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Force feeding

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Effect of force feeding on some productive and physiological traits on Muscovy ducks under hot climate

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Force feeding

  1. 1. 1 FORCE FEEDING of MUSCOVY DUCKS By: Dr. Mohammed Abo Gabal
  2. 2. Effect of force feeding on some productive and physiological traits on Muscovy ducks under hot climate 2
  3. 3. 1. INTRODUCTION 3
  4. 4. 4 Waterfowl have over 5000 years been used by human for meat, fattened livers and eggs (Stani-slaw, 1999). Waterfowl as one of the poultry kind which could by used in solving the lack of animal protein in human nutrition. Water fowl is more convenient for regions with hot and humid climate than chickens.
  5. 5. Waterfowl 5
  6. 6. Waterfowl 6
  7. 7. Waterfowl 7
  8. 8. One of the large table birds is the Muscovy duck. Muscovy ducks are very large bird, have a better adaptability to hot climate and suitable for small scale rural farmers in Africa especially in Egypt, and could contribute to food security. 8
  9. 9. Muscovy duck 9
  10. 10. Muscovy duck 10
  11. 11. Muscovy duck 11
  12. 12. As reported in FAO STATE, (2009). Egypt is the leading producer of duck meat production in Africa with 39,000 tons meat. This indicated that waterfowl production in general is getting more attention in Egypt as a source of animal protein. 12
  13. 13. Force-feeding is an ancient practice, first recorded in ancient Egypt, but until the 1950’s fatty liver production remained somewhat limited in volume. Foie gras is currently produced in various countries but approximately 80% of world production and consumption takes place in France,(CIFOG 2002). 13
  14. 14. Force feeding 14
  15. 15. Force feeding 15
  16. 16. Force feeding 16
  17. 17. The tradition of force-feeding is very old, originating from Egypt 2500 BC, (Guemene and Guy, 2004). However, although force feeding is an ancient practice in Egypt and only few species of waterfowl are nowadays used for fatty liver production. 17
  18. 18. Unfortunately, very few data are available on the metabolic response to force feeding, especially the information about the overfeeding of Muscovy duck on some productive and physiological traits of this breed is not reported till now. 18
  19. 19. Also, the investigation will include some factors affecting on force feeding period. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate the performance of force fed duck under Egyptian condition (hot Climate). 19
  20. 20. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS 20
  21. 21. 21 This present study was carried out at the poultry research station, Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.
  22. 22.  Birds and diets.  Growth and force feeding performance.  Chemical analysis.  Blood analysis.  Statistical analysis. 22
