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SMALL FAMIL
Y NORM
Small Family Norm
• The size of the family is a matter of great
importance not only for the country as a whole but
also for the welfare and health of the individual,
the family and the community.
• A norm in relation to family size, according to
sociologists, implies a pattern which sets
limits for any community‘s fertility
behaviour.
Concepts/Themes Of Small Family
Norm
• “Sons/daughter – two will do”.
• “Second child after 3 years”.
• “Universal immunization”.
The size of the family affects of quality of life
of human beings. The quality of life does not only
pertain to economic standards of living.
Family size affects:
- Basic human needs
- Income and growth of the economy and
savings
- Food and nutrition-quality and quantity.
- Uses of land and urban public system
- Health, especially that of mother and child.
- Education, particularly that of children.
FACTORS AFFECTING OF FAMIL
Y SIZE
FAMIL
Y SIZEAND BASIC HUMAN
NEEDS
Food, clothing and shelter, primary health
care and basic education are essential needs.
BIGGER THE FAMILY LOWER THE
SHARE OF BASIC NEEDS
In any society, other things being equal,
the larger the size of the family, the relatively
smaller will be the per capita share of basic
needs for individuals and the family. Similarly,
declining size and fewer members of the
family results in bigger per capita share
required for existence and development.
FAMIL
Y SIZE, FOODAND
NUTRITION
Every increase in family size results in
decrease in per capita food and nutrition
availability and this slows down the quality of
nutrition and improvement of health standards.
this, in turn,has its effect on productivity of
labour, which ultimately affects the overall
economic development.
FAMIL
Y SIZE, FOODAND
NUTRITION
FAMIL
Y SIZE, FRAGMENTA
TION OF
LAND AND URBAN PUBLIC SYSTEM
Preference for a large family size
eventually leads to fragmentation of land
holdings, especially in rural communities
which has its effect on low per capita
productivity. This results in migration of the
population from rural to urban areas which, in
turn, exerts pressures on urban public systems,
leading to poor social and economic
development
FAMIL
Y SIZE, FRAGMENTA
TION OF
LAND AND URBAN PUBLIC SYSTEM
FAMIL
Y SIZE AND HEALTH
Various studies have shown higher mortality
among mothers and children in large sized families.
Early marriage, followed by too early pregnancy, too many
children, too frequently till the advance reproductive age of
the mother, affect the health of the mother as well as that of the
child.
Astudy done by WHO in Southern Indian with
a sample of 6000 women, has shown that infant mortality was
200 when the birth interval was only one year and it was 80
when the birth interval was 3-4 years.
FAMILY SIZEAND EDUCATION
Family size is seen to be related to
education, where the mother's education is high,
the family size is usually smaller and infant
mortality is also relatively lower.
The level of the mother's education and its
impact on family size is evident in the State of
Kerala, where female literacy is the highest, and it
has the lowest birth rate, and the child mortality
rate is also the lowest in the country.
WHA
TARE THE HAZARDS OF A
LARGE AND UNPLANNED FAMIL
Y?
There are certain hazards of large and
unplanned families. These hazards are going to
affect not only the mothers and children, but
also the family as a whole, and subsequently,
the community and the nation.
HAZARDS OF UNPLANNED LARGE
FAMILY
TOO EARLY MARRIAGE
• More chances to develop cancer of cervix (neck of
womb)
• Discontinuation of education leads to lack of
proper job opportunity
TOO FREQENT PREGNANCIES
•Ill-health of mother
• Low birth weight or sick baby
• divided attention between children
TOO EARLY PREGANCY
•Abortion
•Still birth (dead baby)
•Premature birth
•Low birth weight baby
•Increased infant mortality
TOO MANY PREGNANCIES
•Unhappiness and disharmony in the
family
•Difficulty in providing proper
education
to the children
WHY PLAN A SMALL FAMILY:
• A small planned family has many
advantages and benefits. The planning for a
family starts from marriages at the proper age.
• Keeping in view the legal and
• biological aspects, a girl should not be married
before the completion of eighteen years of birth
the mother and the child is when the woman is
between 20-30 years of age.
