36. 36. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE SOIL-PIPE INTERACTION FOR DIFFERENT MOVEMENT DIRECTIONS Vertical Downward Oblique
  37. 37. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE MAX VERTICAL BEARING FORCE Bearing Force is ½ to 1/3 Conventional Bearing Capacity
  38. 38. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE OBLIQUE SOIL-PIPE INTERACTION 45° Downward 45° Upward
  39. 39. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE MULTI-DIRECTIONAL SOIL-PIPE INTERACTION qVUUqOU NiN  qVDDqOD NiN                     1 75.090 25.0 1 qVU qH up up U N N i                   1 75.090 25.0 1 qVD qH down down D N N i   qim qim cF N H DL  Fqim
  40. 40. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE MULTI-DIRECTIONAL SOIL-PIPE INTERACTION
  41. 41. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE SOIL-PIPE FORCE VS DISPLACEMENT RELATIONSHIPS
  42. 42. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE SUCTION IN PARTIALLY SATURATED SOILS Transpiration Precipitation Evaporation Unsaturated Flow Infiltration Pipeline Water table Pores filled with water Meniscus formed between particles (After Robert et al, 2016)
  43. 43. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE SUCTION EFFECTS IN PARTIALLY SATURATED SOILS (After Robert et al, 2016)
  44. 44. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE DESIGN PROCEDURE
  45. 45. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION
  46. 46. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE HDPE SIMULATION VS MEASURED RESPONSE Strike Slip Fault Displacement: 250-mm Pipe
  47. 47. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE STRIKE SLIP: AXIAL/BENDING STRAINS 250-mm Pipe 400-mm Pipe
  48. 48. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE LESSONS: SOIL-PIPELINE INTERACTION • Integrated Methodology for Soil-Pipe Interaction for All Pipe Movement Directions and Depths: Hc/D ≥ 2 • Simulations Show Vertical Downward Soil/Pipe Reaction Force ~ ½ to 1/3 Conventional Bearing Capacity Force • Suction-Enhanced Soil-Pipe Force
  49. 49. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE TOPIC • 2D AND 3D BEHAVIOR
  50. 50. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE 3D SOIL-PIPELINE INTERACTION • Steel, HDPE and Cast Iron • Frequently Used D/t s • D/L = 10 L D Apply Max Lateral Soil-Pipe Pressure to Simply Supported 3D Pipe (Shell) as Proxy to Detect Transverse Distortion D/t = 96 D = 900 mm
  51. 51. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE 3D SOIL-PIPELINE INTERACTION 600mm 600mm HDPE 400mm Steel & HDPE Cast Iron
  52. 52. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE 3D SOIL-PIPELINE INTERACTION • 1.7-m-diameter Pipeline • X-36 Steel • 25 mm Wall Thickness to Resist Ovaling • Polyethylene Wrapped Around Fusion Bonded Epoxy SFPUC Alameda Siphon No. 4 Calaveras Fault Crossing Nisar et al. (2015)
  53. 53. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE TOPIC • Next Generation Hazard Resilient Pipelines
  54. 54. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE NEXT GENERATION HAZARD-RESILIENT PIPELINES Wall Street Journal Photo
  55. 55. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE NEXT GENERATION HAZARD-RESILIENT PIPELINES 8.6º 6 in.