  23. 23. Birds and diets.  One day – 14 day.  Unsexed.  Starter diet: 22% C.P 2900 K.Cal 23
  24. 24. Growing period  From 2 – 12 weeks.  Sexing.  Growing diet: 18 % C.P 3000 K.Cal 24
  25. 25. Force feeding period  From 12 - 14 weeks (14 days)  Sex & BW groups  Force feeding applied twice/day  Force feeding diets (H.D.E.) 8.20 % C.P 3350 K.Cal 25
  26. 26. * Growth performance during growing period: Live body weight (LBW). Body weight gain (BWG). Feed consumption (FC). Feed conversion ratio (FCR). Every 2 weeks from 2 -12 Wks of age. 26
  27. 27. * Growth performance during force feeding period: Live body weight (LBW). Body weight gain (BWG). Feed consumption (FC). Feed conversion ratio (FCR). Before & After 27
  28. 28. Slaughter test: Was done Before & After force feeding By: 3 birds/BWG/Sex Chosen randomly 28
  29. 29. * Chemical analysis: (meat & liver) Moisture Crude protein Ether extract Ash Association of Official Analytic Chemists (A.O.A.C, 2000). 29
  30. 30. * Blood analysis: Total Protein (TP) Albumin (Alb.) Globulin (Glob.) A/G ratio Total lipids (TL) Triglycerides (Tri-G) Using suitable kits. Cho. HDL LDL ALT AST 30
  31. 31. Statistical analysis: Data were analyzed by using SPSS program for Win. ( SPSS 2007 ) 31
  32. 32. 3. RESULTS 32
  33. 33. Effect of sex on LBW (g) of Muscovy ducks during growing period33
  34. 34. Table (1): Effect of sex on live body weight (g) of Muscovy .ducks during growing period 34 Where: (M ± S.E) = Mean ± Standard error. a , b = Significant difference between sex in the same age. Age (weeks) Males Females Initial body weight At: 14 days 335.93 a ± 4.03 307.17 b ± 3.37 4 Week 1196.21 a ± 11.44 930.00 b ± 11.22 6 Week 1996.38 a ± 12.96 1650.33 b ± 18.05 8 Week 2798.88 a ± 30.33 2290.00 b ± 30.07 10 Week 3796.64 a ± 35.88 2600.83 b ± 28.93 12 Week 4774.02 a ± 39.82 3090.08 b ± 32.13
  35. 35. Live body weight during fattening period 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 2 wks 4 wks 6 wks 8 wks 10 wks 12 wks Males Females 35
  36. 36. Effect of sex on BWG, FC and FCR of Muscovy ducks during growing period36
  37. 37. Measurements Periods (Wks) Males Females Weight gain (g) 2-6 1940.38a ± 9.69 1594.33b ± 6.47 Feed consumption (g) 4240.00a ± 31.20 3955.00b ± 36.35 Feed conversion 2.18b ± 0.12 2.48a ± .011 Weight gain (g) 6-12 2777.84a ± 38.85 1439.75b ± 9.09 Feed consumption (g) 8270.00a ± 30.27 7056.00b ± 37.01 Feed conversion 2.97b ± 0.16 4.72a ± 0.22 Weight gain (g) 2-12 4718.22a ± 48.54 3034.08b ± 15.56 Feed consumption (g) 12510.00a ± 52.21 11011.00b ± 78.26 Feed conversion 2.65b ± 0.18 3.62a ± 0.16 Table ( 2 ): Effect of sex on growth performance of Muscovy ducks during growing period. 37 Where: (M ± S.E) = Mean ± Standard error. a , b = Significant difference between sex in the same parameter
