OverView: Series of 4 wars fought between Ottoman and Safavid forces over a period 200 years. Conflicts fought mainly due to religious differences between the Sunni Ottomans and the Shia Safavid. Both the Sunni Ottomans and the Shia Safavids saw the other as heretics in the eyes of Allah.
• Triggered by: – Territorial disputes – The Safavid Empire tried to form a Persian-Habsburg alliance to attack the Ottomans – The Bey of Bitlis put himself in Persian protection – The governor of Baghdad was ordered to be killed by “Shah the Tahmasp” of the Safavid Empire• Suleiman and Grand Vizier Ibrahim Pasha launched a successful assault on Safavid forces taking Bitlis and Tabriz. However Baghdad was not captured.• Tahmasp who eluded Ottoman forces and adopted a scorched earth tactic.• In a second launched campaign, Suleiman was able to formalize a Franco- Ottoman alliance to counter the threat of the Habsburgs, he also made considerable gains in Georgia, Armenia, and the province of Van.• Again Suleiman was not able to capture Tahmasp who once more adopted a scorched earth tactic.• In a final campaign, Suleiman looses but then regains Erzurum, Suleiman and The Shah were able to negotiate the Peace of Amasya.• Peace of Amasya: (Ottoman Victory) – Gave the Persians back Tabriz – Ottomans kept Baghdad, Lower Mesopotamia, The Mouth of both the Tigris and Euphrates, and also some of the Persian Gulf – Stopped the spread of Shia Islam
• Ottomans start the war with the intent of taking Azerbaijan and the Caucasus.• The Ottomans took the cities: Tiflis, Kars, and Tabriz .• The Ottomans also made Georgia into a tributary state.• The war ended with the Treaty of Istanbul • The Ottomans successfully achieved the goals they had started the war for (Ottoman Victory)
The first In Conflict That Other the Safavid Words… Empire won YAY against SAFAVIDS!!! theOttomans!
• The final of the major conflicts between Safavid and Ottoman forces.• The Shah attacked the Ottoman empire while it was recovering from a series of rebellions and fighting a war with the Habsburgs.• The attack was well timed breaking Ottoman defenses and allowing Safavid forces to take Baghdad from Ottoman hands, massacring the Sunni population.• After suffering the lost of Baghdad, Ottoman forces morale fell and many soldiers deserted.• Persian armies reestablished a presence in Iraq.• The Shah sent emissaries to negotiate peace with the Ottoman empire but all of them failed.• After two attempts by two separate Grand Viziers to retake lands loss the tide finally turned to Ottoman favor; they were able to negotiate peace with Habsburgs and got a new more capable leader.• Sultan Murad IV of the Ottoman Empire took over the army and successfully retook lost land and restarted peace talks.• The war ended with the Treaty of Zuhab: (Ottoman Victory)• Resulted in: – Persian loss of the Mesopotamia to Ottomans – The dividing of the Caucasus – The recognition of Iraq as part of Ottoman lands ( This kept Iraq Sunni)
Ongoing conflict between theOttoman Empire and its rivals of theAustrian and Spanish Empires.The pressure from such a rivalrymade it difficult for the OttomanEmpire to grow. Ottoman Empire is forced todownsize due to this rivalry losing afair protein of its land.
Considered the most destructive conflict in Europebefore the 20th century World Wars.Started as a conflict between German Protestantsand Catholics within the Holy Roman Empire.Soon evolved into a conflict involving politicalpowers being divided into two groups– Political powers of the times can be divided into two basic groups Habsburg (Spain and the Holy Roman Empire) and anti-Habsburg (France, Denmark, Sweden, Norway)This conflict is often called the Great Crisis of the16th century due to the great political, social,religious, environmental ,and militaryupheaval of the time.
1617: Protestants in the Holy Roman Empire rebel againstFerdinand II king of Bohemia (a Habsburg) in response to hisshutting down of Protestant churches in Bohemia. MultipleGerman Princes side with the Protestants, while The King of Spain(a Habsburg) supports the King of Bohemia.1618-1625: The Spanish allies of Ferdinand help to defeat theProtestant and German Prince armies.1625: The King of Denmark and Norway Christian IV intervenes on behalfof the Protestants. The King feared Habsburg power and sought to expandhis powers thus invading by Germany. In 1629 he is defeated by Albert ofWallenstein and forced to make peace with the Habsburgs
• 1630-1635: Swedish forces enter the war against the Habsburgs (like Denmark with interest of defending Protestants and expanding their lands). Led by Gustavs II the Swedes have more success in the beginning of their campaign than the previous opponents of the Habsburgs, but with crushing defeat at Battle at Nordlingen, the Swedes decided to withdrew from war with the Habsburgs• 1635-1648: The French lead the war effort against the Habsburgs with a political, rather than religious interest, in mind. The Habsburgs began with the upper hand, but after many years of war against France, Habsburg resources & forces were exhausted In 1648 the treaty of Westphalia was signed.
• Habsburg power is greatly diminished• Lands of Europe change (both France and Sweden gain Hapsburg lands after the war)• Acknowledgement of German Princes sovereign rights and Protestant churches by the Holy Roman Emperor.• Sweden and France emerged as Europe’s greatest powers.• Spain lost its economic power• Disease, famine, and poverty ravage much of modern day Germany -- Outbreaks of the bubonic plague and syphilis -- Casualties estimated to be 8,000,000 -- Holy Roman Empire is decentralized
Began in the Mid 16 th Century whenSpanish interest shifted from theCaribbean to South America.English Pirates Saw their chance tocontrol the Caribbean Trade Routes.Around 1640 All Piracy in theCaribbean ended due to a largeinflux of Dutch, English, and Frenchsettlers who made it their goal tokeep surrounding water safe.
• Spain took its leave from the Caribbean when Spanish Merchants discovered Silver Mines in the Mid-16 th Century on South American Soil.• Spain knew these silver deposits would make the country quite wealthy and began to mine the silver to bring back to the homeland.• They promptly loaded said silver onto the ship force previously located in the Caribbean.
• Pirates, primarily hailing from Britain, saw this as their opportunity to intercept Spanish Silver Ships on their way back home.• However do to Spain’s transition of interest, superior firepower, and overall transportation planning the pirates were not truly successful.• Prior to the 1640 end of mass piracy in the Caribbean, these pirates did make it difficult for settlers to settle, especially those of France and The Netherlands.