NAME - Abhishek Kumar Singh
CLASS – EEE (P)
ROLL NO -- 63
RV COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
• Polymers are substances whose
molecules have high molar masses
and are composed of a large
number of repeating units.
• There are both naturally occurring and
• Among naturally occurring polymers are
proteins, starches, cellulose, and latex .
WHAT ARE POLYMERS?
❑ A nanocomposite is defined as a composite material in which at
least one dimensions of at least one Component is in the
nanometer size scale (< 100 nm).
❑ A Nanocomposite is a multiphase solid material where
❑ one of the phases has one, two or three dimensions of less
❑ than 100nm, or structure having nano-scale repeat distance
❑ between the different phases that make up the material.
➢ Ceramic-matrix nanocomposites:
In this group of composites the main part of the volume is occupied by a ceramic, i.e. a
chemical compound from the group of oxides, nitrides, borides, silicides etc.. In most cases,
ceramic-matrix nanocomposites encompass a metal as the second component. Ideally both
components, the metallic one and the ceramic one, are finely dispersed in each other in order to
elicit the particular nanoscopic properties. Nanocomposite from these combinations were
demonstrated in improving their optical, electrical and magnetic properties as well as tribological,
corrosion-resistance and other protective properties.
➢ Metal-matrix nanocomposites:
Metal matrix nanocomposites can also be defined as reinforced metal matrix composites.
This type of composites can be classified as continuous and non-continuous reinforced materials.
One of the more important nanocomposites is Carbon nanotube metal matrix composites, which is
an emerging new material that is being developed to take advantage of the high tensile strength
and electrical conductivity of carbon nanotube materials. In addition to carbon nanotube metal
matrix composites, boron nitride reinforced metal matrix composites and carbon nitride metal
matrix composites are the new research areas on metal matrix nanocomposites
➢ Polymer-matrix nanocomposites:
In the simplest case, appropriately adding nanoparticulates to a polymer matrix can
enhance its performance, often dramatically, by simply capitalizing on the nature and properties
of the nanoscale filler (these materials are better described by the term nanofilled polymer
composites) . This strategy is particularly effective in yielding high performance composites, when
good dispersion of the filler is achieved and the properties of the nanoscale filler are substantially
different or better than those of the matrix.
TYPES OF NANOCOMPOSITES:-
• Polymer-clay nanocomposites are formed through the union of two very different
materials with organic and mineral pedigrees. The hybrid compositions, however,
exhibit large increases in tensile strength, modulus, and heat distortion
temperature as compared with the pristine polymer. The composites also have
lower water sensitivity, reduced permeability to gases, and a similar thermal
coefficient of expansion. All of these property improvements can be realized
without a loss of clarity in the polymer. Further, it has been found that
nanocomposites impart a level of flame retardance and UV resistance not present
in the pure polymer. These improvements in performance properties at relatively
low clay loading (typically 2 -10wt %) have stimulated intensive research in both
industry and academia over the past decade.
Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites presents the first comprehensive overview of the
state of the art of these materials since they were first reported a decade ago.
Covering both the theory and practical applications, this volume in the 'Wiley
Series in Polymer Science' covers the key aspects of these important materials
* Polymer-clay intercalates
* The preparation and general properties of special practical and commercial
significance (including strength, stiffness, toughness, permeability, fire
retardation and chemical stability)
* The elucidation of the structural and rheological factors influencing performance
and processing properties
WHAT ARE POLYMERS-CLAY
➢ Polymer/clay nanocomposites (PCNs) -new class of materials
➢ attracted much attention from both scientists and engineers in recent
➢ excellent properties
➢ high dimensional stability
➢ heat deflection temperature,
➢ gas barrier performance,
➢ reduced gas permeability,
➢ optical clarity,
➢ flame retardancy,
➢ enhanced mechanical properties when compared with
the pure polymer or conventional composites .
➢ Electro catalyst in batteries for energy saving
➢ Light weight materials for less fuel consumption.
➢ In artificial joints, economically beneficial carbon
nanotubes most widely speaking nanomaterial which
can be made as nanocomposite fibers.
➢ Marine Application
➢ Food Packaging
➢ Fuel tanks
➢ Environmental protection
➢ Flame ability reaction
➢ Erosion and corrosion
▪ PCNs can be prepared using three methods which
includes ARC DISCHARGE, laser ablation and
chemical vapor deposition (CVD).
1) The carbon arc discharge method, initially used for
producing C60 fullerenes, is the most common and
perhaps easiest way to produce PNC(CNTs).
2) In this method an inert gas atmosphere is created
in the reaction vessel by passing an inert gas at
3) Two graphitic rods constitute the electrodes,
between which a potential difference is applied.
3.1) The deposit, which contains CNTs, forms on the large negative
electrode (Cathode) while the smaller positive
electrode (anode) is consumed.
❖Polymer-clay Nanocomposites invented by
❖ Great enhanced strength, elastic modulus
❖Large Interaction between NPs and filler
material due to high interfacial area
❖ increased hardness, elastic modulus
❑ Polymers Nanocomposites are upcoming
materials which shows the great changes in all the
industrial fields and it is also going to be a economical
barrier for developing countries as a tool of
❑ Polymer clay nanocomposites are already used in
many applications to enhance existing properties of a
particular material, and further R&D efforts should
focus on development of true multi-functional
materials. Certainly, clay nanocomposites will continue
to be used for enhanced mechanical, flammability, and
gas barrier properties, but fundamental limits in clay
chemistry prevent them from being used easily in
applications requiring electrical/thermal conductivity or
➢ P.M. Ajayan, L.S. Schadler, P.V. Braun
(2003). Nanocomposite science and technology.
➢ M. Birkholz, U. Albers, and T. Jung
(2004). "Nanocomposite layers of ceramic oxides and
metals prepared by reactive gas-flow sputtering“
➢ "Flame Retardant Polymer Nanocomposites" A. B.
Morgan, C. A. Wilkie (eds.), Wiley, 2007;