  38. 38. Body Weight Gain (g). 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 2 --- 6 6 --- 12 2 ---12 Males Females 38
  39. 39. Feed Consumption (kg). 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 2 ---- 6 6 ----- 12 2 -----12 Males Females 39
  40. 40. Feed Conversion Ratio 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 2 ---- 6 6 ----- 12 2 ----- 12 Males Females 40
  41. 41. Effect of force feeding on LBW and BWG of Muscovy ducks during fattening period41
  42. 42. Table ( 3 ): Effect of force feeding, sex and body weight on body weight and body weight gain of Muscovy ducks. 42 Where: (M ± S.E)= Mean ± Standard error. P = Probability level for the effect of sex during force feeding. *,**, NS = Significant (P ≤ 0.05), high significant (P < 0.01),non significant (P > 0.05). a,b,c = Significant difference between body weight groups for the same parameter. Parameters Groups Sex P Males Females Body weight before force feeding (g) 1 5222.78 a ± 42.19 3313.33 a ± 44.14 * 2 4761.36 b ± 77.46 2884.38 c± 52.89 * 3 4316.15 c ± 60.36 ----- Body weight after force feeding (g) 1 6510.00 a ± 88.30 3851.67 a ± 40.15 * 2 6033.64 b ± 71.34 3447.50 b ± 53.71 * 3 5808.53 b ± 90.45 ----- Body weight gain (g) 1 1287.22 a ± 0.23 538.33 a ± 87.07 * 2 1272.27 a ± 0.39 563.13 a ± 24.87 * 3 1493.15 a ± 75.36 ----- Body weight gain (%) 1 24.65 b ± 1.88 16.31 b ± 1.77 * 2 26.78 b ± 1.84 19.62 a ± 0.87 * 3 34.58 a ± 1.86 -----
  43. 43. Live Body Weight (g) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 43
  44. 44. Body Weight Gain (g) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 HM MM LM HF LF BWG (g) 44
  45. 45. Body Weight Gain (%) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 HM MM LM HF LF BWG (%) 45
  46. 46. Effect of force feeding on FC and FCR of Muscovy ducks during fattening period46
  47. 47. Table ( 4 ): Effect of force feeding, sex and body weight on feed consumption and feed conversion of Muscovy ducks. 47 Parameters Groups Sex P Males Females Feed consumption (kg) 1 9.100 a ± 0.00 9.100 a ± 0.00 NS 2 9.100 a ± 0.00 9.100 a ± 0.00 NS 3 9.100 a ± 0.00 ---- Feed Conversion 1 7.31 a ± 0.44 17.21 a ± 0.40 ** 2 7.47 a ± 0.30 16.45 a ± 0.76 ** 3 6.14 a ± 0.37 ---- Where: (M ± S.E)= Mean ± Standard error. P = Probability level for the effect of sex during force feeding. *,**, NS = Significant (P ≤ 0.05), high significant (P < 0.01),non significant (P > 0.05). a,b,c = Significant difference between body weight groups for the same parameter.
  48. 48. Feed Conversion 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 HM MM LM HF LF FCR 48
  49. 49. Effect of force feeding on Slaughter test of Muscovy ducks during fattening period49
  50. 50. Absolute weights of body parts & organs of Muscovy ducks. 50
