What are Fossil Fuels?
There are three major fossil fuels;
and natural gas.
All of these formed during the Carboniferous Period.
Kinds of Fossil Fuels
There are three major kinds of fossil fuels:
How is coal formed?
Coal is made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
and varying amounts of sulphur.
There are three main types of coal:
Stages of Coal
There are four stages of Coal Formation(In order):
Peat, Lignite, Bitumen, and Anthracite.
Peat – Can be used as fuel in it’s dehydrated form.
Lignite – Softest, low in carbon.
Bitumen – Dense, has medium amounts of carbon.
Anthracite - Hardest coal, high in carbon
How is coal used as a Fossil Fuel?
Coal is grounded up and mixed with water to make
“slurry”. It is then pumped many miles through
pipelines. At the other end, the coal is used to fuel
power plants and other factories.
How is oil formed?
Scientists say that Oil was formed by tiny Diatoms,
very small sea creatures.
They work just like plants, converting sunlight into
How is oil used as a fossil fuel?
Oil is first dugout from below the ground, then
brought to Oil Refineries in which the oil is refined for
Oil is used for many vehicles such as; cars, trucks,
boats, ships, airplanes. Oil is in some cases even used
How is Natural Gas formed?
Characteristics; Lighter than air, mostly made up of
methane, usually found near underground petroleum.
Natural gas is colorless, odorless, and tasteless.
How is Natural Gas used as a fossil
Natural gas is used with ignition systems. Gas lit
stoves, grills, etc.
Machines called "digesters" are used today to turn
materials such as: plants, and animal waste into
natural gas. This process replaces waiting for millions
of years for the gas to form naturally.
Refineries are used to refine fossil fuels. Crude oil
contains hundreds of different types of hydrocarbons
all mixed together, you must separate them in order to
have anything useful.
Exxon Valdez Oil Spill
10.8 million gallons of Crude oil were spilled by hitting
the Prince William reef.
Clean up of the incident was done by using dispersant,
a surfactant and solvent mixture.
100,000 to as many as 250,000 seabirds, at least 2,800
sea otters,12 river otters, 300 harbor seals, 247 bald
eagles, and 22 orcas, as well as the destruction of
billions of salmon and herring eggs were all reported
to have died.
In September 2009, the oil rig drilled the deepest oil
well in history at a vertical depth of 35,050. feet
210,000 US gallons to 4,200,000 gallons of crude oil
were spilled per day of the disaster.
Nine rig crew on the rig floor and two engineers died
during the explosion.
a fail-safe device fitted at source of the well, did not
automatically cut-off the oil flow as intended when the