ADV
ANTAGES OF A SMALL AND PLANNED FAMILY
Advantages for the mothers
• Loss of fear about unwanted pregnancy.
• More time and energy to give proper
attention and love to her children.
• More time to participate in other fruitful
activities like education, vocational training,
community projects etc.
- Can avail of better job opportunities when
not tied down by small children.
•Less chances of fetal death, birth defects,
mortality during infancy and childhood.
•Conducive atmosphere for proper physical
and psychological growth of the child.
•Gets proper nutrition, education,
parental care and love.
ADVANTAGES FOR THE CHILD
ADVANTAGES FOR THE COMMUNITYAND
COUNTRY
• Conservation of natural resources and savings.
• Enough schools, hospitals and other basic services.
• More employment
•Planned families would gradually bring happiness,
peace, harmony, prosperity.
ADVANTAGES FOR THE FATHER
•Can provide sound economic base for the family.
•Can provide children with better education,
comfort, food, clothing, recreation etc.
•Can be more relaxed and enjoy good
health.
•Improved living standards, better health,
more productive labour force
ADV
ANTAGES OF A SMALL AND PLANNED FAMILY
WHAT EFFORTS ARE BEING MADE TO HELP
PEOPLE ADOPT THE SMALL FAMIL
Y NORM ?
The efforts are being made in two ways.
First, by providing the necessary information and
services to help people adopt the small family norm.
Secondly, attempts are being made to change the
associated environmental factors i.e. increase in
female literacy. raising the status of women and the age
at marriage, improvements in general social and
economic conditions, which are often described as
beyond family planning measures.
ADV
ANTAGES OF A SMALLAND
PLANNED FAMILY
CONCLUSION :
While it may appear self-evident that two-child
family is a happy family, widespread acceptance of the
two-child norms has not yet taken place in the country
due to various religious, cultural and socio-economic
factors.
Concerted efforts, therefore, need to be made to
provide the necessary information and education to the
people, especially in rural areas and urban slums to
motivate them to accept the
two-child family norm.
THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME

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smallfamilynorm.pptx

  • 1.
  • 3. Small Family Norm • The size of the family is a matter of great importance not only for the country as a whole but also for the welfare and health of the individual, the family and the community. • A norm in relation to family size, according to sociologists, implies a pattern which sets limits for any community‘s fertility behaviour.
  • 4. Concepts/Themes Of Small Family Norm • “Sons/daughter – two will do”. • “Second child after 3 years”. • “Universal immunization”.
  • 5. The size of the family affects of quality of life of human beings. The quality of life does not only pertain to economic standards of living. Family size affects: - Basic human needs - Income and growth of the economy and savings - Food and nutrition-quality and quantity. - Uses of land and urban public system - Health, especially that of mother and child. - Education, particularly that of children. FACTORS AFFECTING OF FAMIL Y SIZE
  • 6. FAMIL Y SIZEAND BASIC HUMAN NEEDS Food, clothing and shelter, primary health care and basic education are essential needs.
  • 7. BIGGER THE FAMILY LOWER THE SHARE OF BASIC NEEDS In any society, other things being equal, the larger the size of the family, the relatively smaller will be the per capita share of basic needs for individuals and the family. Similarly, declining size and fewer members of the family results in bigger per capita share required for existence and development.
  • 8. FAMIL Y SIZE, FOODAND NUTRITION Every increase in family size results in decrease in per capita food and nutrition availability and this slows down the quality of nutrition and improvement of health standards. this, in turn,has its effect on productivity of labour, which ultimately affects the overall economic development.