  51. 51. Table ( 5 ): Effect of force feeding, sex and body weight on live body weight, absolute weights of body parts and organs of Muscovy ducks. Parameters Groups Males Females P3 P4 Before After P1 Before After P2 Live body weight (g) 1 5348.75a ± 45.65 6510.00a ± 88.91 ** 3230.00a ± 89.54 3847.17a ± 53.90 ** ** ** 2 4720.00b ± 55.23 6030.97b ± 88.34 ** 2818.33b± 60.98 3451.67b± 40.36 ** ** ** 3 4226.67c ± 60.36 5782.62b ± 75.83 ** ---- ---- Liver Weight (g) 1 75.00a ± 0.82 293.54a ± 14.92 ** 52.33a ± 1.03 107.50a ± 1.86 ** ** ** 2 63.33b ± 1.81 287.50a ± 10.03 ** 49.00a ± 2.68 100.00a ± 3.23 ** ** ** 3 57.00c ± 1.08 284.29a ± 11.77 ---- ---- Giblets Weight (g) 1 235.67a ± 2.25 472.77a ± 16.49 ** 168.00a ± 3.49 209.40a ± 3.51 ** ** ** 2 179.00b ± 2.48 474.72a ± 11.13 ** 138.00b ± 4.08 197.78b ± 3.95 ** ** ** 3 159.6c ± 2.25 472.29a ± 14.94 ** ---- ---- Carcass Weight (g) 1 3256.67a ± 20.72 3942.22a ± 88.23 ** 1991.67a ± 55.24 2423.00a ± 56.18 ** ** ** 2 2850.00b ± 33.73 3565.14b ± 70.15 ** 1676.67b ± 36.65 2023.52b ± 40.59 ** ** ** 3 2551.67c ± 36.82 3403.81b ± 73.73 ** ---- ---- Edible parts Weight (g) 1 3484.20a ± 29.96 4415.89a ±163.89 ** 2159.63a ± 83.03 2633.78a ± 108.89 ** ** ** 2 3029.01b ± 50.97 4041.91b ± 165.89 ** 1814.67b ± 57.33 2220.38b ± 78.83 ** ** ** 3 2711.33c ± 55.23 3895.50c ± 100.50 ** ------ ----- Inedible parts Weight (g) 1 1816.67a ± 23.51 1974.44a ± 39.55 ** 1033.43a ± 38.25 1139.67a ± 24.45 ** ** ** 2 1518.62b ± 27.74 1889.09b ± 26.70 ** 932.76b ± 24.59 1135.01a ± 28.70 ** ** ** 3 1421.97b ± 27.44 1851.67b ± 49.32 ** ------ ------- 51
  52. 52. Live Body Weight (g) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 52
  53. 53. Liver Weight (g) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 53
  54. 54. Giblets weight (g) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 54
  55. 55. Carcass weight (g) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 55
  56. 56. Edible parts weight (g) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 56
  57. 57. Inedible Parts Weight (g) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 57
  58. 58. Relative weights of body parts & organs of Muscovy ducks. 58
  59. 59. Table ( 6 ): Effect of force feeding, sex and body weight on live body weight, relative weights of body parts and organs of Muscovy ducks. Parameters Groups Males Females P3 P4 Before After P1 Before After P2 Live body weight (g) 1 5348.75a ± 45.65 6510.00a ± 88.91 ** 3230.00a ± 89.54 3847.17a ± 53.90 ** ** ** 2 4720.00b ± 55.23 6030.97b ± 88.34 ** 2818.33b± 60.98 3451.67b± 40.36 ** ** ** 3 4226.67c ± 60.36 5782.62b ± 75.83 ** ---- ---- Liver Weight (%) 1 1.42 a ± 0.02 4.38 a ± 0.23 ** 1.62 a ± 0.02 2.80 a ± 0.06 ** ** ** 2 1.34 a ± 0.02 4.74 a ± 0.14 ** 1.74 a ± 0.09 2.90 a ± 0.11 ** ** ** 3 1.35a ± 0.01 4.87 a ± 0.27 ** Giblets Weight (%) 1 4.45 a ± 0.02 7.14 b ± 0.26 ** 5.20 a ± 0.05 5.67 a ± 0.11 ** ** ** 2 3.79 b ± 0.03 7.85 ab ± 0.11 ** 4.90 a ± 0.07 5.54 a ± 0.11 ** ** ** 