  56. 56. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE LARGE-SCALE TESTING: NEXT GENERATION INFASTRUCTURE
  57. 57. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE 57 ORIENTED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVCO) JOINTS Spigot Compressed into Bell
  58. 58. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE ORIENTED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVCO) JOINTS
  59. 59. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE CONTROLLED BUCKLING
  60. 60. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE CONTROLLED BUCKLING
  61. 61. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE LESSONS: NEXT GENERATION (HAZARD- RESILIENT) PIPELINES •Paradigm Shift in Pipeline Technology •Market-Driven Research Funded by Industry •Can’t Have Resilience Unless You Have a Market •Next Generation Hazard-Resilient Pipeline Simulation Models
  62. 62. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE ADVANCED SENSORS • Collaboration Among University of Cambridge, Cornell, and UC Berkeley • Demonstrate Proof of Concept • Distributed Fiber Optics • Joint Movement • Pipeline Bending Strains & Displacement • Time Domain Reflectometry • Leakage • Underground Wireless • Data Transmission Without Wires
  63. 63. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE LESSONS: NEXT GENERATION (HAZARD- RESILIENT) PIPELINES •Paradigm Shift in Pipeline Technology •Market-Driven Research Funded by Industry •Can’t Have Resilience Unless You Have a Intelligence •Next Generation Hazard-Resilient Pipeline Simulation Models
  64. 64. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE TOPIC • Pipeline System Performance
  65. 65. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE CANTERBURY EARTHQUAKE SEQUENCE • ~ 185 Deaths • CBD Destroyed – ~ 1800 CBD Bldgs. Demolished – ~ 55,000 Residences Damaged • > $30(US) B Direct Losses ≈ 20 % GDP • Massive Liquefaction& Infrastructure Damage Christchurch Christchurch
  66. 66. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE CANTERBURY EARTHQUAKE SEQUENCE MW = 7.1 4 Sept 10 MW = 6.0 13 June 11 MW = 6.2 22 Feb 11 MW = 5.9 23 Dec 11 MW = 5.7 14 Feb 16
  67. 67. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE CHRISTCHURCH LIQUEFACTION 52 km2 96 km2 91 km2
  68. 68. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE San Francisco borderline Liquefied Area CHRISTCHURCH LIQUEFACTION IN SAN FRANCISCO
  69. 69. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE LIGHT DETECTION & RANGING (LiDAR) • High Resolution LiDAR Measurements • Settlement on 5-m • Lateral Movement on 4 & 56-m
  70. 70. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE GROUND DEFORMATION METRICS • From Boscardin & Cording (1989) for Building Damage:
  71. 71. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE EARTHQUAKE PIPELINE DAMAGE Cast Iron (CI) Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Asbestos Cement (AC) Concrete (CONC)
  72. 72. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE720 1 2 3 40.5
  73. 73. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE SCREENING CRITERIA • Repair Locations Checked by GIS • Discount Landslides/Rockfall Areas • Assume Poisson Distribution for Repairs ( ) (1p RR x p    Poisson distribution: μ = (RR)x, and σ = [(RR)x]½ Sampled repairs follow normal distr. (central limit theorem) 1 1 2 2 c c p x RR               
  74. 74. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE MAXIMUM PRINCIPAL LATERAL STRAIN • Create Bilinear Quadrilateral Finite Element from Lateral Displacements at Grid Corners to Determine Principal Strain y, v x, u 1 2 34 u1 u2 u4 u3 v2v1 v4 v3
  75. 75. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE REPAIR RATE VS ANGULAR DISTORTION AND LATERAL STRAIN r2 = 0.86 r2 = 0.79 r2 = 0.88 Angular Distortion on 5-m Spacing Lateral Strain From 4 m x 4m Cells
  76. 76. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE REPAIR RATE FOR COMBINED ANGULAR DISTORTION AND LATERAL STRAINAsbestos Cement (AC) Pipelines Cast Iron (CI) Pipelines
  77. 77. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF TENSILE LATERAL GROUND STRAINS Exceedance Levels Ground Strain Accommodation 6 in. 8.6º
  78. 78. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE THERMALLY WELDED PE VS CONVENTIONAL JOINTED PIPELINE SYSTEMS Water Distribution System
  79. 79. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE LESSONS FROM CHRISTCHURCH • Extraordinary dataset: multiple EQs, dense ground motion array, massive liquefaction, high density LiDAR, geocoded repairs for thousands of km of different pipelines • First time comprehensive assessment of underground lifeline response to liquefaction- induced differential vertical movement and lateral strain • Unified methodology for building & lifeline damage vs differential vertical & lateral ground movements
  80. 80. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE TOPIC • Impact on Communities
  81. 81. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE 200 km N San Francisco 5 km 120 km2
  82. 82. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE EARTHQUAKE SAFETY AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE BOND
  83. 83. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE SAN FRANCISCO AUXILLIARY WATER SUPPLY PERFORMANCE CRITERIA •7.8 Mw Deterministic EQ •Water Demands in Fire Response Areas •Monte Carlo AWSS Network Simulations
  84. 84. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE SUMMARY • Coupled Soil-Pipe Forces for Soil-Pipeline Analysis • Link Between Lateral Soil-Pipe Force and Pipe Surface Frictional Resistance • Methodology for Soil-Pipe Interaction in Granular Soil for Any Pipe Movement Direction and Depth • Vertical Downward Pipe Force Significantly Less Than Conventional Bearing Capacity • Soil Suction Effects
  85. 85. PIPELINE INFRASTRUCTURE SUMMARY • Guidance on Beam vs Shell Analysis for Soil-Pipe Interaction. Transverse Distortion Important for Diameters > 600 mm (Steel and Cast Iron) • Next Generation Hazard Resilient Pipelines • Canterbury EQ Sequence As Large-Scale Lab for Characterizing Liquefaction Ground Deformation • Unified Methodology for Pipeline and Building Response to Soil Settlement and Lat’l. Displacement • Impact on Communities

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