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Informative presentation on microturbine.

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  2. 2. Introduction  MicroTurbines are new type of combustion turbine used for stationary energy generation.  The concept is evolved from automotive and truck turbochargers, auxiliary power units (APU) for airplanes.  Approximately the size of a refrigerator with outputs of 25 kW to 500 kW.  They provide not only electricity , but also the thermal energy to provide for all heating and cooling needs 2
  3. 3. MicroTurbine producing power, as well as heat 3
  4. 4. Microturbine Overview  Commercially Available Yes (Limited)  Size Range 25-500 kW  Fuel Natural gas, hydrogen, propane, diesel  Efficiency 20-30% (Recuperated)  Environmental Low (<9-50 ppm) NOx  Other Features Cogeneration (50-80°C water)  Commercial Status Small volume production, commercial prototypes now. (Courtesy of California Distributed Energy Resources Guide on Microturbines) 4
  5. 5. Components of Microturbine  Turbo Compressor  Combustor  Generator  Recuperator (Internal Heat Exchanger)  Turbine  Power Electronics (Rectifier & Inverter) 5
  6. 6. Combined Heat & Power (CHP) Diagram 6
  7. 7. Working Principle  Microturbines are small gas turbines, most of which feature an internal heat exchanger called a recuperator.  In a microturbine, a radial flow (centrifugal) compressor compresses the inlet air that is then preheated in the recuperator using heat from the turbine exhaust.  Next, the heated air from the recuperator mixes with fuel in the combustor and hot combustion gas expands through the expansion and power turbines. The expansion turbine turns the compressor and, in single-shaft models, turns the generator as well.  Finally, the recuperator uses the exhaust of the power turbine to preheat the air from the compressor.  Single-shaft models generally operate at speeds over 60,000 revolutions per minute (rpm) and the permanent magnet generator generates electrical power of high frequency, and of variable frequency (alternating current --AC). This power is rectified to direct current (DC) and then inverted to 50/60 Hz for commercial use. 7
  8. 8. How a Microturbine works 8 Turbine rotates the generator at high RPM which produces electricity of high frequency
  9. 9. Types of Microturbine Unrecuperated Microturbine (Simple cycle) Recuperated Microturbine 9
  10. 10. Recuperated Microturbine 10
  11. 11. Comparision Unrecuperated  Compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned under constant pressure conditions.  Efficiency 15%. Recuperated  A sheet metal heat exchanger (recuperator) recovers temperature of the air stream supplied to the combustor.  Efficiency 20~30%. 11
  12. 12. Distributed Energy Generation  Energy produced in thermal and hydro electric power plants is distributed to the users through network of line (transmission & distribution) called the power grid.  Any technology of getting electric energy other than power grid, directly at the distribution level, is called Distributed Energy Generation.  In IUT, when load-shedding occurs, IUT generator serves as distributed energy source.  Example: Microturbine, Diesel Generator (Backup generator), Solar Panel etc. 12
  13. 13. Advantages of Distributed Generation  The losses during power transmission are eliminated.  The combined heat and power (CHP) technology can be applied.  Low emission and operating cost.  High efficiency. 13
  14. 14. Advantages of Microturbine  Small number of moving parts  Compact size  Lightweight  Good efficiencies in cogeneration  Low emission  Can utilize waste fuels  Long maintenance interval  No vibration  Less noise than reciprocating engines 14
  15. 15. Economics 15
  16. 16. Microturbine Manufacturers  Bowman power systems  Capstone Turbine Cooperation  Elliott energy systems  Turbec AB  Ingersoll-Rand Company 16
  17. 17. 17