3 3.78 b ± 0.01 8.10 a ± 0.37 ** ---- ---- Carcass Weight (%) 1 60.04 a ± 0.18 60.56 a ± 0.86 NS 61.66 a ± 0.01 61.85 a ± 0.74 NS ** ** 2 60.38 a ± 0.02 59.09 a ± 0.42 NS 59.49 b ± 0.05 58.62 b ± 0.76 NS ** ** 3 60.37 a ± 0.01 58.96 a ± 0.86 NS ---- ---- Edible parts Weight (%) 1 64.94 a ± 0.17 67.69 a ± 0.97 ** 64.86 a ± 0.05 67.52 a ± 0.86 ** ** ** 2 64.17 a ± 0.01 66.94 a ± 0.49 ** 64.39 a ± 0.07 64.61 b ± 0.84 ** ** ** 3 64.15 a ± 0.04 67.06 a ± 1.00 ** ---- ---- Inedible parts Weight (%) 1 34.02 a ± 0.23 30.34 a ± 1.29 * 34.10 a ± 0.57 32.38 a ± 1.22 * ** ** 2 33.51 a ± 0.06 31.38 a ± 0.90 * 33.09 a ± 0.38 32.65 a ± 1.08 * ** ** 3 33.64 a ± 0.18 31.88 a ± 1.15 * ---- ---- 59
  60. 60. Liver Weight (%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 60
  61. 61. Giblets Weight (%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 61
  62. 62. Edible Parts Weight (%) 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 62
  63. 63. Inedible Parts Weight (%) 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 63
  64. 64. Effect of force feeding on Chemical composition of Muscovy duck meat during fattening period64
  65. 65. Table ( 7 ): Effect of force feeding, sex and body weight on body chemical composition of Muscovy ducks. Parameters Groups Males Females P3 P4 Before After P1 Before After P2 Moisture (%) 1 73.28a ± 0.40 51.32b ± 0.66 ** 73.99a ± 0.19 52.90 b ± 0.81 ** NS NS 2 74.00 a ±0.33 55.07 a ± 1.15 ** 74.17 a ± 0.30 55.29 a ± 0.74 ** NS NS 3 73.89 a ± 0.31 56.01 a ± 0.95 ** ---- ---- Crude Protein (%) 1 18.73 a ± 0.23 13.57 b ± 0.26 ** 19.01 a ± 0.25 13.93 a ± 0.63 ** NS NS 2 19.00 a ± 0.26 13.47 b ± 0.37 ** 18.61 a ± 0.22 12.35 a ± 0.61 ** NS NS 3 18.65 a ± 0.14 15.20 a ± 0.72 ** ---- ---- Ether Extract (%) 1 4.01 a ± 0.26 31.67 a ± 0.77 ** 4.03 a ± 0.42 30.09 a ± 0.38 ** NS NS 2 3.93 a ± 0.20 28.22 a ± 1.40 ** 3.97 a ± 0.25 28.81 a ± 1.12 ** NS NS 3 4.17 a ± 0.29 26.11 b ± 0.32 ** ---- ---- Ash (%) 1 1.48 a ± 0.08 1.27 a ± 0.11 NS 1.64 a ± 0.10 1.19 a ± 0.09 ** NS NS 2 1.46 a ± 0.07 1.22 a ± 0.07 * 1.73 a ± 0.06 1.20 a ± 0.01 ** * NS 3 1.40 a ± 0.06 1.20 a ± 0.06 * ---- ---- 65
  66. 66. Ether Extract (%) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 66
  67. 67. Moisture (%) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 67
  68. 68. Crude Protein (%) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 68
  69. 69. Ash (%) 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 69
  70. 70. Effect of force feeding on Liver weight (g and %) of Muscovy ducks during fattening period70
  71. 71. Liver weight 71
  72. 72. Liver weight 72
  73. 73. Liver weight 73
