There are four key points to remember about PPE use. First, don it before you have any contact with the patient, generally before entering the room. Once you have PPE on, use it carefully to prevent spreading contamination. When you have completed your tasks, remove the PPE carefully and discard it in the receptacles provided. Then immediately perform hand hygiene before going on to the next patient.
The sequence for removing PPE is intended to limit opportunities for self-contamination. The gloves are considered the most contaminated pieces of PPE and are therefore removed first. The face shield or goggles are next because they are more cumbersome and would interfere with removal of other PPE. The gown is third in the sequence, followed by the mask or respirator.
Infection control measures
DEFENITION• MEASURES PRACTICED BY HEALTH CARE PERSONNEL TO PREVENT SPREAD ,TRANSMISSION AND ACQUISITION OF INFECTION BETWEEN CLIENTS,FROM HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS TO CLIENTS AND FROM CLIENTS TO HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS
• INFECTION COTROL MEASURES ARE BASED ON HOW AN INFECTIOUS AGENT IS TRANSMITTED . INCLUDES … STANDARD PRECAUTIONS ADDITIONAL PRECAUTIONS
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS Specific precautions designed toprevent harmful bacteria and viruses from infecting people who are providing first aid or health care.
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS• As defined by CDC:• Standard Precautions are a set of practices designed to prevent the transmission of HIV, Hepatitis B and other blood borne pathogens (bacteria and viruses).• Under SP, blood and other body fluids of all patients are considered potentially infectious.
Body Fluids Include:• Blood • Drainage from• Vomit cuts, scrapes,• Saliva wounds or sores • Secretions from• Stool (feces) mucous• Urine membranes• Drainage from • Sputum (mucus nose from lungs) or sinuses • Vaginal secretions • Semen
Standard Precaution Steps• Personal Protective Equipment• Decontamination• Hand Washing• Waste Disposal
Personal Protective Equipment• “specialized clothing or equipment worn by an employee for protection against infectious materials”
Personal Protective Equipment • Gloves • Aprons • Gowns • Protective eyewear • Face shields • Masks
Gloves...Always wear gloves when …• Direct contact with body fluids is anticipated (nosebleeds, bleeding abrasions, etc.)• Handling clothes soiled by urine, feces, vomit or blood• Diapering children
Gloves…• One time use.• If gloves not immediately available, use barrier such as paper towels.• When removing, peel off hands and roll glove outside in.• Discard gloves in lined trash container.• Wash hands after removing gloves.
Key Points About PPE • Done before contact with the patient, generally before entering the room • Use carefully – don’t spread contamination • Remove and discard carefully, either at the doorway or immediately outside patient room; remove respirator outside room • Immediately perform hand hygienePPE Use in Healthcare Settings
Factors Influencing PPE Selection• Type of exposure anticipated – Splash/spray versus touch – Category of isolation precautions
Sequence for Removing PPE • Gloves • Face shield or goggles • Gown • Mask or respiratorPPE Use in Healthcare Settings
: Decontamination• Area must be cleaned with approved quaternary disinfectant – Clorox wipes and Lysol type products will kill many infectious organisms but will not kill blood borne pathogens.• Contact custodian for clean-up of blood or body fluid “spills”.• Discard gloves and any contaminated materials in a lined trash container.• Wash Hands.
Hand washingThe MOST IMPORTANT STEPUse liquid soap and warm water.Wash vigorously for 10 – 15 seconds.Rinse under warm running water..
Waste Disposal• Proper handling and disposal of needles.• Taking precautions to prevent injury from scalpels, needles, and other sharp instruments.
Waste Disposal• Bag and tie• Place in second bag and tie again (double bag technique)• Place all sharps (used needles) in sharps container.• Wash hands after removing gloves.
Flow Chart - Disposal of Wastes at the Health Facility Disposal of Injection Related Wastes Needles / broken Needle Cap / Swabs Wrapper ampoules / cutter Syringes (after (sharps) hub cut), gloves, IV set White Translucent Yellow Bag Green Bag Blue Bag Puncture Proof Container Municipal Disinfectant / Disinfectant / Incineration/ wastes Autoclaving & Autoclaving, Burial Shredding & Sharp Shredding & Pit Recycling
ADDITIONAL PRECAUTIONS• Respiratory hygiene/cough hygiene• Environmental cleaning• Handling of patient care equipment• Injection safety