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Media and democracy by abid zafar, international islamic university islamabad, pakistan

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Media and democracy by abid zafar, international islamic university islamabad, pakistan

  1. 1. Fall 2014 Media and Society International Islamic University, Islamabad
  2. 2. “Thomas Jefferson once said that if He had to choose between a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, he would pick the latter”
  3. 3.  New times call for new thinking  Countries in eastern Europe have redesigned media systems, looking for new ideas and models  Combined commercial and political onslaught has weaken the domination of public service broadcasting  Expansion of TV channels and technologies has changed the landscape of media, requiring intellectual adjustments
  4. 4.  Much liberal commentary derives from a period when the media consisted principally of small circulations, Pol. Publications and small landed elites who dominated the state  As a result of this, media does not bear the relation with contemporary reality and it continues to be repeated uncritically. It now should be given a decent funeral
  5. 5.  Traditional liberal conception were framed partly in order to ‘legitimate the deregulation of the press’ and ‘its market free lines’  Traditional thought intended to legitimate free market programmers thus calling questions on the prior, casts doubts on the later  “But” going back to first principles and reappraising the democratic role of media raises questions about the quality of conventional public service alternatives to the market
  6. 6.  Conclusion of this affirmation reappraisal comes with a revised conception of the democratic role of media and by designing Proposal for new way of organizing the media  Alternatives may replace the current style of media but one thing is for sure, the literature on democracy and media need to get rid of lumber(used for unwanted objects)  What is to be removed? What should take its place? It needs to be addressed critically
  7. 7.  Habermas argues, the arena of public debate was brought by capitalism, economic independence, critical discussion, independent market based media created a new public engaged in political discussion  This reason based consensus shaped the direction of the state  From 17th to the mid of 19th century, public sphere made public opinion and supervised state
  8. 8.  New corporatist patterns excluded the public and organized interests were bargained  Media was no more agency of empowerment and rationality public was sidelined  Media manipulated mass opinion rather than producing rational critical debate  Media conditioned the public in the role of passive consumer
  9. 9.  More conventional accounts of the democratic role of the media focusing on three key points in the liberal canon 1. The Media as Public Watchdog 2. Public Representative(‘fourth estate’) 3. Source of Public Information
  10. 10.  According to classical liberal thoughts, the primary democratic role of the media is to act as a public watchdog overseeing the state  It basically reveals abuses in the exercise of state authority  This watchdog role overrides all the other functions of the media in importance  Media can only be independent from the government if it is anchored in free market
  11. 11.  It legitimates free market reforms  Capitalist organization of the press  Critical surveillance of government
  12. 12.  The public watchdog perspective is essentially negative and defensive  It usually defines the role of media in terms of monitoring the government, protecting the public, preventing those with power from overstepping the mark  It thus stops short of the more positive, Hurbermas conception of the media
  13. 13.  However, there is one strand within traditional liberal thought with affinities to Harbermas’s approach which defines the role of media as ‘fourth estate’  As Thomas Carlyle argued, the press should be deemed ‘a power, a branch of government, with inalienable weight in law-making’ derived from the will of people (Carlyle, 1907: 164)
  14. 14.  This argument was reformulated in 20th century  The core premise is that ‘the broad shape and nature of the press is ultimately determined by no one but its readers’ (Whale, 1977: 85)  Media-owners is a market-based system must give people what they want if they are to stay in business, and this ensures that media act as a public mouthpiece
  15. 15.  This is usually in terms of facilitating self-expression and promoting public rationality  These functions of the media can only be fulfilled adequately, it is argued through the processes of free market  Free market allows anyone to publish an opinion who wishes to  Promotes good judgment and wise government  Holmas’s says that the ultimate good desired is better reached by free trade in ideas that the best test of truth is the power of thought to get itself accepted in the competition of market (Barron, 1975)
  16. 16.  Democratic function of the media system is to act as an agency of representation. It should be organized in a way that enables diverse social groups and organizations to express alternative viewpoint  The public dialogue staged by the media should give the public access to a diversity of values and perspectives  Media should enable individuals to reinterpret their social experience  Media have to compromise between opposed groups  Media should also facilitate the exercise of continuing public pressure on government
  17. 17.  There is great need to establish an alternative communication system, a conscious commitment to achieving some kind of equilibrium between conflict and conciliation and unity  Groups need to be brought in to an arena of common discourse where reciprocal debate can take place in order to facilitate a peaceful compromise
  18. 18.  Media is not democratic  Need to design Proposal for new way of organizing the media  All the system to be rebuild  What is to be removed? What should take its place? It needs to be addressed critically  Requiring intellectual adjustments

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