  74. 74. Table ( 8 ): Effect of force feeding, sex and body weight on liver weight (g) and (%) of Muscovy ducks. Parameters Groups Sex P Males Females Liver weight before force feeding (g) 1 75.00 a ± 1.82 52.25 a ± 1.03 * 2 63.33 b ± 1.81 39.00 a ± 1.06 * 3 57.00 c ± 1.08 ----- Liver (%) of body weight before force feeding 1 1.43 a ± 0.03 1.55 a ± 0.02 * 2 1.34 a ± 0.05 1.67 a ± 0.04 * 3 1.35 a ± 0.04 ------ Liver weight after force feeding (g) 1 293.54 a ± 10.03 107.50 a ± 1.86 * 2 287.50 a ± 10.03 100.00 a ± 1.23 * 3 284.29 a ± 11.77 ----- Liver (%) of body weight after force feeding 1 4.52 c ± 0.34 3.26 b ± 0.17 * 2 4.75 a b ± 0.31 3.48 a ± 0.13 * 3 4.86 a ± 0.27 ----- 74
  75. 75. Liver Weight (g) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 75
  76. 76. Liver Weight (%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 76
  77. 77. Effect of force feeding on Liver chemical composition of Muscovy ducks during fattening period77
  78. 78. Table ( 9 ): Effect of force feeding, sex and body weight on Liver chemical composition of Muscovy ducks. Parameters Groups Males Females P3 P4 Before After P1 Before After P2 Moisture (%) 1 68.77a ± 0.69 45.14b ± 2.11 ** 69.15a ± 0.35 51.69a ± 1.21 ** NS * 2 68.92a ± 0.68 54.36a ± 1.72 ** 68.05b ± 0.27 54.61a ± 1.03 ** NS NS 3 69.00a ± 0.36 49.35ab ± 0.70 ** ---- ---- Crude Protein (%) 1 20.87a ± 0.24 12.12a ± 0.35 ** 19.52a ± 0.08 12.34a ± 0.25 ** ** NS 2 19.70a ± 0.24 12.07a ± 0.30 ** 20.32b ± 0.27 12.63a ± 0.44 ** NS NS 3 19.81a ± 0.53 12.27a ± 0.44 ** ---- ---- Ether Extract (%) 1 7.39a ± 0.42 40.04a ± 2.28 ** 8.18a ± 0.24 33.27a ± 1.38 ** NS * 2 8.29a ± 0.69 31.44b ± 2.13 ** 8.49a ± 0.18 30.36a ± 0.93 ** NS NS 3 8.30a ± 0.80 36.23ab ± 0.74 ** ---- ---- Ash (%) 1 1.50a ± 0.09 0.37a ± 0.03 ** 1.48a ± 0.06 0.80a ± 0.05 ** NS NS 2 1.37a ± 0.05 0.80a ± 0.07 ** 1.32a ± 0.05 0.85a ± 0.07 ** NS NS 3 1.33a ± 0.03 0.76a ± 0.03 ** ---- ---- 78
  79. 79. Ether Extract (%) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 79
  80. 80. Moisture (%) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 80
  81. 81. Crude Protein (%) 0 5 10 15 20 25 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 81
  82. 82. Ash (%) 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 82
  83. 83. Effect of force feeding on Blood parameters of Muscovy ducks during fattening period83
  84. 84. Plasma Proteins: Alb., Glub., & A/G ratio. 84
  85. 85. Table ( 1 0): Effect of force feeding, sex and body weight on Plasma levels of .Total protein, Albumin, Globulin and A/G ratio of Muscovy ducks Parameters Groups Males Females P3 P4 Before After P1 Before After P2 Total protein (g/dl) 1 4.14 a ± 0.19 4.70 a ± 0.18 NS 5.20 a ± 0.25 5.34 a ± 0.19 NS * * 2 4.66 a ± 0.39 4.85 a ± 0.31 NS 5.42 a ± 0.26 5.65 a ± 0.23 NS NS NS 3 4.36 a ± 0.26 4.61 a ± 0.31 NS ---- ---- Albumin (g/dl) 1 2.02 a ± 0.09 2.55 a ± 0.10 ** 2.37 a ± 0.11 2.78 a ± 0.09 * * NS 2 2.15 a ± 0.17 2.59 a ± 0.16 NS 2.47 a ± 0.11 2.79 a ± 0.11 NS NS NS 3 2.02 a ± 0.13 2.45 a ± 0.17 NS ---- ---- Globulin (g/dl) 1 2.40 a ± 0.11 2.15 a ± 0.08 NS 2.8 3 a ± 0.13 2.56 a ± 0.l0 * * ** 2 2.51 a ± 0.22 2.27 a ± 0.17 NS 2.96 a ± 0.15 2.86 a ± 0.11 NS NS ** 3 2.34 a ± 0.14 2.16 a ± 0.14 NS ---- ---- A/G Ratio 1 0.844 ± 0.02 1.186 ± 0.004 ** 0.839 ± 0.001 1.086 ± 0.015 ** NS ** 2 0.856 ± 0.01 1.142 ± 0.007 ** 0.837 ± 0.014 0.977 ± 0.003 ** NS ** 3 0.859 ± 0.01 1.130 ± 0.006 ** ---- ---- 85
