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Drinking water quality

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Drinking water quality

  1. 1. QUALITY
  2. 2.  Guideline of drinking water quality WHO published- vol 1 1993 vol 2 1996 Acceptability aspects Microbiological aspects Chemical aspects Radiological aspects
  3. 3.  Physical parameters Turbidity- <5 NTU Colour - upto 15 TCU Taste & odour Temperature
  4. 4.  Chlorides- std 200mg/l max 600mg/l Hardness- calcium- 100-300 mg/l Ammonia- NH3 & NH4+ upto 1.5mg/l pH - 6.5-8.5 <7 -corrosion & incrustation >8- compromise efficiency of disinfection H2S - 0.05-0.1mg/l Fe - 0.3mg/l Na - 200mg/l
  5. 5.  Total dissolved salts TDS level <600mg/l [good] < 1000mg/l [acceptable] Sulphate <250mg/l CaSO4 – 270mg/l MgSO4 – 90mg/l Zn 3mg/l Mn 0.1mg/l Dissolved O2 indirect effects Cu 1mg/l Al 0.2mg/l
  6. 6.  Bacteriological indicators Coliforms- faecal groups -E coli Non faecal –klebsiella aerogens Faecal streptococci - recent faecal pollution Clostridium perfringes - remote infection Virological aspects Cl2 - 0.5mg/l , 30min ,pH - 8 O3 - 0.2-0.4mg/l , 4min Biological aspects Protozoa- E.histolytica ,giardia ,balantidium coli Helminths – Free living organisms – algae , fungi
  7. 7. inorganic constituentsorganic constituentsinorganic constituentsarsenic – 0.01mg/l dissolution of mineral ores ,industrial effluentscadmium – 0.003mg/l accumulate in kidney, long T1/2- 10-35ychromium -0.05mg/lcyanide – 0.07mg/l processed cassava ,thyroid and CNS effectsfluoride – 1.5mg/l dental & skeletal flurosis production of Al ,manufacture of phosphate fertilizers (4%)
  8. 8. Lead Pb – 0.01mg/l , plumbing systems placental transfer -12th week and continues interfere with Ca2+ metabolism, renal tumors subencephalopathic neurological &behavioural effectsHg - 0.001mg/l ,target organ- kidney, methylHg- CNS effectsnitrate & nitrite – nitrate- 50mg/l nitrite – 3mg/l concent of nitrate + concent of nitrite = < 1 G.value of nitrate G.value of nitriteselenium Se- 0.01mg/l
  9. 9. ORGANIC CONSTITUENTS UPPER LIMIT OF CONCENT ( microgm/l )Chlorinated alkanesCCl4 2dichloromethane 20Chlorinated ethenesVinyl chloride 551.1-dichloroethene 301.2-dichloroethene 50Aromatic hydrocarbonsbenzene 10toluene 700xylene 500Ethyl benzene 300styrene 20
  10. 10.  TDI- tolerable daily intake NOAEL- no- observed –adverse- effect level LOAEL- lowest- observed- adverse -effect level UF - uncertainty factor TDI = NOAEL/LOAEL UF GV =TDI x BW x P C P=Fract of TDI allocated to drinking water C=daily drinking water consumption BW= body wt
  11. 11.  Somatic Hereditary Stochastic ef fect - carcinogenesis Non-stochastic ef fect - severity Aim- prevent NSE &reduce probability of SE DW- safe limits + reasonably low Becquerel- 1 disintegration/sec GV- gross alpha activity 0.1Bq/L gross beta activity 1Bq/L
  12. 12.  Activities in surveillance function approval of new sources watershed protection approval-construction & operating procedures of WW  disinfection of plant & distribution system  periodic flushing programmes & cleaning  of water storage facilities  certification of operators  regulation of chemical substances  Cross-connection control ,back flow control ,leaK detection control Sanitary surveys Monitoring programmes
  13. 13.  Development of codes of practice for well construction ,pump installation and plumbing Inspection quality control in bottled water Elements of surveillance programme SANITARY SURVEY SAMPLING BACTERIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE presumptive coliform test- MULTIPLE TUBE METHOD MEMBRANE FILTER TECHNIQUE Confirmatory tests DETECTION OF FAECAL STREP & Cl.PERFRINGES COLONY COUNT BIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION CHEMICAL SURVEILLANCE
  14. 14. THANK U