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RSS 2012 How to Write a Health Survey

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Again Dr Aldabbagh thank you, a simple introduction on how to write a survey

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RSS 2012 How to Write a Health Survey

  1. 1. @kaimrc_edu 1
  2. 2. How to write a health survey? Mona Al-Dabbagh, MD, MHSc Consultant Pediatric Infectious Diseases King AbdulAziz Medical City National Guard Health Affairs
  3. 3. Objectives• To present a general outline to health surveys• To demonstrate a systematic guide to writing questionnaires and survey questions.
  4. 4. What is a survey?• ‘A purposeful and systematic collection of data from population by means of asking questions’
  5. 5. Types of Health surveys• Aim: Sampling – Descriptive – Random population – Analytical – Non-random population• Topic: • Nature of information – Health status – Subjective – Health determinant – Factual – Health services • Data collection• Study design: – Self-administered – Cross-over – Interview – Longitudinal – Mixed mode
  6. 6. Steps in designing a health survey1. Formulating a survey objectives2. Defining survey variables3. Choosing the method for data collection4. Formulating the questions5. Formatting the questionnaire6. Designing the method of sampling7. Calculating the sample size8. Pilot testing
  7. 7. Formulating survey questions
  8. 8. Question type• Concept measured – Facts, opinions/attitude, feeling, knowledge, others.• Measurement level – Nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio• Response format – Open-ended, closed-ended, other• Complexity – Single questions, checklist, multi-item scale, other• Sensitivity/ threat level
  9. 9. Factual questions• How old are you? ___________ years• What is your gender?  Male  Female• How many children do you have? 1 2 3 4  More than 4 (specify)
  10. 10. Factual questions• How many hours a day do you typically study? Less than 0.5 hours 1 hour to 1.5 hour 1.5 hour to 2 hours 2 hours to 2.5 hours More than 2.5 hours 30% responded > 2.5 hours Dillman et al, 2009
  11. 11. Factual questions• How many hours a day do you typically study? Less than 2.5 hours 2.5 hour to 3 hours 3 hour to 3.5 hours 3.5 hours to 4 hours 4 hours to 4.5 hours More than 4.5 hours 71% responded > 2.5 hours Dillman et al, 2009
  12. 12. Opinions1. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement:The research summer school course is very informative. Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree
  13. 13. Opinions1. In your opinion, how informative is the research summer school course?  Not informative at all  Somewhat informative  Very informative  Most informative course ever
  14. 14. Opinions1. Compared to other research courses that you have attended, would you say that this research summer school course is:  Very bad Bad Neither bad nor good Good Very good
  15. 15. Knowledge1. Is the following statement true or false?The incubation period for Influenza is 1 to 4 days. True False2. What is the incubation period for influenza?______________ days
  16. 16. Response format• Open-ended 1. How old are you? ___________years• Closed-ended 1. Are you a female or male?  Female  Male• Visual analog 1. How much pain do you feel? Please mark on the line No pain _____,____,____,____,____,____,____,_____ Very severe pain• 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  17. 17. Level measurement• Nominal 1. Are you a female or male?  Female  Male• Ordinal 1. How old are you?  <20  20-30  > 30• Interval 1. What is your birth year? ________• Ratio 1. What is your weight? ___________kgs
  18. 18. Single vs. Multiple response questions• Single question 1. Have you ever watched the titanic movie? Yes No• Checklist 1. Which sports do you play? Please check all that apply Football Swimming Basketball Tennis Other (please specify)
  19. 19. Forced-choice checklist1. Which sports do you play regularly, on monthly basis? Yes No Football Swimming Basketball Tennis Other (please specify)_____________________
  20. 20. Matrix questions• In the past month, how many times did you eat in any of the following fast-food restaurants? 0 times 1-2 times 3-4 times > 4 times 1. McDonald 2. Burger King 3. Pizza Hut 4. Hardies
  21. 21. Threatening questions?1. Did you ever join any protestation? Yes No2. Have you ever seen a case of suspected child abuse and did not report it to the child protection services? Yes No
  22. 22. Random error vs. BiasRANDOM ERROR (p):• Deviation from truth in inference about underlying population which happens because sampling was part of studySYSEMATIC ERROR (BIAS):• Any systematic error in the design, conduct or analysis of a study that results in a mistaken estimate of an exposure’s effect on the risk of diseases.
  23. 23. Random error vs. Bias Random error BiasAmeliorated by repetition of the study Yes NoAmeliorated by large sample size Yes No
  24. 24. Random error vs. Bias• In survey questions, bias (systematic error) occurs when some factors cause errors in responses to be more likely in one direction than the other• Random errors occur when there is no systematic tendency for errors to be in either direction
  25. 25. Health survey errors• Coverage error‘not everyone in the target population is included in the sampling frame’• Sampling error:‘not everyone in the sampling frame included in the samples (not a census)’
  26. 26. Cont. Health survey errors• Non-response error‘not everyone included in the sample actually participated’• Measurement error‘not all responses are perfectly valid’
  27. 27. Issues to consider in questionnaires• Questionnaire length• Question order o First question o Logic order, grouping o Demographic questions o Attitude questions (general specific) o Factual questions (context specific general ‘recall’)• Instructions o minimal, easy to remember o Place specific instructions when needed, make distinct from the questions
  28. 28. Issues to consider in questionnaires• Questionnaire layout (self-administered) o Cover page o Number of pages o Paper size o Question grouping o Matrices o Double questions• Visual elements (self-administered) o Font o Color/ shading o contrast o Spacing o Response space o Page breaks o consistency
  29. 29. Ethical issues in surveys• Ethics application – Who is doing the study, funding, conflict of interest, prior reviews – Summary of the project – Details of data collection procedures – Risk and benefits to participants – Informed consent procedure – Confidentiality and data safety procedures
  30. 30. Cont. Ethical issues in surveys• Informed consent/ cover letter – Investigators/ institution – Purpose of the study – Tasks – Duration – Confidentiality – Right to withdraw – Risk and benefits – Remuneration – Contact – Feedback
  31. 31. Questions?
  32. 32. Do’s and don’ts• Make it short• Name your survey• Start with a cover page for introduction• Simple wording and easy grammar• Assure common understanding• Start with an interesting question• Avoid leading questions• Avoid double negatives• Balance rating scale• Avoid too long list of choices
  33. 33. Do’s and don’ts• Avoid difficult concepts• Avoid difficult recall questions• Use closed ended questions• Use logic order for questions• Use square boxes with X placed in front, rather than numerical labels for response questions• Avoid double questions• Avoid complex matrices.• Use booklet format (not staples at the upper corner)• Pre-test your survey
  34. 34. Thank you

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