  86. 86. Total Protein (g/dl) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 86
  87. 87. Albumin (g/dl) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 87
  88. 88. Globulin (g/dl) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 88
  89. 89. A/G ratio 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 89
  90. 90. Plasma Lipids: T. Lipids, Tri-G, & Cholesterol. 90
  91. 91. Table ( 11): Effect of force feeding, sex and body weight on Plasma levels of Total Lipids, Triglycerides and Cholesterol of Muscovy ducks Parameters Groups Males Females P3 P4 Before After P1 Before After P2 Total Lipids (mg/dl ) 1 922.71a ± 9.28 2837.71 a ± 56.17 ** 766.43 a ± 11.33 2029.39 a ± 81.19 ** ** ** 2 877.71 b ± 15.73 2740.43 a ± 37.21 ** 698.43 b ± 19.28 1744.00 a ±115.62 ** ** ** 3 822.29 c ± 14.91 2351.07 b ± 86.08 ** ---- ---- Triglyceride (mg/dl ) 1 64.18 a ± 2.22 225.27 a ± 7.81 ** 65.11 a ± 3.65 128.27 a ± 7.18 ** NS ** 2 68.93 a ± 1.49 216.43 a ± 4.68 ** 67.99 a ± 1.70 132.59 a ± 3.32 ** NS ** 3 66.54 a ± 1.39 221.58 a ± 4.63 ** ---- ---- Cholesterol (mg/dl ) 1 157.93 a ± 6.26 310.06 a ± 8.84 ** 167.57 a ± 6.12 231.26 a ± 3.86 ** NS ** 2 151.87 a ± 4.55 271.78 b ± 6.37 ** 163.50 a ± 6.45 218.82 a ± 5.93 ** NS ** 3 156.38 a ± 5.86 274.64 b ± 6.05 ** ---- ---- 91
  92. 92. Total Lipids (mg/dl) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 92
  93. 93. Triglycerides (mg/dl) 0 50 100 150 200 250 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 93
  94. 94. Cholesterol (mg/dl) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 94
  95. 95. Plasma Lipoproteins: HDL &LDL & Liver function enzymes: ALT & AST 95
  96. 96. Table ( 12 ): Effect of force feeding, sex and body weight on Plasma levels of HDL, LDL, ALT and AST of Muscovy ducks. Parameter Groups Males Females P3 P4 Before After P1 Before After P2 HDL (mg/dl ) 1 61.58a ± 1.82 148.78 a ± 5.63 ** 59.10 a ± 1.41 113.71 a ± 2.50 ** NS ** 2 62.40 a ± 2.61 145.92 a ± 3.10 ** 60.41 a ± 1.26 109.94 a ± 3.67 ** NS ** 3 65.44 a ± 3.07 141.93 a ± 3.77 ** ---- ---- LDL (mg/dl ) 1 85.52 a ± 5.46 105.06 a ± 3.54 ** 90.40 a ± 3.86 95.18 a ± 3.48 ** * * 2 75.68 b ± 6.54 103.66 a ± 2.65 ** 89.49 a ± 7.62 94.64 a ± 2.42 ** * * 3 77.63 b ± 7.79 103.13 a ± 5.12 ** ---- ---- ALT (U/L ) 1 27.43 a ± 1.65 126.33 a ± 9.10 ** 25.29 b ± 0.68 72.71 a ± 3.84 ** NS ** 2 24.86 a ± 1.08 105.87 b ± 2.34 ** 28.00 a ± 0.69 66.57 a ± 1.96 ** ** ** 3 28.14 a ± 1.50 107.12 b ± 4.05 ** ---- ---- AST (U/L ) 1 162.71 a ± 7.09 5852.72 b ± 19.7 ** 140.14 a ± 7.86 483.49 a ± 27.12 ** ** ** 2 158.57 a ± 5.96 576.97 b ± 17.33 ** 135.86 a ± 6.03 452.40 a ± 20.09 ** ** ** 3 167.00 a ± 6.89 631.83 a ± 10.95 ** ---- ---- 96
  97. 97. HDL (mg/dl) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 97
  98. 98. LDL (mg/dl) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 98
  99. 99. ALT (U/L) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 99
  100. 100. AST (U/L) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 HM MM LM HF LF Before After 100
  101. 101. 4. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 101
  102. 102. 1- Muscovy duck is an excellent meat type ducks. Body weight reaches 5.00 kg in males and 3.10 kg in females at 12 weeks of age.. 102
  103. 103. 2- Females should be fattened till the 10th week only then marketing to have a good and economical feed conversion and males will marketing at 12 weeks. 103
  104. 104. 3- Males only are suitable for force feeding than females to achieve a fast increase in body weight in a short time & to produce fatty liver. 104
  105. 105. 5. FUTURE WORK 105
  106. 106. Although the results obtained, the research needs more future work to get the global weights of fatty liver (Foie Gras). 106
  107. 107. By: 1. Using the specialized strains. 2. Improve the feeding system & force feeding machine. 3. Give more attention to diets quantities & diets qualities. 107
  108. 108. 108
  109. 109. ‫وتقدير‬ ‫شكر‬ 109
  110. 110. •‫أشكر‬‫هللا‬‫العلى‬‫القدير‬‫على‬‫توفيقه‬‫وهدايته‬‫وإعا‬‫نته‬‫لي‬‫فى‬ ‫إتمام‬‫هذا‬،‫البحث‬ً‫وعرفانا‬‫بالفضل‬ً‫واعترافا‬‫با‬‫لجميل‬ ً‫وعمل‬‫بقول‬‫رسول‬‫هللا‬‫صلى‬‫هللا‬‫عليه‬‫وسلم‬"‫ال‬‫ي‬‫شكر‬ ‫هللا‬‫من‬‫ال‬‫يشكر‬‫الناس‬". •‫فإنى‬‫أتوجه‬‫بخالص‬‫شكرى‬‫وتقديرى‬‫وعظيم‬‫عرفا‬‫نى‬ ‫وامتنانى‬‫إلى‬‫أستاذى‬‫العظيم‬‫األستاذ‬‫الدكتور‬/‫طري‬‫ف‬ ‫عبدالعزيز‬‫شما‬‫وأيضا‬‫األستاذ‬‫الدكتور‬/‫هشام‬‫حسي‬‫ن‬ ‫خليفة‬‫فلهما‬‫منى‬‫جزيل‬‫الشكر‬‫وبالغ‬‫االمتنان‬‫وجز‬‫اهما‬ ‫هللا‬‫تعالى‬‫عني‬‫خير‬‫الجزاء‬‫ومتعهما‬‫بموفور‬‫الصح‬‫ة‬ ‫والعافية‬. 110
  111. 111. •‫كما‬‫أتوجه‬‫بأسمى‬‫آيات‬‫الشكر‬‫واالمتنان‬‫إلى‬‫األستاذ‬‫الدكت‬‫ور‬/ ‫جعـفـر‬‫محمود‬‫الجـندى‬‫أستاذ‬‫رعاية‬‫الدواجن‬-‫قسم‬‫اإلنتاج‬ ‫الحيوانى‬–‫كلية‬‫الزراعة‬‫بمشتهـر‬-‫جامعة‬‫بنها‬‫وكذلك‬‫األ‬‫ستاذ‬ ‫الدكتور‬/‫فتحـى‬‫عــدلى‬‫محمــــد‬‫أستاذ‬‫تغذية‬‫الدواجـن‬–‫قس‬‫م‬ ‫اإلنتاج‬‫الحيوانى‬–‫كلية‬‫الزراعة‬‫بالقاهرة‬–‫جامعة‬‫األزهـر‬ ‫على‬‫تحملهما‬‫عناء‬‫قراءة‬‫هذه‬‫الرسالة‬‫واالشتراك‬‫في‬‫لجنة‬‫ال‬‫حكم‬ ‫عليها‬‫رغم‬‫مشاغلهما‬،‫الكثيرة‬‫فكم‬‫يشرفنى‬‫أن‬‫يعطر‬‫باس‬‫ميهما‬ ‫جبين‬‫رسالتى‬،‫هذه‬‫ويكسوها‬‫طيف‬‫من‬‫شخصيهما‬‫الكريمي‬‫ن‬‫بما‬ ‫سيتفضلن‬‫به‬‫من‬‫توجيه‬‫وتصحيح‬‫ونقد‬،‫وتقييم‬‫فل‬‫سيادتهما‬‫مني‬ ‫كل‬‫الشكر‬‫واإلحترام‬‫وجزاهما‬‫هللا‬‫عنى‬‫خير‬‫الجزاء‬‫ومتعهما‬ ‫بموفور‬‫الصحة‬‫والعافية‬. 111
  112. 112. WELCOME W I T H Y O U R 112

Effect of force feeding on some productive and physiological traits on Muscovy ducks under hot climate

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