Introduction to political science1


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Introduction to political science1

  1. 1. Legitimacy, Authority and Sovereignty, POLISC 200 Introduction to Political Science
  2. 2. Legitimacy, Sovereignty and Authority <ul><li>The Concepts of Legitimacy Sovereignty and Legitimacy are interrelated. </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimacy originally meant the rightful king or queen </li></ul><ul><li>Today it refers to an attitude in the minds of the people </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes it is strong sometimes it is weak. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Weak Legitimacy <ul><li>Lebanon and the problem of the legitimacy of sovereignty. </li></ul><ul><li>Taxation system </li></ul><ul><li>Obedience to the law </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Anarchy vs. government </li></ul><ul><li>Good government </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sovereignty <ul><li>Sovereignty is a French term meaning to rule over. </li></ul><ul><li>Originally, it meant the power of the monarch over his or her kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>The term was abandoned now it means control over the country territory. </li></ul><ul><li>Take example Resolution 1559, </li></ul><ul><li>The demand of UN to have the government of Lebanon maintain its sovereignty over all its territories. </li></ul><ul><li>Militia and Army </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sovereignty <ul><li>Iraq gained its nominal independence in 2004, but it was still under US influence. </li></ul><ul><li>Sovereignty and Legitimacy are interdependent, take the example of the collapse of the Lebanese government in 1975. Was the government legitimate. </li></ul><ul><li>Syria occupied Lebanon from 1976-2005, was the government of Lebanon sovereign </li></ul>
  6. 6. Authority <ul><li>Authority is the psychological ability of leaders to get others to obey them. </li></ul><ul><li>It relies on a sense of obligation based on legitimate power of office. </li></ul><ul><li>But do all people obey authority, what caused a the population ( the largest number) to obey authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Does legitimacy lead to sovereign control and government authority. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Origins of the Theory of Sovereignty <ul><li>The origin of the theory of law goes back to the Middle Ages, during the era of Reformation. </li></ul><ul><li>The essential role of the theory of law has been to establish the legitimacy of power, the central problem around which the theory of law is organized is the problem of sovereignty, [2] where sovereignty is the authority that has the power to make law within the state. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Origins of the Theory of Sovereignty <ul><li>The Problem emerged due to the emerging Protestants who questioned the legitimacy of the law as instituted by the doctrine of the Devine Rights of Kings. </li></ul><ul><li>Protestants demanded the separation between the Catholic Church and the King in what later on became the system of parliamentary democracies starting in England and the Republic in France. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Origins of the Theory of Sovereignty <ul><li>Jean Bodin (1576) in France made the first systemic discussion of the theory of sovereignty. Bodin's “theory of sovereignty was the theory upon which the French absolute monarchy was to rest.” [1] </li></ul><ul><li>According to Bodin “law is a command that operates on two levels&quot; The first level is the divine in which law is the command of God, &quot;to which we are all subjects including the absolutist monarch.” [2] </li></ul><ul><li>The second level is the level of the state where law is the command of the absolutist monarch. Bodin's theory was secularized by Hobbes Leviathan (1651), and later on adopted by Bentham and Austin utilitarian tradition in what is known as the command theory of law . </li></ul><ul><li>[1] C.E. Jr. Merriam. History of the Theory of Sovereignty (Kitchener, Ontario: Batoche Books, 2001: 4). </li></ul><ul><li>[2] Christian Reus-Smit. The Moral Purpose of the State: Culture, Social Identity, and Institutional Rationality in International Relations . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999: 97). </li></ul>