  • 10. FAMIL Y SIZE, FRAGMENTA TION OF LAND AND URBAN PUBLIC SYSTEM Preference for a large family size eventually leads to fragmentation of land holdings, especially in rural communities which has its effect on low per capita productivity. This results in migration of the population from rural to urban areas which, in turn, exerts pressures on urban public systems, leading to poor social and economic development
  • 11. FAMIL Y SIZE, FRAGMENTA TION OF LAND AND URBAN PUBLIC SYSTEM
  • 12. FAMIL Y SIZE AND HEALTH Various studies have shown higher mortality among mothers and children in large sized families. Early marriage, followed by too early pregnancy, too many children, too frequently till the advance reproductive age of the mother, affect the health of the mother as well as that of the child. Astudy done by WHO in Southern Indian with a sample of 6000 women, has shown that infant mortality was 200 when the birth interval was only one year and it was 80 when the birth interval was 3-4 years.
  • 13. FAMILY SIZEAND EDUCATION Family size is seen to be related to education, where the mother's education is high, the family size is usually smaller and infant mortality is also relatively lower. The level of the mother's education and its impact on family size is evident in the State of Kerala, where female literacy is the highest, and it has the lowest birth rate, and the child mortality rate is also the lowest in the country.
  • 14. WHA TARE THE HAZARDS OF A LARGE AND UNPLANNED FAMIL Y? There are certain hazards of large and unplanned families. These hazards are going to affect not only the mothers and children, but also the family as a whole, and subsequently, the community and the nation.
  • 15. HAZARDS OF UNPLANNED LARGE FAMILY TOO EARLY MARRIAGE • More chances to develop cancer of cervix (neck of womb) • Discontinuation of education leads to lack of proper job opportunity
  • 16. TOO FREQENT PREGNANCIES •Ill-health of mother • Low birth weight or sick baby • divided attention between children
  • 17. TOO EARLY PREGANCY •Abortion •Still birth (dead baby) •Premature birth •Low birth weight baby •Increased infant mortality
  • 18. TOO MANY PREGNANCIES •Unhappiness and disharmony in the family •Difficulty in providing proper education to the children
  • 19. WHY PLAN A SMALL FAMILY: • A small planned family has many advantages and benefits. The planning for a family starts from marriages at the proper age. • Keeping in view the legal and • biological aspects, a girl should not be married before the completion of eighteen years of birth the mother and the child is when the woman is between 20-30 years of age.
  • 20. ADV ANTAGES OF A SMALL AND PLANNED FAMILY Advantages for the mothers • Loss of fear about unwanted pregnancy. • More time and energy to give proper attention and love to her children. • More time to participate in other fruitful activities like education, vocational training, community projects etc. - Can avail of better job opportunities when not tied down by small children.
  • 21. •Less chances of fetal death, birth defects, mortality during infancy and childhood. •Conducive atmosphere for proper physical and psychological growth of the child. •Gets proper nutrition, education, parental care and love. ADVANTAGES FOR THE CHILD
  • 22. ADVANTAGES FOR THE COMMUNITYAND COUNTRY • Conservation of natural resources and savings. • Enough schools, hospitals and other basic services. • More employment •Planned families would gradually bring happiness, peace, harmony, prosperity.
  • 23. ADVANTAGES FOR THE FATHER •Can provide sound economic base for the family. •Can provide children with better education, comfort, food, clothing, recreation etc. •Can be more relaxed and enjoy good health. •Improved living standards, better health, more productive labour force
  • 24. ADV ANTAGES OF A SMALL AND PLANNED FAMILY
  • 25. WHAT EFFORTS ARE BEING MADE TO HELP PEOPLE ADOPT THE SMALL FAMIL Y NORM ? The efforts are being made in two ways. First, by providing the necessary information and services to help people adopt the small family norm. Secondly, attempts are being made to change the associated environmental factors i.e. increase in female literacy. raising the status of women and the age at marriage, improvements in general social and economic conditions, which are often described as beyond family planning measures.
  • 26. ADV ANTAGES OF A SMALLAND PLANNED FAMILY
  • 27. CONCLUSION : While it may appear self-evident that two-child family is a happy family, widespread acceptance of the two-child norms has not yet taken place in the country due to various religious, cultural and socio-economic factors. Concerted efforts, therefore, need to be made to provide the necessary information and education to the people, especially in rural areas and urban slums to motivate them to accept the two-child family norm.
  • 28. THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME