100% ruleAn important design principle for work breakdown structures is called the 100% rule. It has been defined as follows:The 100% rule states that the WBS includes 100% of the work defined by the project scope and captures all deliverables – internal, external, interim – in terms of the work to be completed, including project management. The 100% rule is one of the most important principles guiding the development, decomposition and evaluation of the WBS. The rule applies at all levels within the hierarchy: the sum of the work at the “child” level must equal 100% of the work represented by the “parent” and the WBS should not include any work that falls outside the actual scope of the project, that is, it cannot include more than 100% of the work… It is important to remember that the 100% rule also applies to the activity level. The work represented by the activities in each work package must add up to 100% of the work necessary to complete the work package.Mutually exclusive elementsIn addition to the 100% rule, it is important that there is no overlap in scope definition between two elements of a work breakdown structure. This ambiguity could result in duplicated work or mis-communications about responsibility and authority. Such overlap could also cause confusion regarding project cost accounting. If the WBS element names are ambiguous, a WBS dictionary can help clarify the distinctions between WBS elements. The WBS Dictionary describes each component of the WBS with milestones, deliverables, activities, scope, and sometimes dates, resources, costs, quality.Plan outcomes, not actionsIf the work breakdown structure designer attempts to capture any action-oriented details in the WBS, s/he will likely include either too many actions or too few actions. Too many actions will exceed 100% of the parent's scope and too few will fall short of 100% of the parent's scope. It is consideredthat the best way to adhere to the 100% rule is to define WBS elements in terms of outcomes or results. This also ensures that the WBS is not overly prescriptive of methods, allowing for greater ingenuity and creative thinking on the part of the project participants. For new product development projects, the most common technique to ensure an outcome-oriented WBS is to use a product breakdown structure. Feature-driven software projects may use a similar technique which is to employ a feature breakdown structure. When a project provides professional services, a common technique is to capture all planned deliverables to create a deliverable-oriented WBS. Work breakdown structures that subdivide work by project phases (e.g. preliminary design phase, critical design phase) must ensure that phases are clearly separated by a deliverable also used in defining entry and exit criteria (e.g. an approved preliminary or critical design review).Level of detailOne must decide when to stop dividing work into smaller elements. This will assist in determining the duration of activities necessary to produce a deliverable defined by the WBS. There are several heuristics or "rules of thumb" used when determining the appropriate duration of an activity or group of activities necessary to produce a specific deliverable defined by the WBS.The first is the "80 hour rule" which means that no single activity or group of activities to produce a single deliverable should be more than 80 hours of effort.The second rule of thumb is that no activity or series of activities should be longer than a single reporting period. Thus if the project team is reporting progress monthly, then no single activity or series of activities should be longer than one month long.The last heuristic is the "if it makes sense" rule. Applying this rule of thumb, one can apply "common sense" when creating the duration of a single activity or group of activities necessary to produce a deliverable defined by the WBS.A work package at the activity level is a task that:can be realistically and confidently estimated;makes no sense practically to break down any further;can be completed in accordance with one of the heuristics defined above;produces a deliverable which is measurable; andforms a unique package of work which can be outsourced or contracted out.Coding schemeIt is common for work breakdown structure elements to be numbered sequentially to reveal the hierarchical structure. The purpose for the numbering is to provide a consistent approach to identifying and managing the WBS across like systems regardless of vendor or service.For example 1.1.2 Propulsion (in the example below) identifies this item as a Level 3 WBS element, since there are three numbers separated by a decimal point. A coding scheme also helps WBS elements to be recognized in any written context.A practical example of the WBS coding scheme is1.0 Aircraft System1.1 Air Vehicle1.1.1 Airframe 184.108.40.206 Airframe Integration, Assembly, Test and Checkout 220.127.116.11 Fuselage 18.104.22.168 Wing 22.214.171.124 Empennage 126.96.36.199 Nacelle 188.8.131.52 Other Airframe Components 1..n (Specify) 1.1.2 Propulsion 1.1.3 Vehicle Subsystems 1.1.4 Avionics1.2 System Engineering1.3 Program Management1.4 System Test and Evaluation1.5 Training1.6 Data1.7 Peculiar Support Equipment1.8 Common Support Equipment1.9 Operational/Site Activation1.10 Industrial Facilities1.11 Initial Spares and Repair PartsAn example in the software industry would be as follows:1267.1 Systems Integration 1267.1.1 Requirements Definition 1267.1.2 Regulations 1267.1.3 Scheduling 1267.1.4 Monitoring & Control 1267.1.5 Procurement Management 1267.1.6 Closeout1267.2 Design 1267.2.1 Conceptual Design 1267.2.2 Preliminary Design 1267.2.3 Final DesignTerminal elementA terminal element is the lowest element (activity or deliverable) in a work breakdown structure; it is not further subdivided. Terminal elements are the items that are estimated in terms of resource requirements, budget and duration; linked by dependencies; and scheduled. At the juncture of the WBS element and organization unit, control accounts and work packages are established and performance is planned, measured, recorded, and controlled.
Vague: Not clear ( Cannot be understood)
Work breakdown structure
Made By: Abhishek PachisiaB.Tech – IT (IV Year) 090102801
₪ Also known as: WBS₪ Project Decomposition Smaller components.₪ Defines & Groups a project’s discrete work elements ↔ Helps organize ↔ Define the total work scope
₪One of the most valuable instruments₪The most overlooked or poorly-constructed.₪The WBS is the backbone of any project. Ex : Network diagram is derived from WBS. Thus, providing project schedule.
A Project has a Duration and consists of functions, activities and tasks. Function Project Function Activity Activity Activity Activity Activity Activity Task Task Task Task
﴾ Simplifying the project execution﴾ Accurate and readable project organization.﴾ Accurate assignment of responsibilities to the project team.﴾ Indicates the project milestones and control points.﴾ Helps to estimate the cost, time, and risk.﴾ Illustrate the project scope, so the stakeholders can have a better understanding of the same.
€ 100% rule€ Mutually exclusive elements€ Plan outcomes, not actions€ Level of detail€ Coding scheme€ Terminal element
﴾ WBS should be viewed as a roadmap.﴾ It should be descriptive, not vague.﴾ It should list out all the steps down to the smallest level. » Ex: If 5 steps are there then all should be listed.﴾ Assuming that “everyone knows what steps are required to complete the task” means failure.
₪ Elements of each WBS Element: € The scope of the project, "deliverables" of the project. € Start and end time of the scope of project. € Budget for the scope of the project. € Name of the person related to the scope of project.₪No hard and fast rule. € Some rules for determining the smallest chunk: » Thumb Rule » If it makes sense Rule, » 80 hour rule, » Three week/year rule, etc.
STEP - 1₪List all major deliverables and the high-level tasks specifically mentioned or gleaned from the scope description.₪Side note should delineate ↔What is to be considered. ↔What is out of scope, i.e. not to be considered.
STEP - 2₪Select a deliverable. € Name all of the tasks required₪Heading(known as Summary Task) - complete descriptive sentence.₪Side note should delineate € What is to be considered. € What is out of scope, i.e. not to be considered.
STEP - 3• Break down each task – For another project manager to fully follow the process.• Provides – The basis for budget estimating – A checklist for monitoring and controlling.
STEP - 4₪Rearrange the tasks and work packages £ For logical flow -> To perform the summary task.₪Rearrange the summary tasks £ For Logical flow -> To perform the project.₪Ensure £ Task headings are meaningful £ There is a balance between having enough tasks and work packages to provide enough detail without overkill.
₪Set of specific definitions €Thoroughly describe the scope of each work element identified in the WBS₪Components. €A tabular summary of the €A work element dictionary sheet dictionary elements cross- »Provides the title of the work referenced element, »WBS indenture level, »The project contractor WBS »The WBS revision, the and element title, »The contractor’s accounting »The project contractor WBS codes, the budget and reporting code, and number, and »The contractor’s accounting »A detailed description of the code (if desired). work to be performed by this element, including deliverables
£ A WBS is not an exhaustive list of work. » Comprehensive classification of project scope.£ A WBS is » neither a project plan, » a schedule, » nor a chronological listing. » Specifies what will be done, not how or when.£ A WBS is not an organizational hierarchy, » It may be used when assigning responsibilities
MIL-STD-881C:₪ Aircraft Systems WBS₪ Electronic Systems WBS₪ Missile Systems WBS₪ Ordnance Systems WBS₪ Sea Systems WBS₪ Space Systems WBS₪ Surface Vehicle Systems WBS₪ Unmanned Air Vehicle Systems WBS₪ Unmanned Maritime Systems WBS₪ Launch Vehicle Systems WBS₪ Automated Information Systems WBS
﴾ Work breakdown structures are great for developingand validating the scope of a project.﴾ Work breakdown structures are most powerful whenshown in a graphic style, similar to an organizationchart. They can also take on the form of a simpleoutline.﴾ Work breakdown structures allow people from variousbackgrounds, disciplines, and perspectives to understandthe activities being planned.