UNIT 1OVERVIEW OF TRAINING &DEVELOPMENT Abg Izhar Abg Ahmad
At the end of this unit students will be able to: Define the concept of training and development. Identify the fundamental elements and steps of the training process. Describe the training policies and practices in some organizations that are familiar to you. Explain some of the purposes of training and development. Interpret the relationship of training to other human resource management functions. Describe some of the organizational factors affecting training and development.
Why T & D?Dramatic changes making T&D activities crucial: Global competition Rapid change in technology Total quality management Use of new quality processes and technologies Young people with conventional qualifications People who are laid off by some organizations Women wishing to return to work
A. Concept of Training & DevelopmentDefinition of Training and Development Training defined as that organized process of acquiring knowledge and skill to be used or to improve performance on the present job, or for the maintenance of existing capability to do the present ongoing tasks. Development is the process of acquiring knowledge and skill that are not related to the present job or tasks but that are beneficial to the individual for personal and character building. This knowledge and skills help the person to grow both physically, mentally and spiritually.
Training ProcessesFundamental elements: Accountability (ownership) Identification of stakeholders Definition and documentation of the process Checkpoints Responsibility for the steps of the process Continuous improvement of the process
a. Accountability & responsibility somebody has to be accountable and responsible. The accountable person is the one who is in charge of the whole process to make sure that nothing goes wrong. The training manager is accountable for the training process.
b. Identifying the stakeholders A stakeholder is a person who has vested interest in the outcome of the training process. i.e: managing directors, heads of departments or managers of other units, and human resource managers.
c. Defining & documenting TP Establishing the boundaries of the process Beginning of the process is where you take over control from someone else. End of the process is where you hand over control to another person.
i. Training needs analysis The process start off by identifying the organization, division, and individual needs and translating these needs into training objectives.
ii. Developing training objectives Clearand concise performance or learning objectives should be developed to ensure that appropriate learning experiences will be provided to the learners.
iii. Formulating effective teaching and learning strategies3 main questions are of interest: Is the individual trainable? How should training program be arranged to facilitate learning? What can be done to ensure that what was learned during training will be retained and transferred to the job?
iv. Development of the trainingcurriculum Identifysuitable courses. Make the choice to either use existing company course, buying-in external course, or developing a new course. May also think of recruiting trainers, select them and developed them.
v. Selecting appropriate training methods Appropriate training methods should be selected to provide learning experiences to the learners. Various methods are available, which can be classified into on-site and off-site.
vi. Managing training location and resources Ensure that appropriate locations and resources are available. Knows how much it is going to cost to meet the training need.
vii. Pre-course administration Should do booking of location and accommodation, and foods and refreshments. Should ensure that the identified people get to the right place at the right time.
viii. Deliver the course Implementing or delivering the course to the participants.
ix. Post-course administration Afterthe training has been completed, attendance should be noted and training records should be updated.
x. Evaluate training Shouldhave a method of ensuring that the process has had the desired effect.
B. Training Policies & Practices Policies are related to practices – general statements that guide practices. A general statement by management of how it wishes all questions and problems of a certain general type to be approached. Statement of practice tells you what to do.
1. Importance of Training Policy It reflects the management’s general attitude Helps in the formulation of practicable rules. In training terms, the policies:1. Constitute the mandate under which the training specialist works;2. They define not only the areas and situations in which action has to be taken, but also the authority which is given to the training specialist, to managers and supervisors and to employees in taking that action.
2. Examples of training policy Policy 1: It is the company’s policy to provide training for any employee faced now, or in the foreseeable future, with new work or new organization, or a new work environment, to enable him to deal competently with his work.
Policy 1 implies: The training given must be to certain standards; There must be sufficient prior planning; The instruction must be given by a competent person; Training must result in work performance of a standard acceptable to management; and Training given because of new tasks or techniques and changes in the organization, relationships, communication systems, etc.
Policy 2: It is the company’s policy to provide opportunities for employees to maintain their flexibility and potential, with a view to making any later changes in work content or work environment easier to accommodate.
Policy 2 implies: The maintenance of job performance and products standards does not in itself ensure that individual adaptability and learning ability are sustained or developed; Where relevant, opportunities must be provided for people to deal with new ideas and practices, either on or off the job.
Policy 3: The employee must be involved in planning, the progressing and the evaluation of his own training.
Policy 3 implies: Some early discussion and some consultation with the employee concerned must be made regarding their needs and interests for training; Employee feels that his contribution is recognized and is likely to be motivated to be responsible and participate in the training program.
C. Purpose of Training &Development1. To improve an individual’s level of self-awareness : Self-awareness involves learning about oneself. one’s roles and responsibilities in the organization, recognizing differences between one’s actual and espoused managerial philosophy, understanding how one is viewed by others, and learning how one actions affect other people’s action.
2. To increase an individual’s skill in one or more areas of expertise: What is traditionally considered to be training and development deals with increasing an individual’s skills. Training program is based on the assumption that it will increase employee’s ability to perform effectively on the job.
3. To increase an individual’s motivation to perform the job well: The goals of some training and development programs are to maximize the employee’s desire to perform the job well: e.g. job rotation used to sharpen employee’s career aspirations and commitment to the organization, and help them to develop their managerial skills in the process. Some training programs - sole objective is to increase a person’s managerial motivation.
D. Relationship of Training to Other HRM Functions The other functions: Human Resource Planning, Staffing, Compensation and Benefits Management, Performance Appraisal, Safety and Health, Employee and Industrial Relations. Specifically, we look at how training and development relates to task analysis, staffing, performance appraisal, and organization development.
1. Relationship of T&D to Task Analysis to provide information about the duties involved in performing a job and the skills and knowledge required to do the job well. Answer the “ what must a trainee be taught in order to perform the job effectively?” Provides information use to systematically determine the appropriate content of training and development program.
2. Relationship to Staffing Ifpeople have been carefully selected, they may not need an extensive training and development program. Conversely, what will happen if the procedures are weak?
3. Relationship of T&D toPerformance Appraisal (PA) PA is used to measure employee performance. Affect T&D in four basic ways:a. determining the training needs for various organizational units;b. ROI;c. Identifying employee weakness;d. Improving proficiency.
4. Relationship of T&D to Organization Development OD involves both changes in grouping of people (structure) and changes in methods of communication (process). By improving the competence of the units comprising the entire organization. Have to undergo training and development to cope up with the changes in structure and process.
E. Organizational Factors AffectingTraining and Development Large variations exist in the scope and organization of training functions across organizations. Managing training unit. Training staffs’ accountability Training staffs’ involvement in training employees Training staffs’ use of training programs Training staffs’ functions What are the factors that cause these variations?
1. Corporate Strategy Unfortunately, there are still many organizations that view training traditionally. Training has no real linkage to the organization’s business strategy. Training manager has no influence on the formation of the corporate strategy. Training is seen by high-level executives as being peripheral to the real work of the organization.
More progressive organizations, training manager participates in the formation of the business’s strategic planning. Training manager understands the short- and long-term business objectives of the organization In a position to formulate a training plan that can support the organization’s business strategy.
2. Organization Structure Some organizations have centralized group that controls all training programs. Other organizations place trainers in key locations who are free to operate independently of corporate headquarters. It is advisable to have both corporate and a regional training staff. Role of the corporate people should be primarily one of advising and coordinating. The central training staff can be used to develop special training programs.
3. Technology Some organizations are involved in rapidly changing technologies; These require continual retraining of both employees and managers. Difficulty in finding persons in the job market to meet their needs; continually upgrade their people via specialized training programs.
4. Attitude Toward Training Attitude of the key persons within the organization. The CEO and the executives in charge of the various divisions are the main source of the organization training philosophy.